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Tertiary institution constitutes a conglomeration of peoples of varying ethical backgrounds, a place where a high level of independence is maintained between the teachers and the taught or even among students themselves, a place where cultural values suffer at the altar of modernism and imitation. At tertiary institution level, students who are at their prime are faced with a lot of challenges ranging from peer group's exuberance to false self-esteem. They go after popular role models at the detriment of sound moral backgrounds. These challenges and up-comings are either properly handled to harvest positive life style and fulfilment or poorly handled leading to an unfulfilled devastating life style in later years. This paper is a critical examination of the impact of uncensored music and artistes in the propagation of sound cultural values among students in tertiary institutions. The information for the work centres on the song texts and erotic film shows by some music artistes and producers who they see as models. Anchoring on the theory of cultivation which propounds that people easily yield to what they view, it was observed that the deficiency in the propagation of sound cultural values in tertiary institutions stems partly from individual student's backgrounds, peer-group's influence and partly from imitating popular artistes as role models. Introduction:
Tertiary institution constitutes a conglomeration of peoples of varying ethical backgrounds,
a place where a high level of independence is maintained between the teachers and the
taught or even among students themselves, a place where cultural values suffer at the altar
of modernism and imitation. At tertiary institution level, students who are at their prime
are faced with a lot of challenges ranging from peer group’s exuberance to false self-
esteem. They go after popular role models at the detriment of sound moral backgrounds.
These challenges and up-comings are either properly handled to harvest positive life style
and fulfilment or poorly handled leading to an unfulfilled devastating life style in later
years. This paper is a critical examination of the impact of uncensored music and artistes
in the propagation of sound cultural values among students in tertiary institutions. The
information for the work centres on the song texts and erotic film shows by some music
artistes and producers who they see as models. Anchoring on the theory of cultivation
which propounds that people easily yield to what they view, it was observed that the
deficiency in the propagation of sound cultural values in tertiary institutions stems partly
from individual student’s backgrounds, peer-group’s influence and partly from imitating
popular artistes as role models.
Key words: peer –group, juvenile exuberance, culture, censorship, cultural values
Music making in any traditional setup in Africa is geared towards enhancing societal values.
That’s why it is specifically event oriented. Its functional and utilitarian commitment is what
sustains its longevity. It is a belief in traditional African society that music moulds the young
minds through inculcation of right attitudes and values which follow them to adulthood. All
these are made manifest during social activities, religious / ritual activities and other cultural
events. Emphasising on this, Idamoyibo (2012) asserts that, “Nigeria was known for strong
intellectual, industry, sincerity, honesty, religiosity, accountability and morality, which were
all inculcated into him/her from infancy to maturity through musical activities during
moonlight games, folktales and circumcision rites” (p. 96). He further argues that,
the knowledge of values and industry imparted through musical communication,
in various occasions, normally covers all facets of culture, including human
behaviour and human development, meaningful and acceptable civilisation, socio-
moral standards, religious tenets, history, institutions, trade...(which) often based
on the fundamentals of the immediate environment, in order to enhance healthy
intellectual and economic growth and overall development of the society (p. 97).
It is pertinent to observe that music making in traditional societies is mainly centred on child
training and nurturing. Through group commitment in the creation and re-creation of music
the outcome becomes generally acceptable having undergone communal censorship. It does
not mean that vulgarism is totally absent in folk music, the use is restricted to adults who
employ them for corrective measures (and casting aspersions on the offenders in various
communities) and in the language that can be understood by them. This is where musicians
enjoy some form of liberty in the use of song texts. The contrast is the case in this modern
time; young musicians have abused the liberty that music offers in the use of language. What
are now trendy include, vulgarism in the use of words, nudity, erotic and seductive jelly-like
body movements and lots more, all in the name of music making. It becomes worrisome that
most young people clamour for such performances with reckless abandon. Some of the
examples are given in this work.
Theoretical Frame work
This study hinges on the theory of cultivation as propounded by George Garbner and Larry
Gross in 1976 (Akere, A. O. and Ologundudu, R. P., 2018). This theory reveals that people
gradually yield to, accept, accumulate and live in accordance with what they view. This
theory according to Akere, A. O. et al talks basically about the effects of media on viewers.
By all indications, the type of exposures people views on screen and off screen has much to
tell about their behaviours in real life. Akere, A.O. et at affirm that
the theory shows how TV has become the foundation of the most widely shared
messages and images...proposes that the cultivation of viewers is based on views
already in existence in our environment which is taken by the media to represent
them in different packaging to audience. They viewer is mostly at times unaware
of the level at which they absorb the media...the theory suggests that the media
has a significant impact on the believe (sic) and attitude of the society (p. 190)
Most musicians portray themselves in different ways, while some are acceptable others are
unacceptable, the youths or students who are the target audience are always very eager to
imitate them. In our society today the type of song texts or lyrics, dance styles and nude
exposures on TV and social media from some of the music artistes are what teenagers in
tertiary institutions are out for and such are regarded as the in-thing. In the 80s such
Reggae stars as Bobby Marley, Luky Dube and others went on dread locks, today such hair
style is what most boys in their teens go by. May be they feel that making music with
decent hair-cut would demean their identity or make them less popular. Worst still, they
might think that moving on tattered jeans and indiscriminate chewing of gums while
walking on the way would make them look more rugged and belonging. In campuses such
adherents would even go as far as taking drugs – tramadol, marijuana and related drugs to
keep soaring higher and damn the consequences. For such people, they are law breakers
and can easily fall victim of cult and drug addiction. For them, observance of cultural
values and school ethics is by the way. Technology has on its own widens the scope of
social media. Students in tertiary institutions now pay more attention to their phone than to
academics; they watch assorted video clips in their phones, commit academic fraud
through the use of hearing aids connected to Bluetooth in their phones, contrary to the
ethics of exams and values expected of them. All these create problems in tertiary
institutions. According to an internet source,
It is common among people that so much love to be like one person i.e. when
someone is like taken as a role model, particularly among the musicians and artists
(sic). This set of people while on stage will want to look unique and in the process
turn themselves to lunatics and due to the rate at which they love them, whatever
their respective role models do, either positive or negative...they will also imitate,
(assessed 31st May 2019)
Nevertheless, there are musicians who through their music inculcate cultural values and
build the nation. These are musicians who through their music satirize persons of
questionable characters, criticize bad government and other constituted authorities. They
act as watch dogs to the happenings in society. Adedeji and Omosilade submit that, “apart
from Orlando Owoh, musicians who have actively fought bad governance in Nigeria
include Fela Anikulapo Kuti, Timi Osunkoya, Niyi Adedokun, and Hubert Ogunde...” (p.
69). Others include those who keep history and are regarded as chief custodians of their
various communities. Such musicians are, Ozoemene Nwa Nsugbe, Emeka Morocco
Mmaduka, Afam Ogbuotobe, Odenigbo Ogidi and so on. In the words of Adedeji and
Omosilade (2012), “another prominent role of music (by musicians) is the socio-cultural
function, which entails the instilling of discipline and promotion of ethical behaviours
among members” of a community (p. 69). In that line up are such musicians as Gentleman
Mike Ejeagha, Chief Celestine Ukwu, Chief Osita Osadebe and so on. That is the reason
why different functional music exists in different traditional African societies. Akpabot in
Udoh (2012) infers that two categories of songs predominate in Annang society which
includes praise song and songs of scandal. And for the fact that the people have strong
concern for good morals, purity, and justice, they use obscenities and deride someone in
song or use praise song to encourage good behaviour. The function is not different in Igbo
culture. Okafor (2005) identifies similar case among the Oyi people of Anambra state
where people that are involved in stealing or waywardness are derided with songs during
fishing festival. These normally make them leave the community out of shame. Music of
this nature is composed to discourage other intending culprits. The irony of it all is that the
younger generations (within tertiary institution level) are no more interested in some of
these renditions and that’s where the problem lies.
This study employs qualitative research procedure by critically analysing some song texts
and still pictures by some artistes that are devoid of cultural values but rather provoke
indecency and sexual demeanour that are against societal accepted norms. Such artistes
whose song texts are studied include –Chinedu Okoli aka Flavour, Obumneme Ali
popularly called ‘Smash’ and Nwachukwu Ozioko also known as ‘Vast’ the business name
of the duo is “Bracket”. These artistes have been discussed by the author in one of her
works and their songs are found relevant to the subject of this discussion. The content of
their music are analysed to portray the meaning in relation to the expected cultural values.
Flavour’s music
His real name is Chinedu Okoli. He is a native of Umunze in Orumba Local Government
Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. He grew up in Enugu State from where his musical talent
started manifesting. He began as a drummer in a local church in Enugu and through the
help of their resident pastor; he was introduced to Chris I.Ordor who trained him on the
basics of music. Flavour is widely known even beyond Africa. Some of his hits include-
“Nwa baby” (Ashawo Remix) , “Uplifted”, “Adamma” and “Oyi Remix”, “Shake shake”
and so on. The texts of the last example go thus;
Mr. Flavour on the microphone.
When you see a woman wey sabi shake am, you go know.
Are you ready now? Baby girl show them
Kpuchie, jaa-yee, kpuchie, jaa-yee (Close, open wide)
Akiri-kata nwata di mma aaa, baby you so fine, akiri-kata nwata di mma, baby you so
fresh. Akiri-kata nwata di mma aaa, baby you so sweet. Akiri-kata nwata di mma aaa,
baby you so fine. Ukwu salambara na-adi mma n’obi ooo!, shake ma’Oh! Shake ma’ oh!...
Shake, shake, shake Ukwu, shake e, shake ukwu, akiri-kata pampam, shake ukwu, akiri-
kata pampam. shake ukwu...(2x)
Ukwu gi oh! Ukwu gi oh! Baby m-ooo! Baby, shake ooo... (Your waist ooo! Baby, shake
your waist ooo!)
Jaa-yee, kpuchi-e, jaa-yee...(Open and Close)
This music is presented with no regard to female integrity. The images the dancers are
presenting to the audience are contradictory to societal values. The summary of Flavour’s
message in this excerpt includes -looking at a beautiful woman shaking her waist
(precisely the buttocks), opening them and closing them. One then wonders whether a
beautiful woman is basically and naturally identified by the way she opens and closes her
private parts or by being modest. Such renditions are what most present generation youths
clamour for, and that goes on to expose the level of moral decadence in society. This is
where culture transfers have a damaging effect on some culture...especially where
vulgarism is frowned at, let alone coming from younger sects. Obviously inter-cultural
hybridization does not apply in all situations. Although, going by ethical relativism theory,
morality is relative to the norms of one’s culture. That is, whether an action is right or
wrong depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced. Otherwise, there
are no universal moral standards that can be universally applied to all people at all times.
Nevertheless, each society has a code of conduct that guides its citizenry. In this case, the
target population is unfortunately not well represented adjudging the fundamental moral
stipulations of the Country Nigeria and Igbo in particular. (Ibekwe, 2016: 175-178)
Bracket represents a Nigeria Afropop and R&B music duo in the persons of Obumneme
Ali popularly called ‘Smash’ and Nwachukwu Ozioko also known as ‘Vast’. Both of them
grew up in Nsukka of Enugu State. While Vast has diploma and a degree in Mass
Communication from the Institute of Management and Technology Enugu and University
of Nigeria Nsukka respectively, Smash has a diploma in Social Works and a degree in
Psychology from University of Nigeria Nsukka. The duo belongs to the later generation of
musicians. According to Wikipedia account, their history of origin has several stories and
allegations. They have many albums to their credit some of which include Yori-Yori,
Happy Day, Ada Owerri, Muah muah and so on.
Taking a look from one of their songs- Muah muah, the texts follow thus;
Because the way you just dey dance dey make me do you muah muah
Because the way you just dey laugh dey make me do you muah muah
Again do you muah muah, do you muah muah
Ahuh do you muah muah, do you muah muah
When I still dey for club, I see you fine girl
You come dey give me hug. Dey hug me well well
My friends dey talk to me, but I no see them
Because the way you just dey dance dey make me do you muah muah
Until you waka pass my side oo
Na girl I know say you dey my mind oo… et
The above excerpt from cultural perspective and interpretation has no creditable message
to the masses other than expression of illicit desires and sexuality represented by some
untranslatable slangs ‘muah- muah’ interspersed with heavy sonic applications. There is no
gain saying the fact that all these point towards excessive and undue demonstration of
juvenile exuberance which has no positive contribution to nation building. (Ibekwe, 2016:
These two examples of music are enjoyed as well as rated high as trendy hits on debut
because that is the type of music their fans want to hear. Most musicians and producers are
after monetary gain they will make and not what damage their music will cause. If the
board in charge of Censorship are up and doing, there may be some music that should be
thoroughly screened and edited before they could appear on stage.
Censorship and its implications
Censor, according to Hornby (2005) “is a person whose job is to examine books,
films/movies etc and remove parts which are considered to be offensive, immoral or a
political threat” (p. 226). Music Censorship is an act of removing or editing some lyrics of
songs or even refusal to put on air some musical contents which are adjudged not proper
for public consumption. While some people are in support of music censorship because it
helps in maintaining societal moral traditions, norms, and cultural values, others see the act
as a detractor and a means of repressing people’s freedom to creativity.
Some artistes the researcher interacted with maintained that since music is the most viable
means of reaching out to the masses they should be allowed to optimise whichever style
they deem fit, lest their product would not sell. That they would do anything within their
disposal to entertain, inspire and satisfy their fans in order to continue enjoying their
Discussing on the need for censorship, Crystal Ayres, (2015) stressed that Music can
highly influence young children and adults alike and regulating it can provide balance. It
helps keep the number of suicide attempts down (as some of the acts can be imitated by
youths), limits the exposure of people to sex, drugs and violence (as well as) cuts the
power of record producers to come up with immoral song just to make money.
Culture and cultural values:
The definition of culture has provided variegated discusses predicated on what actually
constitutes a culture of a people. The fact that culture dynamism with its encroaching forces
does not allow people’s way of life retain its primordial status, and also the rate at which the
so called cultural or societal values succumb to trendy forces left much to be desired in this
present time. All These left one to wonder whether there still remain an autochthonous
reminiscence or debris of what could be regarded as culture and its attainable values in this
modern time, In Oguejiofor (2016), culture is defined as “the complex whole of man’s
acquisition of knowledge, morals, belief, art, custom, technology, tradition and skill ...which
are shared and transmitted from generation to generation” (p. 16). In his submission, he
decries that the way we are living now is quite different from what was transmitted by our
ancestors. That led to what he calls “real culture and ideal culture”. What was transmitted was
the real culture while what is prevalent is ideal culture. According to him, two things are
obvious about culture, firstly: - that actual culture always influences the life of its members
very deeply... secondly, that culture is always dynamic. (By implication) “what we are living
now is a new reality, since most of our cultures have changed so many aspects of their gab”
(p. 17).
Similarly, Ella in Idamoyibo (2012), lamented the loss of socio-cultural values which
includes, “respect for elders, chastity, dignity of labour, patriotism, hospitality, courage, self-
reliance, love and promotion for place of origin...” (p. 101) However, when we talk of
cultural values especially in tertiary institutions, what readily comes to mind is the students’
attitudes to school ethics, language, mode of dressing, manner of eating, respect to elders and
constituted authorities, and their general moral conducts. How students react and attach
meanings to all these cultural values in the face of changing time is a very serious challenge
in almost every institution of higher learning today. Tertiary institutions are places where
different types of life styles are in vogue. While some are acceptable, others are obnoxious
and unacceptable. Whatever that is in vogue in one institution is also applicable to the other.
The area students are most vulnerable is in their manner of dressing. They forgot that one is
addressed by the way one dressed. An incident was recorded in a social media which should
serve as a deterrent to others.
a 300 level female student was raped in the school environment at night. When
the culprit was arrested and questioned, he defended himself, saying it’s not my
fault that I raped her, she wanted it herself. I was sitting and reading on my own
when she entered the class, she wore net singlet revealing the red bra she wore.
Even her bra could not cover the breast, her skimpy black skirt was a
sharpshooter and I’m sure she deliberately wore white panties to expose herself
well. She bends right in front of me so I got the signal that was what led me to
have a carnal knowledge of her”. (indecent dressing among youths: internet
sources, assessed 31st May 2019)
Majority of university students are involved in this ‘dress to kill models’ or what they term
trendy outfit. Males are not exempted from this ill. Most boys go on sagging, low waist, hot
bosom and so on. When interacted orally with some parents who pleaded anonymous, on
these dressing issues of our children, thus are some of their reactions
First parent (woman): “I am not in the school with my child, how can I know what she wears
in the school?”
Second parent (woman): “children of nowadays are something else, the dresses they wear in
the school are different from the ones they wear at home. The problem is that most of
us (parents) are too busy to pay unexpected visit to our children at school to see what
they look like out there. If we are up to our responsibilities, things will be better”.
Third parent (man): “they cannot wear such nonsense in my house, the school authority
should know what to do to cub such madness called dressing among students”
Truly, some parents do not have time for their children the moment they left their houses, in
some cases, parents are instrumental to what their children wear. Some parents dress
indecently and likewise their children. So whether in school or out of school they still appear
indecent. Youths are very good at imitating what they see especially from social media and
role models, parents inclusive.
Some universities have started reacting to these unaccepted trends by enforcing some laws to
checkmate these excesses while others are still quiet about it. For instance, in a Special
Bulletin published by the Public Affairs Directorate, Office of the Vice Chancellor, Ahmadu
Bello University, Zaria, Vol 10, No 17 on Monday 1st April 2019, the management made the
following pronouncements on dress code. The statement runs thus,
This is to inform all staff, students and visitors that the Management of Ahmadu
Bello University Zaria has warned that the following modes of dressing will no
longer be tolerated on the University Campuses
1. Short and skimpy dresses eg body hug, ‘show me your chest’ ‘spaghetti’ wears and
dresses exposing sensitive parts
2. Tight shorts and skirts that are above the knees (except for sporting purposes)
3. Tattered jeans and jeans with holes
4. Transparent and see-through dresses
5. Tight fittings eg jeans, skirts, hip stars, patra, lactra, etc that reveals the contour of
the body
6. Under-wear clothing, such as singlet worn publicly
7. Unkept appearances, such as bushy hair and beards
8. Dressing that make it impossible to wear laboratory coats during practicals, or
participate actively in practicals
9. Long and tight skirts which are slit in front or at the sides, which reveals sensitive
parts as the wearer moves on
10. Wearing T-shirts with obscene captions
11. Shirts without buttons or not properly buttoned, leaving the wearer bare chested
12. Wearing of earrings by male students
13. Plaiting or weaving of hair by male students
14. Wearing of coloured eye glasses in the classrooms (except on medical grounds)
15. Wearing of bathroom slippers to classrooms (except on medical grounds)
16. Wearing of trousers that stop between knee and ankle.
All these different attires and more are prevalent in all tertiary institutions. From the above
restrictions and prohibition, it becomes glaring that the level of decadence in the mode of
dressing in tertiary institutions is quite appalling. It is a canker worm in the fabrics of every
tertiary institution not only in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. In most cases, all these are
what they see some popular artistes put on and they become model to them. According to a
source, “dresses that are meant as stage costumes for musicians and actresses are
misconstrued by gullible female students as everyday wears. As a result of this, ladies dress
half naked to school, all in the name of fashion.” (internet source) This practice does not
portray societal norms and values especially of Igbo culture.
The formal language of communication has even changed hands with popular language of
most musicians and other artistes, and this has now reared its head in the formal writing of
most students who want to join the moving train. Some popular musicians commonly known
as Rappers are very good at creating funny song texts to thrill their fans who are basically the
youths. Respect to elders has fast given way in most tertiary institutions because, most
students can only greet the teachers that are either teaching or supervising their project. If
they have no business with whoever that is concerned, no greetings for such person. This type
of attitude has no place in an ideal traditional society
The problems of dearth of cultural values among students in tertiary institutions
Ordinarily, Tertiary Institution is supposed to be a positive training ground for students in
both character and learning. Any student admitted into a university is supposed to have a
vision, mission as well as target which should be accomplished within a specified period of
time, spanning four to five or six years depending on one’s choice area of study.
Unfortunately, we found out that most students do not graduate as at when due or do not
even graduate at all as a result of distractions and involvement in one type of offence or the
other, ranging from exam malpractice, drug addiction, cult activities to all kinds of
criminal acts which are punishable by law. For instance, Universities all over the country
have rules guiding examination conduct. At Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, every
examination offence has a corresponding penalty, ranging from suspension to expulsion. A
student who is expelled from school has terminated his or her mission in tertiary institution
because such a student can never gain admission elsewhere again in any other university
within the country. A student who is convicted of drug addiction is legally dealt with and
may end up in jail. In some cases, such a student ends up having brain problems which
also ruins his/her academic career.
Cult activity is a highly dreaded fraternity in universities. They are threat to unsuspecting
innocent students. In most cases, different factions of cult groups engage themselves in a
bloody combat. The genesis of these vices stems from paying defiant ears to rules and
regulations of the school and also not heeding to the cultural norms and values that mould
one’s character right from the home to the school. Greater percentages of those who fall
victims or preys to most of these social ills do that at the detriment of their studies. Some
at times graduate into more serious crimes such as armed robbery. Most yahoo boys that
are duping people here and there are those who could not make it academically so they
resort to internet robbery and when they are caught they spend better part of their time in
jail. Some ladies who could not equally make it as well may join prostitution or even
robbery as the case may be. Many students have lost their lives in the process.
In some cases, such attitudes may escalate into some dangerous situations such as,
frustration, depression and suicide scandal. It should be noted that people that are involved
recently in suicide attempt are mostly youths who are faced with one type of life’s
challenges or the other. A student who remained resolute to his or her studies has no
business with all those mentioned vices rather, he /she will graduate honourably and with
Maintenance of cultural values in tertiary institutions should not be taken with levity. It
should be a habit that starts from home before one enters into university because Igbo
adage says, ad am aka ekpe na nka- ị ụ translated literary it means- one does not learn left
handedness in old age. By implication, one’s background is of utmost importance. If one
is well rooted from home, that wind of imitation, juvenile exuberance forces or peer-
group’s malaise may not totally overtake one. If parents are up to their responsibilities in
giving their children the right type of training before they enter higher institutions, a
greater percentage would grow with it no matter what they see outside their environment,
whether in videos, televisions and other social media. The school authorities should on
their own part reinforce discipline and checkmate student’s excesses through adequate
enforcement of rules and regulations. Musicians should not place money above human
dignity. They should abide by censorship law and produce music that is acceptable; any
infringer should be made to face the wrath of law. Government should as a matter of
urgency promulgate law guiding the productions and exhibition of music with devastating
effects, as well as videos and pornographic displays. Things should be done with cautions,
moderations and or limitations to ensure proper value balance in our tertiary institutions.
Adedeji, F. and Omosilade, T. (2012). ‘I SAY NO’: The rebuff of anti democratic forces in
Orlando Owoh’s music, Nsukka Journal of Musical Arts Research. 1. 67-80
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Public Affairs Directorate, Office of the Vice Chancellor,
(2019). Bulletin: Vol 10, No 17
Akere, A. O. and Ologundudu, R. P., (2018 ). Analysis of gender role stereotyping in
Nigerian music video: Evidence from Tiwa savage, Cynthia Morgan and Olamide
Artiste, JANIM Journal of the Association of Nigerian Musicologists. 12, 184-197
Crystal Ayres, (2015). Pros and cons of music censorship. (Internet Sources, assessed 11th
July 2019)
Hornby, A. S. (2005). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (7th edition), New York:
Oxford University Press.
Ibekwe, E. U. (2016). Musicians and nation building- need for quality control: Old and
new generation music and musicians exemplified. UJAH UNIZIK Journal of Arts
and Humanities.17, 3, 175-178
Idamoyibo, O. (2012). Socio-cultural orientation and image transformation of Nigeria and
its citizens through music: the issue of re-branding, Nsukka Journal of Musical
Arts Research. 1. 96-110
Oguejiofor, J. O. (2016). Cultural values and the fight against corruption in Nigeria
PREORC Journal of Arts and Humanities, 1, 1&2, 1-23
Okafor, R. C. (2005). Music in Nigerian Society. Enugu: New Generation Books
Udoh, I. E. (2012). The integrity of traditional music in Nigerian society: A case of
Annang music. Nsukka Journal of Musical Arts Research. 1, 119-130
Internet Sources – Indecent dressing among youths. Assessed on May 31st 2019.
Samples of music clips
The above are some of the few still pictures presenting some of the artistes in their weired
appearances. Some youths see them as models and want to be or dress like them. There are
yet some pictures that are too bad to be pasted here yet the teenagers watch them in videos
and cinemas and imitate them. There are many good ones no doubt, but the clamour for
bad examples is always on the increase among the youths and this becomes a problem and
calls for concern in our society and tertiary institutions precisely.
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