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The survival of any organization in the competitive society lies in its ability to train its human resource to be creative, innovative, inventive will invariably enhance performance and increase competitive advantage. Training has been recognized as one of the managerial tools that enhance job satisfaction globally.
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The survival of any organization in the competitive society lies in its ability to train its
human resource to be creative, innovative, inventive will invariably enhances
performance and increase competitive advantage. Training has been recognized as one
of managerial tools that enhanced job satisfaction globally. Training is basically, a
practical education through which knowledge and skills are developed, experience and
inefficiencies are overcome and closer approximation can be achieved (Atif & Rand
Nadeem 2011). Human resource specialists who realize the value of training and
development have taken deliberate decisions to encourage management of organizations
to give their employees significant autonomy to develop their skills and have made a
wide range of training available across their organizations, tailored to meet the needs of
employees. Sajuyigbe & Amusat (2012) reported that training and development have
enhanced personal employees' performance.
Grund (2001) also agreed that training has improved employees performance in term of
increased in productivity. Particularly in areas such as sales, customer services, IT,
improvement in retention rate and higher levels of personal job satisfaction. Higher
productivity and improved employee performance will rely on employees having the
right skills According to Pynes (2008) both training and development programs seek to
change the skills, knowledge, or attitudes of employees required by the job post.
Programmes may be focused on improving an individual’s level of self-awareness,
competency and motivation to perform his or her job well. This in turn makes employees
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feel that they are part of the organization’s family. It creates a sense of belonging in
employees, enhances the employee’s skills, and motivates while improving financial
gain. This in the long run makes employees feel indebted to the organization.
There are so many training and development skills such as case study method, role
playing methods, outward bond training method (OTM), large scale interactive event
(LSIE) method, and personal coaching method. In this study the main focus is the job
rotation skill.
Job rotation involve training the trainee from shifting from one job to the other, Job
rotation is a job design approach widely used by many companies at various hierarchical
levels. By adopting the human structure of the company with technical processes, Job
rotation is the consequence of effort and determination. Analyses of job rotation based
on individual data are more unusual because they often require access to personnel
records, which firms are rarely willing to grant. Moreover, such papers are typically able
to study merely one firm at a time (Campion, Cheraskin & Stevens 1994; Kusunoki &
Numagami 1998) Job design related applications began to take shape with a scientific
management approach in the 1900s.
The study of management scientists such as Taylor and Gilbert on the subject of job
design became the foundation stone for scientific management. Models related to job
design able to be classified as job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, job
engineering, quality of work life, social information processing approach and job
characteristics approach developed by Hackman & Oldman in 1976 (Kiggundu, 1981, p.
502; Valentine & Gotkin, 2000, p. 118) have extremely important effects on increasing
the productivity of human resources (Garg & Rastogi, 2006, p. 574). It is predicted that
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job satisfaction and productivity will be highest when both job enlargement and job
enrichment are jointly applied to redesigning work systems. (Chung &Ross, 1977, p.
114).The conceptual perspective, job design is defined as determining the specific job
content, the methods used at work and the relationships between jobs to correspond the
firm’s technological and organizational, and the employees’ social and personal
Expectations (Gallagher & Einhorn, 1976, p. 359). In accordance with this definition, it
is stated that a well-designed and defined job increase employees job satisfaction,
increases motivation, decreases workplace-related stress, encourage learning efforts
(Lantz & Brav, 2007, p. 270) and is therefore have a positive effect on employees’
performance (Garg & Rastogi, 2006, p. 575).
There are many studies published in related literature investigating the relationship
between job design and employees’ motivation. The common points of these studies is
that the application of job design has a significant on the specifics of job performance,
like motivation, flexibility, job satisfaction (Huang, 1999,) self-control, and skill
development. However, the study results will help the management to identify the
challenges effects of employees’ job rotation training on organizational performance,
hence determine the areas where improvements through training can be done. It will also
help the management in planning for the development and implementation of effective
and efficient training needs that will lead to increased performance of the banks.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Training becomes inevitable the moment an organization realizes the need for
improvement and expansion in the job. But often times, organizations embark on job
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enlargement and enrichment to promote employees' morale, motivation and satisfaction
when in the fact the real problem with work performance lies in capacity development.
The study becomes necessary because many organizations in this contemporary world
are striving to gain competitive edge and there is no way this can be achieved without
increasing employees' competencies, capabilities, skills etc. through adequate training
designs.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The overall aim of this study is to determine the impact of job rotation as a training and
development tool for enhancing employee’s performance with a particular reference to
the organization of study. The objectives’ of this study is to;
i. Find out whether job rotation as a training and development tool enhance job
enrichment and satisfaction
ii. Determine the inf1uence of human resources training and development in the
operation of the bank.
iii. To make recommendation where necessary to banks in order to make more
meaningful its human resource training and development
1.4 Relevant Research Questions
This study shall address the following research question:
i. What extend does job rotation as training and development tools enhance job
enrichment and satisfaction
ii. How effective is human resources training and development in the operation of
the bank?
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iii. Can negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and
development of their sub-ordinate promote organizational performance?
1.5 Relevant Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis was formulated for the study:
H1: There is no significant relationship between job rotation and job enrichment
H2: There is no significant relationship between human resources training and
employee performance
H3 There is no significant relationship between Negative attitude of managers/
superior on training & development and employees turnover
1.6 Significance of the Study
Although there has been countless studies undertaken on job rotation as a training and
development tool for enhancing employees’ performance in Nigeria. However this study
will no doubt raise the level of awareness of management concerned towards the
implementation of proper job rotation in training and development programme in united
bank of Africa (UBA) as well as the legitimate role of job rotation in the world of
business. By bringing into focus the state of the art in the literature, it is also going to be
of assistance to researchers. The service sector, as earlier indicated arc very important to
the organization of this country, therefore, since this is assumed to be a thorough study
of job rotation training and development in this sector, it will reveal its level of
management efficiency and effectiveness .And this knowledge will be vital to both the
government and owners of industries. This research work will be important to the
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company concerned i.e. United Bank for Africa plc, government institution and the
general public.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research will cover the impact of job rotation on employees’ performance, the
research will focus on united bank of Africa. The study will concentrate on the head
office at Apapa in Lagos State, though the organization also has other branches in
Nigeria. The practical study will be restricted to a segment of workforce, which will be
on the senior and junior staff of the organization. The limitations of this study include
such extraneous factors that may equally limit the strength of this study such as time
constraint, lack of fund, the nature of the business environment and inadequate current
and relevant materials.
1.8 Historical Background of UBA
United Bank For Africa PLC (UBA) has its Head office situated at UBA House, 57
Marina, Lagos State, Nigeria. The slogan of United Bank for Africa PLC is “Africa’s
global bank’’, and has served areas worldwide.
UBA's has more than 65 years of providing uninterrupted banking operations dating back
to 1948 when the British and French Bank Limited ("BFB”} commenced business in
Nigeria, BFB was a subsidiary of Banque National de Credit (BNCI), Paris, which
transformed its London branch into a separate subsidiary called the British and French
Bank, with shares held by Banque National de credit and two British investment firms,
S. G. Warburg and Company and Robert Benson and Company. A year later, BFB
opened its offices in Nigeria to break the monopoly of the two existing British in Nigeria
then.
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Following Nigeria's independence from Britain, UBA was incorporated on 23, February
1961 to take over the business of BFB. UBA eventually listed its shares on the Nigerian
Stock Exchange (NSE); in 1970 and became the first Nigerian bank to subsequently
undertake an Initial Public Offering (IPO). UBA became the first sub-Saharan bank to
take its banking business to North America when it opened its New York Office (USA)
in 1984 to offer banking services to Africans in Diaspora.
Today's UBA emerged from the merger of then dynamic and fast growing Standard Trust
Bank, incorporated in 1990 and UBA, one of the biggest and oldest banks in Nigeria,
The merger was consummated on August 1, 2005; one of the biggest mergers done on
the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE). Following the merger, UBA subsequently went
ahead to acquire Continental Trust Bank in the same year, further expanding the UBA
brand. UBA subsequently acquired Trade Bank in 2006 which was under liquidation by
the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN).
UBA is a large financial services provider in Nigeria with subsidiaries in 20 African
countries, with representative offices in France, the United Kingdom and the United
States. It offers universal banking services to more than 7 million customers across 626
branches. Formed by the merger of the commercially focused UBA and the retail focused
Standard Trust Bank in 2005, the Bank purports to have a clear ambition to be the
dominant and leading financial services provider in Africa. Listed on the Nigerian Stock
Exchange in 1970, UBA claims to be rapidly evolving into a pan-African full service
financial institution. The Group adopted the holding company model in July 2011. As of
December 2011, the valuation of UBA Group's total assets was approximately US$12.3
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billion (NGN: 1.94 trillion), with shareholders' equity of about US$1.07 billion (NGN:
170 billion).
In order to achieve the purpose, exploratory and explanatory research methods were used
by employing a qualitative approach. This type of approach enabled the researcher to
obtain detailed information on how employees felt their involvement will impact on the
organizational effectiveness.
1.8 Definition of terms
Job rotation: This is the method of training involves the shifting of trainees from one
job to another so as to widen their exposure and enable them to obtain a general
understanding of the totality of the organization
Development: Development is a broad, on-going multi-faceted set of activities (training
activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of
performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future.
Turnover: This is the number of times a cycle occurs in a given' time period; e.g. the
ration of actual monthly, credit sales to the average daily volume of outstanding accounts
receivable.
Training: This is a method of improving the set of skills of an employee either by either
by education, workshop, conference programme etc., in other to improve the efficient
level of productivity, or an organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or
instruction to improve the recipient's performance or to help him or her attain a required
level or knowledge or skills.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against pre-set known
standard of accuracy, completeness, cot and speed in a contract, performance is deemed
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to the fulfilment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all
liabilities under the control.
Company: A formal business set out to make maximum profit and other related
objectives, like social and human objectives.
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Pakistan (2009),"EVALUATING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT" 49(3), 358-373.
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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter reviews related literature on issues bothering on the impact of job rotation
on employees’ performance using information from various sources including textbooks,
the encyclopedia, magazines, journals, internet sources and others. The perspectives of
the authors are analyzed alongside the opinions of the researcher. Literature was done
thematically in response to the topic.
2.2 Theoretical Framework of the Study
Four theories are used in explaining the connection between Job rotation and employees
performance; these are: The Resource-Based Model, Employee Learning Theory,
Employer Learning Theory and Goal Setting Theory
2.2.1 The Resource-based Model
This model was proposed by Barney in 1991. Barney proposes that firm resources include
physical capital, human capital and organisational capital that enable the firm to improve
its efficiency and effectiveness. Its resources determine the strength of a firm in the long
term. In order for a firm's resources to provide sustained competitive advantages,
however, they must have four attributes: 1) valuable, 2) rare, 3) imperfectly imitable, and
4) cannot be replaced with another resource by competing companies (Barney 1991).
Therefore, human capital is a primary source of sustained competitive advantage to a
firm because apart from the four listed criteria it cannot be duplicated or bought in the
market by competitors.
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Within the Resource Based View (RBV) the organisation is seen as a nexus of resources
and capabilities that are not freely bought and sold in the market (Lado and Wilson 1994).
In this sense, capabilities refer to a firm’s capacity to deploy resources, usually in
combination, applying complex organizational processes to effect a desired end. They
are information-based, tangible or intangible processes that are firm specific and are
developed over time through complex interactions among the firm’s resources (De Saa-
Perez et al. 2002).
Thus, these firm-specific resources and collective/team capabilities yield economic
benefits that cannot be perfectly duplicated by their competitors. The RBV was
instrumental in finding out whether training enhanced staff career prospects in the
organization and also their potential for joining other organizations.
Resources and capabilities have been categorized differently by different authors. They
have been divided into distinctive competence (Fiol 1991, Reed and De Fillippi 1990),
core competence (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990), firm specific competencies (Pavitt1991),
organizational capabilities (Stalk et al, 1992, Ulrich and Lake, 1990) and organizational
capital (Prescott and Visscher1980, Ranson 1987). For the purposes of this study,
organizational competencies describe firm specific resources and capabilities that enable
the organization develop, choose and implement valueenhancing strategies.
Organizational competencies include all firm-specific assets, knowledge, skills and
capabilities embedded in the organization’s structure, processes and relationships. Lado
and Wilson (1994) argue that organizational competencies are heterogeneous, immobile
and form the basis of sustained competitive advantage. They further add that
organizational competencies are heterogeneous when they are unevenly distributed and
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deployed across firms within a given competitive environment, differences in
competency endowments and deployments account for differences in the size distribution
and competitive positions of firms.
However, if the labour market were purely competitive such that human resources were
homogeneous and freely mobile across firms, a market-determined wage rate would
provide information needed to attract, retain or replace human resources in the
organisation. In this case, an investment in firm-specific human capital (knowledge, skills
and abilities) through the firm’s human resource policies and practices would not be
economically warranted (Steffy and Maurer 1988). The incremental cost of the human
capital arising from the various organizational activities such as recruitment and
selection, performance appraisal, training and compensation would exceed the
incremental revenue product of employees (Lado and Wilson 1994).
Thus, human resources and Human Resources systems would conceivably not yield
competitive advantage for the firm. In reality, however, firms face a heterogeneous
demand for and supply of human resources. Human resources are rare because, “it is
difficult to find people who guarantee high performance levels in the organization due to
labour market’s heterogeneity. Their inimitability emerges from the difficulty in
duplicating people’s knowledge, experience and behaviour, at least in the short term.
Moreover, the high transaction costs involved in people recruitment can be a significant
obstacle to their mobility or acquisition. Finally, people are difficult to replace because
not everybody has the same capacity to adapt to the different environments and
technologies, and those who are able to create value in one context may be unable to do
so in others” (De Saa-Perez et al. 2002).
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2.2.2 Employee learning Theory
With employee learning, the theory is “that employees who rotate accumulate more
human capital because they are exposed to a wider range of experiences. The more an
employee moves, the more he learns” (Eriksson and Ortega, 2004, p.2). For example,
inter-functional job rotation helps prepare junior employees to become top managers. As
employees move up to broader jobs, they need to gain deeper understanding of more
aspects of business, and job rotation helps them do so. At lower hierarchical levels, intra-
functional rotation can be very useful for allocate efficiency reasons: firms benefit from
being able to re-allocate employees across different tasks because this enables them to
meet production requirements. But re-allocation is too costly unless employees have
already gained experience in different jobs.
2.2.3 Employer learning Theory
Under the employer learning, the theory is “the firm itself learns more about its own
employees if it can observe how they perform at different jobs. To find the job that an
employee is best suited the employer needs to move the employee around and observe
how he performs at each position” (Eriksson and Ortega, 2004, p.2). The idea is that job
rotation provides the employer with information about the employee’s abilities.
Specifically, it enables the firm to identify which part of an employee’s performance is
due to the employee’s general abilities, which part to job-specific factors unrelated to the
employee (for example, the job might be particularly difficult and performance low for
that reason), and which part to the employee’s job-specific abilities. This information can
be used to improve promotion decisions. Ortega (2001) showed that the relative benefits
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of job rotation are greater when the firm knows less about its employees’ abilities, and
when the firm is engaging in activities for which the returns are a priori more uncertain.
2.2.4 Employee motivation theory
The employee motivation theory states, job rotation “motivates employees who would
otherwise become bored and tired of always performing the same task(Eriksson and
Ortega, 2004 p.2). The employee motivation argument is that job rotation helps make
work more interesting. This argument was mentioned in the late 1970s literature on the
so-called “plateaued” employees with limited promotion prospects (Ference, et al 1977)
and it was also analyzed by Cosgel&Miceli (1999).
Finally, we should note that the literature highlights some human resource practices such
as work teams, quality circles, total quality management, and performance pay as
complementary to job rotation. These practices should therefore affect the decision to
adopt job rotation (Osterman et al 1998).
2.2.5 Goal Setting Theory Goal Setting
In Goal setting theory, Locke, Shaw, Sarri and Latham (2008) defined a goal as
what an individual attempts to accomplish; it is the object or aim at certain actions.
The basic assumption of goal-setting is that goals are immediate regulators of human
actions (Locke et al., 2008). Evidence from the goal setting research indicates that
specific goals leads to increase performance and that difficult goals, when
individuals have accepted them, results in higher performance than easy goals (Locke
1968 in Austin and Bobko, 1985; in Locke, 2004). Goal setting has four motivational
mechanisms (Bryan and Locke, 1967; Locke and Latham, 2002). The first motivational
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mechanism is that goals that are personally meaningful and interesting tend to focus an
individual’s attention on what is important and what is relevant (Locke et al., 2008). The
second mechanism is that goals have an energizing function. Simply put, higher goals
leads to more effort than lower goals (Bryan and Locke, 1967). The third mechanism is
that goals affect persistence. Persistence is the effort expended on a specific task over a
certain amount of time (Laporte and Nath, 1996). Normally, the more difficult a goal is
to achieve, the higher the persistence. The last motivational mechanism holds that goals
affects action indirectly by leading to the arousal, discovery and use of knowledge and
strategies (Wood and Locke, 1990 in Locke et al., 2002). Regarding the impact of goal
setting on intrinsic motivations, Elliot and Harackiewiez (1994) show some interesting
evidence in their article. They explain, by means of regression analysis that the effect of
performance or mastery focused goals on intrinsic motivation depends on the degree
of achievement orientation of an individuals. Goals are simultaneously and object or
outcome to look for and a standard for satisfaction (Locke et al., 2002). When an
individual wants to achieve certain goals means that this individual will not be satisfied
until he reaches that goal. Therefore, goals serve as the inflection point or reference
standard to satisfaction versus dissatisfaction (Mento, Locke and Klien, 2002). (Locke et
al, 2002) add to this that individuals that produce the most, those with difficult goals, are
harder to satisfy. In this case, individuals that set high goals produce more as they are
dissatisfied with less.
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2.3 Conceptual Framework of the Study
Today, almost every organization spends huge amounts of dollars annually on training
activities whether for technical, managerial or personnel development (Dolezalek, 2005),
with a hope that such investments in training programs would result in improved
organizational performance (Valle et al., 2009; Salas and Cannon- Bowers, 2001; Saks
& Belcourt, 2006). The changing nature of today’s corporate environment and the intense
global competition where consumers demand more quality services require the
organizations to have human resources which possess high levels of motivation
commitment and job involvement in order to compete and survive in a market-driven
system effectively (Elbadri, 2001; Jamil & Md. Som, 2007; Neff, 2002; Combs and
Bourne, 1995; Renaud., 2006). One excellent thing on job training tool is job rotation.
Job rotation has been defined as systematic movement of employees from one job task
to another at planned intervals (Dessler&Varkkey, 2009: 304; Malinski, 2002).
Job rotation is said to be an excellent way for the organizations to develop their
employees (Beatty.1987). Organizational scholars claim that rotating the employees from
one department to another is not a luxury but a necessity of today’s professional climate
as it provides an intermittent opportunity to employees to tackle higher-level diversified
tasks which bring about greater job interest and involvement among them and
subsequently enhance their job performance (Eitington, 1997; Leat, 2007; Campion.,
1994).
Today organizations design customized job rotation programs by asking employees
about their career aspirations in order to meet their needs for career satisfaction, have
more loyal and committed workforce because by satisfying the longings, managers give
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greater hope and confidence to employees, which enhance their loyalty to the
organizations (Zigarelli, 2004; Leat, 2007). Rotational assignments also encourage the
employees to be more content and satisfied in their work and enhance their job
involvement which may serve as a competitive weapon for an organization in today’s
dynamic corporate environment. It also helps the organizations to bring about a durable
outcome of the commitment of each employee to the firm’s value base (Arogyaswamy
& Simmons, 1993).
Today’s professional climate compel the financial institutions including banks to
introduce well-designed job rotation programs which allow the employees to learn and
adapt new skills and help them to keep themselves up-to-date. The skill variety, task
significance, autonomy, task identity, feedback and empowerment inherent in job
rotation significantly enhances employee motivation, commitment and job involvement
by making the work more interesting which would otherwise become bored and tired of
always performing the similar tasks and show a little loyalty to their employers (Zeira,
1974; Schein, 1968; Pruden, 1973; Near, 1985; London, 1983).
Thus, job rotation is said to be an excellent tool for enhancing employee motivation,
commitment and job involvement which are very important for smooth and effective
functioning of an organization (Zeira, 1974; Schein, 1968). But the literature on the topic
is deficient with regard to the need and impact of job rotation on employee motivation,
commitment and job involvement. However, there are some valuable discussions in the
existing literature during the past decade about the importance of job rotation in
predicting motivation, commitment and job involvement of employees.
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Organizational researchers claim that job rotation is one of the strong predictors of
employee motivation, commitment and job involvement. It reduces the boredom and
fatigue of the jobs and enhances the employee motivation through diversification of the
tasks which is highly recommended for the innovative organizations to develop the work-
force in order to meet the current and future requirements of the dynamic corporate
environment (Adomi, 2006; Huang, 1999; Campion et al., 1994). As we can observe that
there are so many challenges and difficulties to be faced by today’s banking sector. One
of the most important strategies for financial institutions of 21st century must be the
practicing of effective and well-designed job rotation programs in order to keep the
employees motivated, committed and involved in their respective jobs as well as to make
them up-to-date regarding the rapidly changing professional climate which is critical for
any organization to survive and compete in today’s market driven system effectively
Job Rotation
Job enrichment
Human Resource
training & Development
Employer’s
Attitude Employee turnover
Employee
Performance
H3
H2
H1
Figure 2.1 Conceptual framework, Source: Author
2.3.1 Definition of Job Rotation
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Edward (2005,) describes job rotation as “the process of switching a person from job to
job” which increases an employee’s capability and value to an organization. Job rotation
can be defined as the performance by an employee of a new assignment on a temporary
basis for an agreed period of time. Job rotation is position-oriented, with management
determining the need for a specific job to be done.
Job Rotation is where an individual is moved through a schedule of assignments designed
to give that individual a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. The term job rotation
can also mean the scheduled exchange of persons in offices, especially in public offices.
Developed in Denmark in the 1980’s, Job Rotation can be used in a variety of ways to
meet the development and training needs of companies and employees, without a break
in production.
Job rotation is an alternative to job specialization. It is a way to reduce employee boredom
and it also facilitates more of an understanding about the organization. Job rotation is
moving from one
Job can be rotated that are very similar or drastically different for example, a person in
charge of accounts receivable could change with a person who is in charge of accounts
payable. An employee could work as a marketer for a year and then work as a selling
agent for a year (John Pappajohn Entrepreneurial Centre).
Job rotation comes in many forms and is useful in many situations. Job rotation is the
systematic movement of employee from one job to another. How this movement is
accomplished depends on the purpose that you wish to achieve and how dramatic a move
you are willing to take Malinski, 2002).
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The Human Resource Development Council (HRDC 1997) describes job rotation as “a
career development strategy where an individual temporarily moves laterally into an
established or ‘shadow position’ (HRDC, p.1) which “usually requires the employee to
suspend his or her current job duties” (HRDC, 1997, p.12).
In job rotation, staff are moved between different jobs over a period of time and this
movement is planned to achieve different purposes (Bennett, 2003). According to
Malinski (2002) it is an organized movement of staff from one job to another and he also
adds that an individual does not have to leave a job to get a more satisfying job. This can
be achieved in the same job by using job rotation, enrichment and restructuring.
According to Parker (2002) job rotation is a model of training through which already
employed staffs leave their jobs to go on further training and unemployed people are
brought into their places for work, Torrington and Hall (1991) hold the view that in job
rotation, individuals are moved between jobs of similar nature. Arnold and Felderman
(1986) write that the movement of staff in jobs is at the same level in the organization as
they are not promoted in the job where they are rotated.
All these views above are the views of the people who support job rotation and explain
what is job rotation and they also agree to a common point that in job rotation staff is
moved between different jobs and it is most of the time within the organization between
different jobs or tasks.
Parker (2002) also has a different view on job rotation. She writes that it is a form of
training where a member of staff leaves the job and another unemployed person takes his
job and his debates about job rotation takes job rotation outside the scope of organization
23
rather than inside the organization as unemployed people are brought into the
organization.
Bennett (2003) suggests two forms of job rotation: These are
1. Within-function rotation: He explains that within-function rotation means rotation
between jobs with the same or similar levels of responsibility and within the same
operational or functional area.
2. Cross-functional rotation: Cross-functional rotation according to Bennett (2003 P.3)
means “movement between jobs in different parts of the organization over a period of
time”. However, rather than rotating between a number of jobs that are in the same group
and closely related to each other, the individual or new employee would rotate through a
number of jobs in different departments. This method provides the individual or new
employee with developmental opportunities and such methods can also be used by the
organization to gather data about their skills, interests and potential to indicate their final
placement.
2.3.2 Job Performance
In the view of Putterill&Rohrer (1995), job performance focuses directly on employee
productivity by assessing the number of units of acceptable quality produced by an
employee in a manufacturing environment, within a specific time period. Hence what the
researcher has developed the working definition for study purpose is that, achievement
of targets of the tasks assigned to employees within particular period of time. The success
of business depends on employees’ performance.
One of the most effective ways to increase business performance and profit is to increase
the performance of employees, from the lowest levels of the organization to senior
24
management (http://www.quantisoft.com/index/html). Performance improvement is not
only a result of well-functioning system but also depends on effective human resource
strategies that succeed in recruiting and maintaining a committed and motivated
workforce (Al-Ahmadi, 2009). The dimensions of performance on which an employee is
evaluated are called the criteria of evaluation (Ivancevich, 1998). Opatha, (2002)
suggested that several criteria become needed in order to evaluate job performance of an
employee accurately. In the view of Mathis and Jackson (2003), the data or information
that managers receive on how well employees are performing their jobs can be of three
different types. These are
a) Trait-based information.
b) Behaviour-based information.
c) Result based information.
Opatha (2002) indicated that trait-based information identifies a subjective character of
the employee such as attitude, initiative or creativity. Behaviour-based evaluations of job
performance focus on what is included in the job itself (Mathis & Jackson, 2003). Results
are outcomes produced by the employee. Result based information consider employee
accomplishment. For jobs in which measurement is easy and obvious, a results-based
approach works well Opatha (2002).
2.3.3 The impact of training on employee’s performance
The role that training can play in human resource development, especially in organization
cannot be over-emphasized. Ajidahun (2007) states that one advantage of staff training
is that it improves job performance and therefore promotes management efficiency
25
Similarly, Stoner (2002) suggest that “training programmes should be directed towards
improving efficiency and job performance”
Chandan (2000 p.6) states that “training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and
organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learns technical knowledge and
skills for a definite process”. Yesufu (2000 p.10) also agrees that “training of personnel
enhances productivity” and “education and training are generally indicated as the most
important direct means of upgrading the human intellect and skills for productive
employment”.
2.3.5 Employer and employee perspectives on job rotation
Traditionally, job rotation is usually addressed at an organizational level. From the
employers’ point of view, organizational theorists have advocated frequent rotation as a
means of reducing fatigue and boredom on jobs so as to maintain productivity (Miller, et
al 1973) and fairly frequent rotation after the initial hiring as a means of orientation and
placement (Wexley& Latham, 1981). Job rotation enables the training of workers to be
backups for other workers so that managers have a more flexible work force and a ready
supply of trained workers (Rothwell, 1994). When rotation occurs at longer intervals, it
has been thought as a practice of progressive human resource development or a means of
enhancing the value of work experience for career development (Campion, 1994). Also
from the employers’ standpoint, however, the practice of job rotation may be very costly.
As pointed out by Yoder, et al (1958), while job rotation may encourage generalization,
it prevents job specialization so that the optimal level of performance cannot be reached.
Although this problem may be negligible for many jobs, it can be very serious for those
jobs where high specialization is needed so that the costs in terms of training and
26
supervision are prohibitive. One should not be surprised by the fact that only 42.5% of
the companies in Taiwan are practicing job rotation and that they carry out their job-
rotation policy selectively and cautiously (Huang, 1997). Thus, for a job-rotation study
at individual level, the focused question is whether the individuals perceive there is a job-
rotation practice that they actually participate with, rather than whether the companies
have allegedly adopted a policy of job rotation.
Ortega (2001) interestingly states that job rotation was rarely viewed from the perspective
of the employees themselves. Through a nation-wide survey, this study addresses the
following question: How seriously do employees regard job rotation? Specifically, the
researcher wanted to measure the relationship between job rotation and job satisfaction
and, secondly, wanted to know whether those employees with job rotation and those
without job rotation would judge their companies differently in terms of training
effectiveness.
According to Ortega (2001), there are different reasons an organization may choose to
utilize job rotation such as using job rotation as a learning Mechanism. Ortega (2001)
research suggests that there are significant benefits that may outweigh the costs involved
with training employees for diversified positions. As a learning mechanism, employees
are given the opportunity to learn necessary skills which can help them to advance within
a company. This employment opportunity also has the effect of boosting morale and self-
efficacy. The company may benefit from using job rotation by having the ability to staff
key positions within a company. This practice may allow a company to run more
efficiently, and as a result, become more productive and profitable. Rothwell, (1994)
states that organizations use job rotation to alleviate the physical and mental stresses
27
endured by employees when working the same position, year after year. By allowing
employees to rotate to other positions, the risk factors for some types of musculoskeletal
disorders may be reduced. Job Rotation is also believed to have the ability to decrease
the amount of boredom and monotony experienced by employees who work the same
position for extended periods of time. Ortega (2001) emphasis that job rotation improve
employer brand image in a tight economy, everyone is likely to be heavily focused on
job security. If you provide and publicize your focus on inside hiring preferences, it will
bolster the firm's external brand image of offering long time employment security and a
good place to work because you focus on the needs of your current employees. The
increased security that you offer may also increase the retention rate of your current
employees. Excellent internal movement programs are frequently praised by employees
and the business press. If you have an excellent program, it will help you build your
external image as an employer of choice and a "best place to work".
Campion et al, (1994) states that job rotation allows for more entry level hiring by filling
most jobs internally through transfers or promotions you allow the firm to do to do almost
all of its external hiring at the "entry level". This is a good thing because entry-level jobs
are cheaper to fill, have a larger candidate pool and give the firm more time to train and
assess "unknown" external hires while they are in jobs where they can do less damage.
Higher retention rates rapid movement minimizes frustration and burnout. People
working in their "ideal job" are unlikely to find a superior opportunity outside the firm.
In the opinion of Eriksson and Ortega (2001), multiple on-the-job learning opportunities
are likely to develop leaders faster and more effectively because the development
28
assignments will include opportunities to lead more teams under a variety of
circumstances.
2.3.6 Management views about job rotation
Hunng (1999) states that, job rotation at the senior management levels is frequently
referred to as management rotation, is tightly linked with succession planning developing
a pool of people capable of stepping into an existing job. Here the goal is to provide
learning experiences which facilitate changes in thinking and perspective equivalent to
the "horizon" of the level of the succession planning. For lower management levels job
rotation has normally one of two purposes: promo ability or skill enhancement. In many
cases senior managers seem unwilling to risk instability in their units by moving qualified
people from jobs where the lower level manager is being successful and reflecting
positively on the actions of the senior manager. Many military jobs use the job rotation
strategy to allow the soldiers to develop a wider range of experiences, and an exposure
to the different jobs of an occupation.
2.3.7 Reasons for the development of job rotation
There are many reasons for implementing a job rotation system, including the potential
for increased product quality, giving employees the opportunity to explore alternative
career paths, and perhaps most importantly, preventing stagnation and job boredom.
Sustaining employee interest in a single job is not easy, which is perhaps why retention
poses such a big challenge for businesses, even in a slow economy. Employees outgrow
their jobs quickly and it may not be possible for employers to provide enough diversity
within a career path to maintain employee interest in the job.
29
This is where job rotation steps in to provide job enrichment from an employee’s
perspective. Employees who participate in job rotation programs develop a wide range
of skills, are more adaptable to changes in jobs and career, and are generally more
engaged and satisfied with their jobs when compared to workers who specialize in a
single skill set or domain. Ortega (2001) investment in staff development is a major key
to survival and growth, but carries a cost in terms of releasing key staff and finding the
right training. Job Rotation provides tailored training for staff of small and medium sized
enterprises, whilst providing a replacement worker to cover whilst existing employees
are released on training. There are many reasons for implementing a job rotation system,
including the potential for increased product quality, giving employees the opportunity
to explore alternative career paths, and perhaps most importantly, preventing stagnation
and job boredom. Sustaining employee interest in a single job is not easy, which is
perhaps why retention poses such a big challenge for businesses, even in a slow economy.
Employees outgrow their jobs quickly and it may not be possible for employers to
provide enough diversity within a career path to maintain employee interest in the job.
This is where job rotation steps in to provide job enrichment from an employee’s
perspective. Employees who participate in job rotation programs develop a wide range
of skills, are more adaptable to changes in jobs and career, and are generally more
engaged and satisfied with their jobs when compared to workers who specialize in a
single skill set or domain.
In Hsieh (2004) opinion job rotation presents many unique opportunities for businesses
and employees. The rationale for implementing a job rotation design system may vary
depending on business goals and human resource strategies. However, whatever the
30
reason, one thing is certain businesses that implement a job rotation strategy
unquestionably reap the benefits of added organizational success and more satisfied,
motivated, and committed employees.
Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the
processes of a company and to increase job satisfaction through job variation. For lower
management levels job rotation has normally one of two purposes: promotion or skill
enhancement. This approach allows the manager to operate in diverse roles and
understand the different issues that crop up. Hsieh (2004) also explains that there are
some negative attributes associated with job rotation. Firstly, some positions within a
company may not be eligible for rotation. There may be positions within a company that
may be specialized due to technology or may require highly skilled workers. These
positions may not fit the profile for rotation opportunities because of the costs involved
to train the workers. Jaturanonda et al (2006) in their opinion explain that another
problem faced by companies is that some employ unionized workers that may be resistant
to job rotation due to standard union practices. Lynch et al (2004) state that, one other
problem faced by companies is the possibility of having to pay incentives to workers for
cooperation with the job rotation implementation which can lead to wage inequality.
Finally, Lynch et al (2004) further explains that, the utilization of job rotation may have
the effect of reducing a workforce because of the cross-training involved; a company
may not need to hire additional staff to cover positions and may possibly layoff current
employees no longer considered necessary.
2.3.8 How to Implement an Effective Job-Rotation Programme in a Company
31
Employees who participate in job rotation programs develop a wide range of skills, and
generally they are more adaptable to changes in jobs and career and more engaged and
satisfied with their jobs in comparison with workers who specialize in a single skill set
or domain.
However, job rotation may increase the workload and decrease productivity for the
rotating employee and for other employees who must take up the slack. This is why
preparation is key to the success of any job rotation program. Tips for effectively
implementing job in order to avoid potential pitfalls by Fiester (2009)
i. Formulate clear policies regarding who will be eligible and whether employees
will be restricted to certain jobs or opportunities will be open to people in all job
classifications.
ii. Determine if the program will be mandatory or if employees will be allowed to
“opt out.” Will opting out have an adverse impact on their performance appraisal?
iii. Involve the employees and managers in planning job rotations so that there is a
clear understanding of mutual expectations.
iv. Determine exactly what skills will be enhanced by placing an employee in the job
rotation process.
v. Use job rotation for employees in non-exempt jobs, as well as for those in
professional and managerial jobs.
By carefully analyzing feasibility, anticipating implementation issues, communicating with
and ensuring the support of senior and line managers, and setting up realistic schedules for
each position, both large and small organizations can derive value from a job rotation
32
program.Zeff (2008) writes on how to effectively design job rotation pragramme. He
proposes the following:
i. Talk to both your stars and those who have reached a plateau. Find out about
the opportunities they are seeking. Have them write down what it is they want
from their jobs.
ii. Give the employees ownership of the rotation policy. They should be part of
the process.
iii. When we have ownership and responsibility for something, we start to care.
When employees start to care, the next step is passion. Your ultimate goal is
for all your employees to develop passion for their jobs.
iv. Communicate with your employees about the rotation policy. What are their
ideas? What works for them? What works for you?
v. As a manager, ask yourself one question: How can I make the other people
around me more successful? As you put the rotation policy together, answer
that question and act on it and you will have a very successful team. If you
don't care who gets the credit, and if you learn to support and take care of the
person next to you, the entire work environment will quickly change.
vi. Don't be afraid to change. If you try one rotation policy and it is not working
for everyone, then try something different. Sometimes we have to admit we
made a mistake. We must slow down, reassess and then try a new path.
vii. Teach your employees to take ownership of their happiness and passion. Too
many times, employees let other people's actions or words determine their
happiness. Help your employees understand that happiness is a choice.
33
2.3.9 Risks of implementing job rotation
There are costs associated with job rotation. Malinski (2002,) identified several
difficulties with implementation of a job rotation programme such as resistance by
experienced staff, educating and training staff for new jobs, fitting the skill level of the
staff with the job and pay structure, the direct costs of implementation, and exposing
untrained staff to hazardous situations in industrial setting. Identification of the specific
process, the type of rotation, staff communication, and the length of training and the
learning period all must be determined. Difference in skill levels among staff may be
significant resulting in additional expense in upgrading staff or loss of productivity for
some period.
Malinski (2002,) recognizes that a unionized environment may restrict job rotation within
particular job classifications. Cosgel and Miceli (1998, p. 12) reported, “If a strong labor
union negotiates primarily on the basis of wages and disregard (or oppose) other job
attributes, then the firm would not be able to offer job rotation”
2.3.10 How organizations benefit from job rotation
One way that employers can meet job rotation objectives is through more flexible forms
of job organization that provide more opportunities for employees to use their talents, do
a range of tasks, and have more management over their work.
Eriksson and Ortega (2004,) writes: According to Campion, et al (1994), job rotation
produces two beneficial effects. First, an employee who rotates accumulates experience
more quickly than an employee who does not rotate. Hence job rotation is noted as an
effective tool for career development. Second, an employee who rotates accumulates
34
experience in more area than an employee who does not rotate. Hence, if an employee
rotates more frequently, it is easier to train him to become a generalist.
Cosgel & Miceli (1998, p.3) report that, job rotation produces innovation by improving
a firm’s ability to generate and respond to change. “Process style” innovation is produced
because of workers knowledge of the overall relationship among tasks, “allowing
workers to apply their knowledge of one task to the improvement of others”. Rohr (2000)
reported that job rotation “provides an organizational overview, encourages
interdepartmental cooperation, bring fresh viewpoints to otherwise stagnant sections.
Malinski (2002, p.9) sums the benefits as “reductions in boredom, work stress,
absenteeism, and turnover and an increase in innovation, production, and loyalty.” Job
rotation and cross-training can benefit both the employee and employer. The workforce
learns new skills and experiences less monotony from performing the same tasks over
and over.
Jans and Frazier, (2001) write, an employee who rotates is competent in skills that are
not necessarily performed in their normal duties making them more responsive when
change is necessary. It also contributes to career satisfaction by sharing the good and bad
assignments, and provides an organization the ability to rapidly fill vacancies.
Bennett (2003) listed the following as some benefits of a job rotation program for
employees:
i. Job rotation can lead directly to the accelerated development of new staff
members;
ii. Enabling staff to work in different areas of the organization through cross-
functional job rotation and job swaps can contribute to employees’ knowledge
35
of the organization and its functions;
iii. Cross-functional job rotation can lead to a greater understanding by employees
of the many functions of the organisation;
iv. Job rotation can contribute to the development of social and individual human
capital by enabling employees to develop new relationships with other
employees across the organization as well as gaining on-the-job experience;
v. Skill diversity may help employees to meet the minimum qualification of jobs
for future career advancement;
vi. Employees may make a more serious commitment to their career when an
organization invests time in an employee and develops their abilities;
vii. Various job assignments can make employees’ work more enjoyable and provide
more skills to avoid redundancy.
In addition to the opportunity to learn new skills through job rotation, other benefits of
job rotation programs for employees are highlighted by Indiana University (1997),
including:
Increased job satisfaction;
Broadened work experience;
Greater job variety;
New perspectives on individual responsibilities; and
Personal self-development.
Emphasizing the benefits of job rotation to the organization, Earney & Martins (2009)
state that managers can use job rotation programs to develop their staff with potential to
meet future departmental goals.
36
In addition, Olorunsola (2000) states that job rotation is a powerful tool that can be used
to align employee values and organization goals. Engel et al. (2003 p.7) suggests that
“job rotation exercise identifies one potential solution to recruitment problems”.
2.3.11 Challenges of job rotation
Job rotation is a human resources strategy where companies move employees around to
various jobs within the organization. Intended to provide benefits to both employees and
the employer, job rotation is supposed to increase employee interest level and motivation.
Despite benefits related to multiple skill development, job rotation also has its limitations.
There are limitations associated with job rotation. The cost and risk of rotation varied
with the type of rotation experience. Poaching of rotating personnel from the transferring
office was a major concern, along with the possibility; the employee would be reluctant
to their original position after exposure new ideas or responsibilities. The original
position may not exist, or managers may have learned to do without the individual
rotating. Managers could be reluctant to commit staff that they have trained.
A lack of clarity in expectations could reflect poorly on the employee or the transferring
organization. Additional risks included the perceived increased workload on remaining
staff, and the time spent brining a person up to speed State Services Commission (1999).
Malinski (2002) identified several difficulties with implementation of job rotation
programme and as follows:
i. Resistance by experience staff
37
One limitation of job rotation is the resistance by experienced staff. Experience staff does
not want to learn new job skills or move to other locations. Many experience staff think
been moved to a different department means to go back and learn all over again. They
see job rotation as a means of taken one away from what they enjoy doing most.
ii. Job and pay structure
Many organizations pay structure is designed on the skill level of the staff with the job
they do. Been moved to a new department means the skills and experience one needed to
produce at a higher efficiency cannot be utilized. Organizations find it difficult on where
to place employees who are under training and do not have the required skill to perform
at a higher level.
iii. Cost of implementation
One of the greatest challenge of job rotation is the cost involve in its implementation. Job
rotation brings about low in productivity since it takes time for new members to adjust
to the system. Difference in skill level among staff may be significant resulting in
additional expense in upgrading staff or loss of productivity for some period. Another
cost is the length of training and learning period required for staff for new job.
iv. Presence of Labour Union
Malinski (2002) recognized that a unionized environment may restrict job rotation within
particular job classifications. Cosgel & Miceli (1998, p.12) reported, “If a strong labour
union negotiates primarily on the basis of wages and disregards other job attributes, then
the firm would not be able to offer job rotation”.
iv. Industrial settings
38
One challenge of the adoption of job rotation is the risk of putting untrained staff in
hazardous situations.
v. Three key challenges
Malinski (2002) again identified three key challenges:
i. the determination of the type of job rotation,
ii. the clarification of the process of changing the work structure itself,
iii. and the communication to all about the type of staff training and the length of the
learning period
vi. Employee’s resentment
In addition, Bennett (2003) pointed out that “cross-functional job rotation for selected
groups can make considerable demands on the support of the colleagues of participants”
(p. 8) and explained that “this can cause resentment where their support is provided for
those they perceive to be members of a privileged group or be destined for higher things
rather than continuing to work along-side them as colleagues
.
2.4 Empirical Review of Past studies
Our conclusion from the motivation, purpose, and literature review is that UBA job
rotation has a positive influence on job performance and the organizational. In order to
39
create an atmosphere for an effective implementation of job rotation programme
management must consider the reasons for the adoption of job rotation, its effectives on
the employer and the employee. The process involve in the implementing of a programme
must be taken into consideration since the processes and procedures involve in the
implementation will determine the benefits and limitations the programme may offer.
Therefore, in this study, the impact of job rotation can provide is independent variables,
and organizational commitment is a dependent variable, while job performance is the
mediating variable.
Cheraskin & Stevens (1994) point out, the management literature often refers to job
rotation as a useful practice, but very few authors have conducted a detailed analysis of
its costs and benefits.
Ortega (2001) shows that the relative benefits of job rotation increase when the firm
knows little about its employees’ abilities. The relative benefits are also larger when the
firm is engaging in new activities for which the returns are a priori unknown. This has
sharp empirical consequences. First, employees with less tenure in the firm are more
likely to rotate, because the firm will be more interested in learning about them. This
implies that job rotation should be adopted with a higher probability in firms where
average employee tenure is lower. Second, any previous work experience that current
employees may have accumulated in other, similar firms should have no effect on the
probability of rotation: only the average tenure in the current firm should matter. This is
different from what the employee learning theory predicts. Last, if the firm is relatively
young or is introducing innovations, we should expect it to use more job rotation.
40
Cosgel & Miceli (1999) have pointed out increased satisfaction as one of the benefits of
rotation. In their model, employees prefer to perform a variety of tasks rather than
specializing in a single task and, as a consequence, job rotation increases job satisfaction.
This is beneficial to the firm because it can afford to pay lower salaries when employees
are more satisfied. However, job rotation does not contribute to training: contrary to the
employee learning argument, employees learn more by specializing than by rotating.
Kusunoki & Numagami (1998) study the patterns of inter functional mobility of
engineers in a large Japanese company. First, they find that employees with fewer years
of tenure do not rotate more than more senior employees. In fact, rotation frequencies
seem to vary very little during the first fourteen years of an employee's career, contrary
to Campion, Cheraskin & Stevens (1994) There is a positive relationship between the
employee's speed of promotion and the rate of rotation, also the directions and patterns
of rotation are complex and vary significantly according to promotion speeds.
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Bennett, B. (2003), “job rotation”, Development and Learning in Organizations, Vol. 17 No. 4,
pp. 7-9.
Black, S. E., Lynch, L. M., &Krivelyova, A. (2004). How workers fare when employers
Innovate. Industrial Relations: A journal of Economy & Society, 43(1), 44-66.
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Campbell-Allen, N., & Welch, S. (2004). BPIR Management Brief: Issue 8, Developing
Leadership.Business Performance Improvement Resource.
Campion, M. A., (1994,). Career-Related Antecedents and outcomes of Job rotation.Academy
of management Journal, v 37, (6), p1518-1542.
Chris J. Henderson, Ergonomic Job Rotation in Poultry Processing, Advances in Industrial
Ergonomics and Safety IV (1992), pp. 443-450
Cosgel, M. and Miceli, T. (1999),”job rotation: costs, benefits and stylized facts” NJ: Pearson
Practice hall. P74, 2nd Ed.
Erikson, T. and Ortega, J. (2006), “The adoption of job rotation: testing theories”, Industrial and
Labour Relations Reviews, Vol. 59 No. 4, pp. 653-66. University of Aarhus,
Aarhus School of Business, Department of economics.
Hsieh, A. & chao, H. (2004). A Reassessment of the Relationship between Job Specializations,
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Schultz, D., Schultz, S. E. (2010). Psychology and work today. Boston: person, pp.136,
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management.
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter covers the research design and methodological procedures that were used in
data collection and analysis. The coverage includes the research design, location of the
43
study, population of study, sampling procedure and sample size, data collection and data
analysis.
3.2 Research Design
This study employed the descriptive research design to examine the impact of job rotation
as a training and developmental tool in united bank of Nigeria (UBA), Saunders, Lewis
& thornhill, (2009) say that descriptive research portrays an accurate profile of persons,
events or situations. This design offers to the researchers a profile of described relevant
aspects of the phenomena of interest from an individual, organizational and industry-
oriented perspective. It presents data in a meaningful form that helps the researchers to
understand the characteristic of a group in a given situation, to think systematically about
aspects in a given situation, offer ideas for further research and helps to make certain
simple decisions. Miller's (1991) posits that descriptive research is the process of
collecting data in order to answer questions concerning the current status of the subject
study therefore, the design enabled the researcher to gather data from a wide range of
respondent on the impact of job rotation in training and development.
3.3. Population of Study
The target population was made up of some of the staff in United bank of Africa (UBA)
headquarters, Marina, which was 90 staff members.
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
Stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population. Stratification is the
process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous subgroups before
44
starting sampling. The sample frame used consists 90 staff members UBA House Plc.
Members were drawn from the following departments / section.
- Finance/Accounting Department (21 employees)
- Human Resource Department (16 employees)
- R&D Department (14 employees)
- ICT Department (13 employees)
- Customer Care Department (26 employees)
Thus the sample size was determined by using Taro Yamane’s formula.
Taro Yamane’s Formula:
𝐧 = 𝐍
𝟏 + 𝐍𝐞𝟐
Where:
n = Sample Size
N = Total Population
e = Margin of Error (0.05)
1 = Constant Number
𝐧 = 𝟗𝟎
𝟏 + 𝟗𝟎 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓𝟐
= 73.4
= 73 approx.
3.5 Reliability and Validation of Data Collection Instrument
3.5.1 Data Collection Instruments
The study relied on primary data using a questionnaire, which was administered on drop
and pick from selected respondents in the organization. Questionnaire was distributed to
the sampled population by the researcher and filling by the respondents. The
45
questionnaire was simplified as much as possible so that all respondents have a clear
meaning of each of the question
Closed ended questionnaire was prepared and administered to the staff. According to
Kothari (2004), the questionnaire method is the most suitable tool for collecting data. It
is economical in terms of time and cost compared to other methods. The Questionnaire
facilitated easy and quick responses within a short period. In addition, it gave respondent
freedom to express their views or opinions and to make suggestions
3.5.2 Reliability
Reliability as the degree of consistency with which an instrument measures the attribute
it is designed to measure. A pilot study involving twenty (10) respondents was conducted
in order to detach any ambiguities or questions that were not easily understood by the
respondents. Reliability reflects the consistency of participants’ responses to the
statements of a questionnaire based on the average correlation among those statements.
Based on the responses obtained from the pilot study and using Cronbach Alpha to
determine the internal consistency and reliability of the items, the reliability statistics for
the measurement sets was 0.711 which is greater 0.7 (i.e. the minimum acceptable value)
3.5.3 Validation
Validity is the extent to which the instrument has actually accomplished what it is
expected to measure. To ensure the validity of the instrument, a self-developed structured
questionnaire was presented to the researcher’s supervisor for construct and content
validity. An instrument is seen as reliable if it measures what it ought to measure
consistently. For this study, after administration of the questionnaire the researcher
46
checked to ensure that the copies of the questionnaire were properly filled. Hence the
reliability for this study was positive meaning that the instrument was reliable.
36 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
A statistical package (SPSS) was used in coding and entering data from the questionnaire.
Frequency distribution was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from the
questionnaire. Also, Product Pearson Correlation method was used to test the formulated
hypothesis at 5 percent significant level.
3.7 Limitation of the Methodology
The method employed for this research will be greatly influenced by the characteristics
of respondents who supplied data as well as the type of data required. Inappropriate,
inadequate or excessive sample sizes continue to influence the quality and accuracy of
research. The sample sized used to some extent will pose a limitation to this study
because the receptiveness of members of staff of the Nestle Nigeria Plc, out of fear that
it could cause them their job if what is regarded as secret is licked out in the cause of
administering the questionnaires. Despite all these, the data collected and information
required to be gathered for the research are believe to be.
REFERENCES
Babbie, E. (1991). Survey Research Methods (2nd Edition).Belmont Wodsworth.
Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods & Techniques. New Delhi: New Age
International (P) Limited Publishers.
Miller, P. (1991). Motivation in the Workplace. Work and Organizational Psychology. Oxford:
Blackwell Publishers
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. &Thornhill, A. (2009).Research Methods for Business Student (Fifth
Edition). Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate
47
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the analysis of data and its interpretation. The techniques used were
the frequency distribution tables and percentages, while Pearson Correlation was adopted
in testing the relevant hypotheses. In this study, a total of Seventy-three (73)
questionnaires were distributed, out of which sixty-five (65) were duly complete and
retrieved and making a response rate of 89.0%
4.2 Analysis of Respondents According To Their Socio-Demographic Characteristics
Table 4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2016
Table 4.1 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of sampled respondents. Focusing on the
gender distribution of the respondents58.5% of the respondents was male, while 41.5% of the
Variables
Items
Frequency
Percent
Gender
Male
38
58.5
Female
27
41.5
Total
65
100.0
Age (Years)
20-29
16
24.6
30-39
34
52.3
40-49
15
23.1
Total
65
100.0
OND/NCE
9
13.8
B.SC/BA/HND
40
61.5
PGD/MBA/MSC
16
24.6
Total
65
100.0
1-5yrs
17
26.2
6-10yrs
26
40.0
11-15yrs
22
33.8
Total
65
100.0
Top level
13
20.0
Middle level
36
55.4
Lower level
16
24.6
Total
65
100.0
48
respondents are female. This implies that majority of the respondents that partook in the survey
were male. According to their age distribution, 24.6% of the respondents were between the age
ranges of 20-29years, 52.3% of the respondents were between 30-39years, while 23.1% of the
respondents were between 40-49years. Also, the distribution of the respondents according to
their education background shows that, 13.8% of the respondents were OND/NCE holder, 61.5%
of the respondents were B.Sc./BA/HND holder, while 20.6% of the respondents had
PGD/MBA/M.Sc. degree. In addition, the distribution of the respondents according to their
working experience shows that, 26.2% of the respondents had 1-5years working experience,
40.0% of the respondents had 6-10years, while 33.8%of the respondents had 11-15years
experience. Lastly, the distribution of the respondent according to their management status in
the organization shows that, 20.0% of the respondents were at the top level management in their
organization, 55.4% of the respondents were in middle level, while 24.6% of the respondents
were at lower level.
4.3 Analysis of Questionnaire According to Research Question
Table 4.2How often were you rotated in your company in the first 12months
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Once
11
16.9
16.9
16.9
1-3times
20
30.8
30.8
47.7
3-5times
19
29.2
29.2
76.9
More than 5times
15
23.1
23.1
100.0
Total
65
100.0
100.0
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2016
Table 4.2 shows the distribution of sample respondents according to the research which focuses
on how often were you rotated in your company in the first 12months, it shows that 16.9% of
the respondents were rotated once in their organization in their first 12month, 30.8% of the
49
respondents between 1-3times, 29.2% of the respondents within 3-5times, while 23.1% of the
respondents were rotated more than 5times.
Table 4.3 How does job rotation as a training and development tools enhance job
enrichment and satisfaction?
Frequency
Percent
Awareness of job rotation as training and development enhance job enrichment and
satisfaction
Disagree
7
10.8
Undecided
11
16.9
Agree
36
55.4
Strongly Agree
11
16.9
Total
65
100.0
Through job rotation, training and development are addressed
Undecided
10
15.4
Agree
39
60.0
Strongly Agree
16
24.6
Total
65
100.0
Job rotation determines the rate of job satisfaction
Undecided
13
20.0
Agree
44
67.7
Strongly Agree
8
12.3
Total
65
100.0
High participation of training and development contributes to job enrichment and
satisfaction
Undecided
10
15.4
Agree
45
69.2
Strongly Agree
10
15.4
Total
65
100.0
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2016
Table 4.3 shows the distribution of sample respondents according to the research question which
focuses on How does job rotation as a training and development tools enhance job enrichment
and satisfaction, it shows that 16.9% of the respondents strongly agreed on the views that,
awareness of job rotation as training and development enhance job enrichment and satisfaction,
it shows that, 55.4% of the respondents agreed, 16.9% of the respondents were undecided, while
10.8% of the respondent disagreed. Also, 24.6% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view
50
that, through job rotation, training and development are addressed, 60.0% of the respondents
agreed, while 15.4% of the respondents were undecided. Furthermore, 12.3% of the respondents
strongly agreed on the view that, job rotation determines the rate of job satisfaction, 67.7% of
the respondents agreed, while 20.0% of the respondents were undecided. Lastly, 15.4% of the
respondents strongly agreed on the view that, high participation of training and development
contributes to job enrichment and satisfaction, 69.2% of the respondents agreed, while 15.4% of
the respondents were undecided.
Table 4.4 How effective is the human resources training and development in UBA?
Frequency
percent
Customer satisfactory is solely everybody's business in your organization
Undecided
12
18.5
Agree
35
53.8
Strongly Agree
18
27.7
Total
65
100.0
Effective training programmes for employee contributes to organization's productivity
Undecided
11
16.9
Agree
40
61.5
Strongly Agree
14
21.5
Total
65
100.0
The adoption of training and development is highly effective
Undecided
10
15.4
Agree
39
60.0
Strongly Agree
16
24.6
Total
65
100.0
Employees training and development contributes to decrease in wastage ratio of
productive raw materials
Disagree
8
12.3
Undecided
8
12.3
Agree
36
55.4
Strongly Agree
13
20.0
Total
65
100.0
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2016
51
Table 4.4 shows the distribution of sample respondents according to the research which focuses
on how effective is the human resources training and development in UBA? It shows that, 27.7%
of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that, customer satisfactory is solely everybody's
business in your organization, 53.8% of the respondents agreed, while 18.5% of the respondents
were undecided. Also, 21.5% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that, Effective
training programmes for employee contributes to organization's productivity, 61.5% of the
respondents agreed, while 16.9% of the respondents were undecided. Furthermore, 24.6% of the
respondents strongly agreed on the view that, the adoption of training and development is highly
effective, 60.0% of the respondents agreed, while 24.6% of the respondents were undecided.
Lastly, 20.0% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that, employees training and
development contributes to decrease in wastage ratio of productive raw materials, 55.4% of the
respondents agreed, and 12.3% of the respondents were undecided, while 12.3% of the
respondent disagreed.
Table 4.5Can negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and
development of their sub-ordinates promote organizational performance?
Frequency
percent
Negative attitude of management and supervisor on training and development promote
organizational performance
Disagree
5
7.7
Undecided
10
15.4
Agree
38
58.5
Strongly Agree
12
18.5
Total
65
100.0
Promoting organizational performance is a challenge faced by management and their
subordinates
Disagree
5
7.7
Undecided
10
15.4
Agree
39
60.0
Strongly Agree
11
16.9
Total
65
100.0
52
Due to job rotation policy in my organization, my performance has increase
Disagree
9
13.8
Undecided
11
16.9
Agree
32
49.2
Strongly Agree
13
20.0
Total
65
100.0
Job rotation policy in my organization is been fully carried out
Disagree
8
12.3
Undecided
13
20.0
Agree
33
50.8
Strongly Agree
11
16.9
Total
65
100.0
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2016
Table 4.5 below shows the distribution of sample respondents according to the research question
which focuses on can negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and
development of their sub-ordinates promote organizational performance?, it shows that, 18.5%
of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that, negative attitude of management and
supervisor on training and development promote organizational performance, 58.5% of the
respondents agreed, and 15.4% of the respondents were undecided, while 7.7% of the respondent
disagreed. Also, 16.9% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that, promoting
organizational performance is a challenge faced by management and their subordinates, 60.0%
of the respondents agreed, and 15.4% of the respondents were undecided, while 7.7% of the
respondent disagreed. Furthermore, 20.0% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that,
due to job rotation policy in my organization, my performance has increase, 49.2% of the
respondents agreed, and 16.9% of the respondents were undecided, while 13.8% of the
respondent disagreed. Finally, 16.9% of the respondents strongly agreed on the view that, job
rotation policy in my organization is been fully carried out, 50.8% of the respondents agreed,
and 20.0% of the respondents were undecided, while 12.3% of the respondent disagreed.
53
4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Decision Rule
The SPSS highlighted the correlations that are significant with the output indicating significant
correlation at 5% level. Reject the null hypothesis if p-value ≤ 0.05and significant correlation at
1% level. Reject the null hypothesis if p-value ≤ 0.01.
Hypothesis One
HO: There is no significant effect of job rotation as a training and development tool on job
enrichment and satisfaction
.Table 4.4.1 Correlations
Job Rotation
Job enrichment
Job Rotation
Pearson Correlation
1
.613**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
65
65
Job enrichment
Pearson Correlation
.613**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
65
65
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
From Table 4.4.1, the Pearson correlation coefficient is .613 while the p value is 0.000., this
shows that there exist strong and positive association between job rotation & job enrichment;
hence the H0 that there is no significant effect of job rotation as a training and development tool
on job enrichment and satisfaction is rejected, since p value (0.000) is less than 0.01. This is
further confirmed by the result that there is significant effect of job rotation as a training and
development tool on job enrichment and satisfaction.
Hypothesis Two
H2: There is no significant on human resources training and development in the operation of
a bank
Table 4.4.2 Correlations
54
HR Training and
Development
Operating
efficiency
HR Training and
Development
Pearson Correlation
1
.505**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
65
65
Operating Efficiency
Pearson Correlation
.505**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
65
65
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
From Table 4.4.2, the Pearson correlation coefficient is .505 while the p value is 0.000., this
shows that there exist strong and positive association between HR Training and Development &
Operating Efficiency; hence the H0 that there is a significant on human resources training and
development in the operation of a bank is rejected, since p value (0.000) is less than 0.01. This
is further confirmed by the result that there is a significant on human resources training and
development in the operation of a bank.
Hypothesis Three
H3 Negative attitude of managers and superior on trading and development does not promote
employees turnover
Table 4.4.2 Correlations
Negative Attitude
Employee Turnover
Negative Attitude
Pearson Correlation
1
.235**
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
65
65
Employee Turnover
Pearson Correlation
.235**
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N
65
65
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
From Table 4.4.2, the Pearson correlation coefficient is .505 while the p value is 0.000., this
shows that there exist weak and positive association between Negative Attitude & Employee
55
turnover; hence the H0 that there is a significant on human resources training and development
in the operation of a bank is rejected, since p-value (0.000) is less than 0.01. This is further
confirmed by the result that negative attitude of managers and superior on trading and
development does promote employees turnover
56
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction
This final chapter is mainly designed to highlight the summary of findings, conclusion
and recommendations: The first chapter was devoted to the introductory part of the study
while the second chapter discussed extensively the literature review on the subject matter.
Chapter three looked at the details of research method, research design, sampling
technique of the study, and method of data analysis, which were analysed and discussed
in chapter four. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and while the hypothesis
was tested using Pearson correlation.
5.1 Summary of Findings
From the data analysis and results in the preceding above, the findings are as follows:
That there is a significant effect of job rotation ass a training and development tool
on job enrichment and satisfaction; that also there is a significant on human resources
training and development in the operation of a bank and that Negative attitude of
managers and superior on training and development does promote employees
turnover
Majority of the respondents agreed that, awareness of job rotation as training and
development enhance job enrichment and satisfaction, also that, through job rotation,
training and development are addressed, in addition that, job rotation determines the
rate of job satisfaction, and finally that, high participation of training and
development contributes to job enrichment and satisfaction.
Majority of the respondents agreed that, customer satisfactory is solely everybody's
57
business in your organization, also that, Effective training programmes for employee
contributes to organization's productivity, in addition that, the adoption of training
and development is highly effective, and finally that, employees training and
development contributes to decrease in wastage ratio of productive raw materials.
Lastly, Majority of the respondents agreed that negative attitude of management and
supervisor on training and development promote organizational performance, also
that, promoting organizational performance is a challenge faced by management and
their subordinates, as well that, due to job rotation policy in my organization, my
performance has increase, and finally that, job rotation policy in my organization is
been fully carried out.
5.2 Conclusion
It is conclusive to say that job rotation affects the employees’ job performances
positively, significantly and favourably in businesses. Job rotation should be married and
made to work in consonance with other factors like quality of job, attitude of employees
to the job, time spent on the job, better remuneration and motivation and other related
matters which influence employees and performance in order for the firm to operate
optimally. The process of job rotation enables employees involved to acquire more
skills, knowledge and talents on the job and that entire process and retraining of workers
in order to get the best out of them. Maximum productivity can only be attained when
workers are adequately and properly trained and motivated. Management strives to
avoid waste, loss of time and resources, production of substandard products,
disruption in the production process, labour unrest, breakdown of machines and
58
equipment in its operations. Job rotation aid and assist management in handling those
issues by identifying and correcting errors, irregularities, personnel collusion,
safeguarding assets and maintaining a sustainable internal control system. In view
of this, one concludes that job rotation contributes immensely in a positive and
favourable manner to employees performances in a given place.
5.3 Recommendation
Based on the findings and conclusion of the study the following were recommended.
i. That Management of UBA should provide practical participation of employees in
job rotation and develop a comprehensive program for its electiveness.
ii. Also management in the banking sector, particular UBA, should provide
opportunities for increasing job satisfaction and motivation; decreasing
absenteeism and job quitting; promoting tendency to participate and learn and
finally increasing commitment to goals by providing opportunities for team
operational work and help improving productivity in the organization.
iii. Thus, optimal motivational systems should be determined for implementing job
rotation policy, payment processes should also be performed based on
performance and particularly learning diverse skills in motivational systems.
iv. Management in the banking sector, should consider motivation promoting
programs including motivational payments; assignment of responsibility and
authority to employees while executing the process. The objective of this is
increasing motives of human resources; because job rotation is not able to
influence performance without job satisfaction.
v. Also, in implementing job rotation policies a systematic plan should be design to
59
evaluate job performance of employees during rotation where especially great
attention is devoted to skill diversity of staff; because job rotation cannot
influence performance without diversity of skills.
vi. Accordingly, the management should prepare an environment for employees
which lead to social interaction coupled with exchange of knowledge in an
organizational framework to boost staff morale for group activities.
vii. Lastly Management should understand the positive results of friendly and warm
atmosphere in the department, they balance the job behaviours, decrease job
stresses and as a result increase productivity in labour force.
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
This research is not exhaustive. It has only added vital value to the existing researches,
because as time changes and technological development improves, more researches will
be needed to adjust to the changes. Therefore, it is suggested that further studies should
be carried on investigating the influence of job rotation on performance by considering
skill variation and job satisfaction of bank employees, Also further study should also be
carried out across other sectors and then comparing the results.
60
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63
APPENDIX
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am conducting a research on JOB ROTATION AS TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TOOL
FOR ENHANCING EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE: A Study of united bank of Africa
(UBA), Lagos.
Kindly fill the attached questionnaire. Your responses on the questionnaire will be anonymous.
All returned questionnaires will be kept confidential. You may withdraw from the study at any
point and may refuse to answer any questionnaire items that make you feel uncomfortable. There
are no correct or incorrect responses to any of the questionnaire items. After the study is
completed, all questionnaires will be destroyed.
Kindly answer all the questions in this questionnaire with sincerity. All information supplied will
be treated as confidential and used for academic purposes only.
Thank You.
SECTION A: PERSONAL DATA (Please tick as appropriate)
1. Sex: Male ( ) Female ( )
2. Age: 20-29yrs ( ) 30-39yrs ( ) 40-49yrs ( ) 50Years & above ( )
3. Education Qualification: OND/ NCE ( ) B.SC/BA/HND ( ) PGD/MBA/MSC ( )
4. Working Experience: 1-5yrs ( ) 6-10yrs ( ) 11-15yrs ( ) 16yrs & above ( )
5. Management Status: Top level ( ) Middle level ( ) Lower level ( )
GENERAL INFORMATION ON COMPANY
6. Length of service: Less than 2[ ] 5 10 [ ] 10 15 [ ] More than 15[ ]
7. How often were you rotated in your current company in the first 12 months?: a) Once
b) 1-3 times c) 3-5 times d) more than 5 times
Instruction: Please tick [] as it tallies with your answer.
Where:
SA = Strongly Agree, A = Agree, U = Undecided, D = Disagree, SD = Strongly Disagree
SECTION B
Job rotation as a training and development tools enhance job enrichment and satisfaction
(Please tick as appropriate)
64
SN
SA
A
U
D
SD
8.
Awareness of job rotation as training and development enhance job
enrichment and satisfaction
9.
Through job rotation training and development are addressed
10.
Job rotation determines the rate of job satisfaction
11.
High participation of training and development contributes to job
enrichment and satisfaction
SECTION C
The human resources training and development in uba is effective
(Please tick as appropriate)
SN
SA
A
U
D
SD
12
Customer satisfactory is solely everybody's business in your
organization
13
Effective training programmes for employee contributes to
organization's productivity
14.
The adoption of training and development is highly effective
15.
Employees training and development contributes to decrease in
wastage ratio of productive raw materials.
SECTION D
Negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and development of their
sub-ordinates promote organizational performance?
(Please tick as appropriate)
SN
SA
A
U
D
SD
16.
Negative attitude of management and supervisor on training and
development promote organizational performance
17.
Promoting organizational performance is a challenge faced by
management and their subordinates
18.
Impact of job rotation have on the employee
19.
As Job rotation policy been fully carried out
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