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Abstract

Small-scale fisheries underpin the aquatic food supply, and are facing acute challenges in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to examine how small-scale fishing households, including fishers and fish traders, are responding to COVID-19 and associated movement restrictions around Lake Victoria, Kenya. We conducted phone interviews with 88 households in three riparian communities around Lake Victoria to examine shifts in fish consumption, fishing activities, price changes, and coping strategies. We found that households are consuming less fish, perceiving high fish prices, and coping by more often selling than eating fish. Most fishers and traders reported spending less time fishing and trading, and concern about being infected with COVID-19 was high. Our findings suggest movement restrictions and COVID-19 concern, along with high lake levels in the region, limit fishing activities and fish access. Controlling COVID-19 and supporting opportunities for fishers and traders to safely return to their livelihood activities will be paramount to the recovery of small-scale fishing communities today. Our findings can also support planning to mitigate the impacts of future crises on small-scale fishing communities.

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... Because of the restrictions on mobility, delay or absence of transportation, and frequent cancellation of orders, the fishermen have lost their livelihoods, as they have not been able to sell their collected fish and crabs for the expected price and have instead been obliged to sell at a minimal price . Moreover, the growing prejudice towards fish products among consumers (Ben Hassen et al., 2021;Fiorella et al., 2021) has also contributed significantly to the reduction in domestic consumption (Mandal et al., 2021;Sunny et al., 2021). Furthermore, the study has found that the price of aquatic resources has decreased substantially in the absence of demand from local and international markets. ...
... A few months later, they were able to start catching fish and crabs on a regular basis, but it was still less than the usual amount of time. The resulting small catch of fish and crabs, combined with the low price of their collected resources in domestic and foreign markets (FAO, 2020a;Fiorella et al., 2021;Sunny et al., 2021), means that they can barely afford daily necessities such as food, household items, medicine, and education. The absence of demand for certain fishing products, particularly crabs, has also had detrimental impacts on the production and supply value chain. ...
... This has had a substantial impact on the household level, especially in terms of affordability of food and other essential amenities (Lima et al., 2021;Sunny et al., 2021). In the long run, this might lead to massive cases of malnourishment, especially among women and children (Fiorella et al., 2021). The results also indicate that the fishermen were more susceptible to seasonal flu symptoms such as fever, cough, headache, and cold, which is probably an indicator that inadequate food supply has made their immune systems weaker. ...
Article
The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed significant challenges to human wellbeing and survival, particularly among groups of people such as the Sundarbans mangrove forest resource-dependent communities (SMFRDCs), and especially the fishermen in these communities, in developing countries like Bangladesh. It is therefore essential to explore the livelihood conditions, health status and care-seeking behavior of the fishermen in these communities during the ongoing pandemic. This study was carried out by applying mixed methods, including interviews and focus group discussion (FGD), in the three sub-districts of Khulna, Satkhira, and Bagerhat, which are in the southwestern region adjacent to the Sundarbans mangrove forest (SMF) of Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected from 76 fishermen through telephone interviews, while 24 fishermen participated in three distinct focus group discussions. The findings suggest that the fishermen have experienced a reduction of income, as they have been barred from entering the SMF during the pandemic, which has gradually affected their number of trips to and stays at the forest as well as their catch of fisheries resources. The decline in demand in both regional and international markets has left the fishermen with only a handful of alternative ways to adjust to these unprecedented circumstances, such as borrowing money, selling household assets, and in some extreme cases marrying off young children to reduce the financial burden, as many are now jobless. Their financial hardship during the pandemic has affected their households' capacity to afford basic household necessities, including food, fuel, education, and health expenses. Subsequently, when these fishermen suffer ailments such as fever, cough, headache, and cold – the general symptoms of COVID-19 – they cannot seek medical assistance from trained doctors. Their financial constraints have compelled them to rely on indigenous knowledge, in particular village quack doctors, or in some cases to seek help from local pharmacies for modern medicine. Thus, the government should provide financial support and strengthen the local market value chain so that disadvantaged fishermen in SMFRDCs can adopt alternative livelihood opportunities. Furthermore, longitudinal research on the impacts of COVID-19 on livelihood, local adaptation strategies, health status, and care-seeking behavior is also strongly recommended.
... Due to overfishing, habitat loss, pollution, and climate change, coastal small-scale fishing communities are experiencing decreased livelihood sustainability and increased food insecurity [6][7][8]. Additionally, compared with developed countries, SSFs tend to be more vulnerable to alterations in the global supply chains or price fluctuations [9], such as natural hazards and diseases, since they have fewer means to cope with these fluctuations [10]. ...
... In particular, serious impacts on fish catch and revenues have been reported in different areas around the world [16,17]. Thus, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global seafood market and supply chain, thereby leading to a severe reduction in market demands and market price [9,[18][19][20][21][22]. Notably, the SSFs who are dependent on export markets experienced a severe reduction of demands [13], and additionally, local markets were also affected [23]. ...
... Thus, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global seafood market and supply chain, thereby leading to a severe reduction in market demands and market price [9,[18][19][20][21][22]. Notably, the SSFs who are dependent on export markets experienced a severe reduction of demands [13], and additionally, local markets were also affected [23]. SSFs suffered from income loss [4,9,14,17,24,25], unemployment [26,27], and food insecurity [28,29], since most of them did not have an alternative source of income. Therefore, some SSFs were even forced to take loans from local money lenders at high interest rates [24]. ...
Article
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Scientists have recorded the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on small-scale fishers (SSFs), such as stagnating market demands and reduction in market price and income. Even though scientific evidence has heeded to these impacts, there is limited evidence regarding the long-term impacts and coping mechanisms of SSFs over longer periods. In addition, few studies have analysed these impacts and strategies from multiple perspectives. Our study aims to describe the perceived impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak on the communities of SSFs and the strategies adopted by them since the beginning of the outbreak in Trang Province, Thailand. Both qualitative and quantitative data obtained through semi-structured interviews indicated that, in the early stage of the outbreak, the SSFs used their natural, financial, and social capitals wisely; notably, human capitals were essential for the recovery in the later stages. Our findings suggested that an adaptive capacity to flexibly change livelihoods played an important role for the SSFs to cope with the outbreak; most importantly, our study indicated that, in a stagnating global economy, alternative income sources may not necessarily help SSFs.
... Furthermore, due to the restrictions, restaurants and hotels are legally bound to close their doors. The demand for fish and fish products has decreased as a result of this [6]. By disrupting fish supply and demand, fish distribution, labor, and production, COVID-19 exposes the existing vulnerabilities in small-scale fisheries, putting small-scale farmers' livelihoods at risk [7]. ...
... Due to market disruptions, fish farmers have been unable to sell their fish. As a result, they have been stockpiling large quantities of live fish, the storage of which will be required for an indefinite period, raising expenses and expenditures, and increasing hazards [6]. Due to the restrictions placed on foreign markets, the export of food products such as Pangasius fish has been hampered. ...
... Because of the many logistical challenges previously discussed, the raw materials for frozen, prepacked, and canned fish and fish products have also been unavailable. The products have been exposed to loss, quality change, and higher costs for exporters, processors, merchants, and importers due to transportation bottlenecks and delays [6]. ...
Article
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Fish is a major source of food and nutritional security for subsistence communities in developing countries, it also has linkages with the economic and supply-chain dimensions of these countries. Burgeoning literature has revealed the adverse impacts of COVID-19 on the fisheries and aquaculture sector, which serves as the major source of income and employment for numerous people globally. This study has employed a systematic literature review of the overall impacts of COVID-19 on the fisheries and aquaculture sector in developing countries using the PRISMA approach. This study reveals that COVID-19 has posed numerous challenges to fish supply chain actors, including a shortage of inputs, a lack of technical assistance, an inability to sell the product, a lack of transportation for the fish supply, export restrictions on fish and fisheries products, and a low fish price. These challenges lead to inadequate production, unanticipated stock retention, and a loss in returns. COVID-19 has also resulted in food insecurity for many small-scale fish growers. Fish farmers are becoming less motivated to raise fish and related products as a result of these cumulative consequences. Because of COVID-19’s different restriction measures, the demand and supply sides of the fish food chain have been disrupted, resulting in reduced livelihoods and economic vulnerability. In order to assist stakeholders to cope with, adapt to, and build resilience to pandemics and other shocks, this study offers policy recommendations to address the COVID-19-induced crisis in the fisheries and aquaculture sector.
... We found that this was the case for 45 articles (88.2%). However, for six articles (11.8%), data collection was conducted in a period of very low numbers of daily new cases [19][20][21][22][23] or even without daily new cases [24], and problems still arose from both the consumer and producer sides. The reason for this was the introduction of preventive government measures. ...
... In India [37] and Kenya [23], 62% and 74% of respondents, respectively, experienced food insecurity related to decreased income. In some cases, in addition to the partial or total income loss, households even had to face rising food prices [20,38]. In order to mitigate income-loss-related food insecurity of households, the most common strategy was launching food or financial benefit programs, mostly by governmental organizations [31,33,39,40], but there were examples of households taking loans or borrowing cash from formal or informal sources [38,39]. ...
... The most common reason was of financial origin. Due to the loss of income and/or the increase in food prices, households could not afford to buy certain foods [20,22,37,42,[49][50][51][52][53][54]. Another reason was the change in daily routine due to school closures, working in a home office, movement restrictions, etc. Snacks provided emotional compensation for those who felt bored or lonely [33,34,50,51,[53][54][55][56][57][58]. ...
Article
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For decades, global food security has not been able to address the structural problem of economic access to food, resulting in a recent increase in the number of undernourished people from 2014. In addition, the FAO estimates that the number of undernourished people drastically increased by 82–132 million people in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To alleviate this dramatic growth in food insecurity, it is necessary to understand the nature of the increase in the number of malnourished during the pandemic. In order to address this, we gathered and synthesized food-security-related empirical results from the first year of the pandemic in a systematic review. The vast majority (78%) of the 51 included articles reported household food insecurity has increased (access, utilization) and/or disruption to food production (availability) was a result of households having persistently low income and not having an adequate amount of savings. These households could not afford the same quality and/or quantity of food, and a demand shortfall immediately appeared on the producer side. Producers thus had to deal not only with the direct consequences of government measures (disruption in labor flow, lack of demand of the catering sector, etc.) but also with a decline in consumption from low-income households. We conclude that the factor that most negatively affects food security during the COVID-19 pandemic is the same as the deepest structural problem of global food security: low income. Therefore, we argue that there is no need for new global food security objectives, but there is a need for an even stronger emphasis on poverty reduction and raising the wages of low-income households. This structural adjustment is the most fundamental step to recover from the COVID-19 food crises, and to avoid possible future food security crises.
... The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced fishing pressure, providing opportunities for threatened species to recover. Many researchers from United Kingdom [71], Mediterranean [12], Indonesia [69,72], India [34], Africa [73,74], North America [75], and Bangladesh [76] reported that reduced fishing pressure resulted in an increase of wild stocks in inland and marine waters. Even reef fish densities increased substantially due to the COVID-19 lockdown [34]. ...
... In Fiji, the main impact of COVID-19 on small-scale fisheries was the reduction in sales of fish due to decreased local consumption and the decline of the tourism industry [79]. The negative consequences of COVID-19 on lake fisheries in Africa were due to the inability of fishers to access fishing grounds (low fish catches) and the decline in market demand, resulting in less fishing activities and trading and in losses of livelihood amongst inland fishers [73,74]. In fact, Stokes et al. [41] reported that the COVID-19 pandemic posed a higher risk to inland fisheries in 79 countries. ...
... Eggert et al. [85] emphasized the importance of ecology, community, and economics in the development of sustainable fisheries policy to better manage the wild stocks and provide appropriate support for fishery-dependent communities. In lake fisheries, Fiorella et al. [74] suggested that government involvement to control the COVID-19 pandemic and support the small-scale lake fishery in Kenya is important for the recovery from the calamity and the mitigation of future crises. The Malaysian government introduced an economic stimulus package to ease the impacts of COVID-19, especially on the poor communities that make up most of the work force in fisheries and aquaculture sectors [86]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in ecological changes of aquatic ecosystems, affected the aquatic food supply chain, and disrupted the socio-economy of global populations. Due to reduced human activities during the pandemic, the aquatic environment was reported to improve its water quality, wild fishery stocks, and biodiversity. However, the sudden surge of plastics and biomedical wastes during the COVID-19 pandemic masked the positive impacts and increased the risks of aquatic pollution, especially microplastics, pharmaceuticals, and disinfectants. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from wastewater treatment plants to natural water bodies could have serious impacts on the environment and human health, especially in developing countries with poor waste treatment facilities. The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in human excreta, wastewaters, and sludge and its transmission to aquatic ecosystems could have negative impacts on fisheries and aquaculture industries, which have direct implications on food safety and security. COVID-19 pandemic-related environmental pollution showed a high risk to aquatic food security and human health. This paper reviews the impacts of COVID-19, both positive and negative, and assesses the causes and consequences of anthropogenic activities that can be managed through effective regulation and management of eco-resources for the revival of biodiversity, ecosystem health, and sustainable aquatic food production.
... In particular, loss of income, lack of cash in the communities, and subsequent decline in food security combine to cause a decrease in material, subjective and relational wellbeing. Akin to inland fisheries in Kenya, continued food insecurity and lack of income may impact the health of fishing households, making them more vulnerable both to COVID-19 itself, and to the continued measures to contain it [14]. Prolonged periods of subsisting on staple carbohydrates leads to nutrient deficiencies, declines in health, work capacity and increased vulnerability to disease in short-term, and in the long-term, it can impact adult health and inhibit growth and development in children, reducing their future physical and cognitive capacity [7,8]. ...
... We found that coastal communities in Kenya experienced livelihood losses and disruptions similar to those reported in inland fisheries in Kenya [2,14]. In Kenya's inland fisheries, curfews and lockdowns influenced fishing and fish trade [2]. ...
... In Kenya's inland fisheries, curfews and lockdowns influenced fishing and fish trade [2]. In addition, restrictions on movement, and fear of contracting COVID-19 meant that small-scale fishing families had less access to fishing grounds and fished less [14]. Similarly, in Bangladesh, lockdown restrictions meant that small-scale inland fishers and fish farmers were prohibited from working on their ponds and wetlands [34]. ...
Article
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COVID-19 is continuing to have far-reaching impacts around the world, including on small-scale fishing communities. This study details the findings from 39 in-depth interviews with community members, community leaders, and fish traders in five communities in Kenya about their experiences since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in March, 2020. The interviews were conducted by mobile phone between late August and early October 2020. In each community, people were greatly impacted by curfews, rules about gathering, closed travel routes, and bans on certain activities. Fish trade and fisheries livelihoods were greatly disrupted. Respondents from all communities emphasized how COVID-19 had disrupted relationships between fishers, traders, and customers; changed market demand; and ultimately made fishing and fish trading livelihoods very difficult to sustain. While COVID-19 impacted different groups in the communities-i.e., fishers, female fish traders, and male fish traders-all experienced a loss of income and livelihoods, reduced cash flow, declining food security, and impacts on wellbeing. As such, although small-scale fisheries can act as a crucial safety net in times of stress, the extent of COVID-19 disruptions to alternative and informal livelihoods stemmed cash flow across communities, and meant that fishing was unable to fulfil a safety net function as it may have done during past disruptions. As the pandemic continues to unfold, ensuring that COVID-19 safe policies and protocols support continued fishing or diversification into other informal livelihoods, and that COVID-19 support reaches the most vulnerable, will be critical in safeguarding the wellbeing of families in these coastal communities.
... Studies on the effect of COVID-19 on SSF are showing greats impacts on activities of fishers and traders [10], on local consumption patterns [22] and on several aspects of the value chain in general [35,52,54]. The mapping of value and supply chains is the starting point to identify the impacts of COVID-19 on small-scale fisheries and formulate policy strategies to increase the resilience of these fisheries. ...
... In the Indonesian case, fishers opted to target species in demand within the domestic markets, pausing BSC captures due to international market constraints [51]. In contrast, some Lake Victoria small-scale fishers also reduced their catches but to compensate, they focused only on high valued species and reduced self-consumption [22]. ...
Article
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All aspects of fish supply chains have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with jobs, income and food security at risk. In Peru, small scale fisheries are fundamental for food security, contributing to about 2/3 of all fish consumed nationally. One of the most important resources which is more affordable for local and regional consumption is hake (Merluccius gayi peruanus). This study is a first attempt to describe the small-scale hake fishery value chain and to quantify the impact of COVID-19 from March to August 2020 in two fishing communities in northern Peru. The levels of fishing and primary buying were the most affected, and we estimate that ~ 23,000 fishing trips were not conducted, ~ 1680 t of hake was not landed (83% decrease), and 620 jobs were negatively impacted during this period. The gross income of vessel owners and primary buyers decreased by ~ $US 913,000. Marked differences were observed in the way each community responded to the pandemic and in their resilience to cope with COVID-19, despite being located less than 10 km away. In El Ñuro, which relied more heavily on the international market for hake trade, the value chain was affected for longer, while in Los Órganos which supplied national markets, the chain was restored after an initial period of adjustment. Our study suggests that government efforts should focus on facilitating a formalisation process in all levels of the chain, develop indicators to monitor the resumption of activities and the inclusion of a value chain approach to small-scale fisheries management.
... Fishing households consumed fish more often and in larger quantities compared to non-fishing households, regardless of wealth, but this effect was greatest amongst poor households [31]. In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2021, phone interviews with members of Kenyan communities by Lake Victoria revealed fishers were more likely to sell than consume fish [32]. The authors suggested that movement restrictions and concerns about COVID-19 may limit fishing activities, leading fishers to target and sell high-value fish in order to purchase less expensive fish for home consumption, if they consume fish at all. ...
... While most studies included in this review were cross-sectional, many described temporal changes in fish access or intake-including between dry and rainy seasons [34], following the provision of nutritional counselling and education [60], associated with the development of fish supply chains [43] and in association with the COVID-19 pandemic [32]. Temporal variation in fish consumption is likely to accompany changes in both physical access, due to the seasonal nature of catches and fishing restrictions, and economic access, due to fluctuations in market prices and consumers' purchasing power (e.g., amongst smallholder farming households reliant on income from an annual or biannual crop harvest). ...
Article
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Effective actions for the fishery and aquaculture sectors to contribute toward improving nutrition rely on an understanding of the factors influencing fish intake, particularly amongst vulnerable populations. This scoping review synthesises evidence from 33 studies in the African Great Lakes Region to examine the influence of food environments on fish acquisition and consumption. We identified only two studies that explicitly applied a food environment framework and none that linked policy conditions with the contribution of fish to diets. Economic access to fish was represented in the largest number of included studies (21 studies), followed by preferences, acceptability and desirability of fish (17 studies) and availability and physical access (14 studies). Positive perceptions of taste and low cost, relative to other animal-source foods, were drivers of fish purchases in many settings; however, limited physical and economic access were frequently identified as preventing optimal intake. In lakeside communities, fish were increasingly directed toward external markets which reduced the availability and affordability of fish for local households. Few studies considered intra-household variations in fish access according to age, gender or physiological status, which represents an important knowledge gap. There is also scope for future research on seasonal influences on fish access and the design and rigorous evaluation of programmes and policies that address one or more constraints of availability, cost, convenience and preferences.
... In such a scenario, individuals can always return to farming as an alternative to fishing during difficulties conducting fishing operations [58]. As a result, some fishermen chose to farm their land as a means of subsistence until fishing operations resumed normalcy [59]. Such anecdotes were provided throughout the current study's fisher interviews, notably about the fishers and their families' coping techniques during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected many world regions’ coastal social-ecological systems (SESs). Its extensive consequences have exposed flaws in numerous facets of society, including small-scale coastal fisheries in developing countries. To this extent, by focusing on two coastal districts in Bangladesh, namely Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar, we investigated how the lockdown during COVID-19 impacted small-scale coastal fishers in Bangladesh and which immediate measures are required to develop and implement insights, on the role of the scale of governance attributes, in facilitating or impeding the resilience of small-scale fisheries (SSFs). We analyzed both qualitative and quantitative data obtained through semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews (n = 120). Data were further validated using two focus group discussions in the study areas. The impact of the pandemic on the fishers’ livelihood included halting all kinds of fishing activities; limited time or area for fishing; livelihood relocation or alternative work; low fish price; fewer fish buyers, causing difficulty in selling; and travel or free-movement restrictions. Additionally, the study discovered several coping skills and found that the most prevalent coping strategy against the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic was to take out loans (48%) from different organizations and NGOs and borrow money from relatives, neighbors, friends, or boat owners. Finally, the current research analysis identified possible recommendations to enhance the resilience of coastal fishers during COVID-19, emphasizing arrangements that should be made to provide alternative livelihood opportunities for coastal fishermen via need-based training, technical and vocational education and training, and microcredit to keep them afloat and earning during the pandemic, not relying only on fishing.
... Berdasarkan hal di atas terlihat bahwa keluarga nelayan dan pembudidaya ikan kecil sangat rentan terhadap bancana non alam, seperti pandemi Covid-19. Padahal keberadaan para nelayan dan pembudidaya ikan sangat penting untuk ketahanan pangan nasional dan global (Fiorella et al., 2021). Oleh sebab itu diperlukan upaya pelindungan bagi para nelayan dan pembudidaya ikan kecil dari dampak bencana non alam tersebut. ...
... Economic consequences of coronavirus on fisheries in the Eastern Mediterranean have been observed in one study [11]. There are some reviews and studies that tried to evaluate the impacts of coronavirus in the fisheries sector, small-scale fisheries, and aquaculture sectors in Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, and USA [19,[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. ...
Article
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Like most sectors, the aquaculture and fisheries sector especially in developing countries like Bangladesh is believed to have been severely affected by this unique coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. To overcome the adverse impacts of COVID-19, the aquaculture and fisheries economy needs urgent recovery plans which this study focusses on using a mixed-method including online questionnaire surveys, face-to-face and telephonic interviews and focus group discussions during June – November 2020. This study reveals some positive impacts on ecosystem and fish stock (e.g., increase in fish stock) due to less disturbance of fishing activities, but that are not able to bring societal benefits as all the fisheries sub-sectors are affected differently by the pandemic. There are disrupted transportation systems and increased transportation costs (around 20 – 60% higher than normal), more input and maintenance costs and less demand for/and decreased market price of fish. There are also shortages of labourers and reduced patrolling to implement fishery regulations. Cancellation of orders by foreign buyers has seriously affected the shrimp and crab sub-sectors. The fisheries-dependent people’s capital assets and activities have been mostly negatively affected resulting in a worsened livelihood. This study has suggested a set of immediate and long-term changes to policy and action plans to recover this sector and sub-sectors from the pandemic considering economic, social and environmental sustainability. The findings of this study may have important implications not only for Bangladesh but also for other fisheries dependent developing countries with similar impacts by the virus like in South Asia.
... Early in the pandemic, most exports were halted and the majority of domestic markets closed, with major impacts and losses for SSFA actors and supporting socioeconomic systems around the world 34 . Where actors lacked political recognition they could also be excluded from supportive and enabling responses such as curfew exemptions 56 . SSFA responses to the pandemic have been characterized by increased vulnerability but also high resilience. ...
Article
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Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South. Aquatic foods are distributed through diverse supply chains, with the potential to be highly adaptable to stresses and shocks, but face a growing range of threats and adaptive challenges. Contemporary governance assumes homogeneity in SSFA despite the diverse nature of this sector. Here we use SSFA actor profiles to capture the key dimensions and dynamism of SSFA diversity, reviewing contemporary threats and exploring opportunities for the SSFA sector. The heuristic framework can inform adaptive governance actions supporting the diversity and vital roles of SSFA in food systems, and in the health and livelihoods of nutritionally vulnerable people—supporting their viability through appropriate policies whilst fostering equitable and sustainable food systems.
... The other type of research investigated the consumption of a certain kind of goods during the pandemic of COVID-19 [14][15][16]. Food consumption is a hot topic. Husain and Ashkanani found people have more late-night snacks during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the survey data of 415 adults in Kuwait [17]. ...
Article
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This study investigated changes of individuals' consumption behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic and explored the driving determinants in consumption expenditure in Zhejiang China. Based on the 454 samples of survey data, which were collected in 2020 and 2021, it showed a reduction trend in consumption expenditure during the pandemic. Compared to the consumptions before the pandemic, money spent on housing, food, and beverage did not change too much. However, expenditures on wearing, recreation, and education reduced. Age, family size, and household income were significant to the expenditure changes. Online shopping became an important alternative way for residents during the pandemic and the trend is expected to continue even after the pandemic. Based on the findings, suggestions are summarized as two points. First, the young and single residents are the main group for recovering the consumption for wearing, recreation, education, and public transport. Meanwhile, to improve the satisfactions in online shopping, regulations should be issued by the government in improving the quality of goods and service.
... Early in the pandemic, most exports were halted and the majority of domestic markets closed, with major impacts and losses for SSFA actors and supporting socioeconomic systems around the world 34 . Where actors lacked political recognition they could also be excluded from supportive and enabling responses such as curfew exemptions 56 . SSFA responses to the pandemic have been characterized by increased vulnerability but also high resilience. ...
Article
Full-text available
Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture (SSFA) provide livelihoods for over 100 million people and sustenance for ~1 billion people, particularly in the Global South. Aquatic foods are distributed through diverse supply chains, with the potential to be highly adaptable to stresses and shocks, but face a growing range of threats and adaptive challenges. Contemporary governance assumes homogeneity in SSFA despite the diverse nature of this sector. Here we use SSFA actor profiles to capture the key dimensions and dynamism of SSFA diversity, reviewing contemporary threats and exploring opportunities for the SSFA sector. The heuristic framework can inform adaptive governance actions supporting the diversity and vital roles of SSFA in food systems, and in the health and livelihoods of nutritionally vulnerable people—supporting their viability through appropriate policies whilst fostering equitable and sustainable food systems. A framework for capturing the key dimensions of small-scale actors in aquatic food supply chains is explored—with recommendations for supporting their viability and adaptability in sustainable food systems
... Out of the 90 baseline participants, we re-enrolled and collected data on 88 (one participant could not be located and one participant had died prior to the follow-up study). Additional methodological details available inFiorella et al. (2021). ...
Article
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Global Fishing Watch (GFW) provides global open-source data collected via automated monitoring of vessels to help with sustainable management of fisheries. Limited previous global fishing effort analyses, based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data (2017–2020), suggest economic and environmental factors have less influence on fisheries than cultural and political events, such as holidays and closures, respectively. As such, restrictions from COVID-19 during 2020 provided an unprecedented opportunity to explore added impacts from COVID-19 restrictions on fishing effort. We analyzed global fishing effort and fishing gear changes (2017–2019) for policy and cultural impacts, and then compared impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns across several countries (i.e., China, Spain, the US, and Japan) in 2020. Our findings showed global fishing effort increased from 2017 to 2019 but decreased by 5.2% in 2020. We found policy had a greater impact on monthly global fishing effort than culture, with Chinese longlines decreasing annually. During the lockdown in 2020, trawling activities dropped sharply, particularly in the coastal areas of China and Spain. Although Japan did not implement an official lockdown, its fishing effort in the coastal areas also decreased sharply. In contrast, fishing in the Gulf of Mexico, not subject to lockdown, reduced its scope of fishing activities, but fishing effort was higher. Our study demonstrates, by including the dimensions of policy and culture in fisheries, that large data may materially assist decision-makers to understand factors influencing fisheries’ efforts, and encourage further marine interdisciplinary research. We recommend the lack of data for small-scale Southeast Asian fisheries be addressed to enable future studies of fishing drivers and impacts in this region.
Technical Report
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This report summarises and analyses Kenya’s social policy response to Covid-19. Following the global outbreak of the pandemic, Kenya’s parliament passed several economic and social laws. Tax law amendments aimed to cushion citizens and businesses from the negative effects of the disease by increasing household income for basic needs and enabling businesses to remain in operation. Other significant measures instituted were social protec- tion interventions in the form of cash transfers and public works programmes targeted to poor and vulnerable households. Kenya’s social policy response to the pandemic followed a continuity path of minimal state provi- sioning. The government’s overreliance on cash transfers as the major form of social policy intervention resulted in an inadequate, exclusionary and ill-suited response.
Article
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The novel coronavirus is predicted to have dire implications on global food systems including fisheries value chains due to restrictions imposed on human movements in many countries. In Ghana, food production, both agriculture and fisheries, is exempted from restrictions as an essential service. The enforcement of COVID-19 prevention protocols, particularly social distancing, has been widely reported in Ghana’s agricultural markets whereas casual observations and media reports on fish landing sites suggest no such enforcements are in place. This study aimed to provide sound scientific evidence as a basis for informed policy direction and intervention for the artisanal fishing sector in these challenging times. We employed an unmanned aerial vehicle in assessing the risk of artisanal fishers to the pandemic using physical distancing as a proxy. From analysis of cumulative distribution function (G-function) of the nearest-neighbour distances, this study underscored crowding at all surveyed fish landing beaches, and identified potential “hotspots” for disease transmission. Aerial measurements taken at times of peak landing beach activity indicated that the highest proportion of people, representing 56%, 48%, 39% and 78% in Elmina, Winneba, Apam and Mumford respectively, were located at distances of less than one metre from their nearest neighbour. Risk of crowding was independent of the population at the landing beaches, suggesting that all categories of fish landing sites along the coast would require equal urgency and measured attention towards preventing and mitigating the spread of the disease.
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During the period February to June 2020, heavy rainfall caused increases in levels and flooding in many lakes in East Africa. This coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic. These calamities affected ecosystems and livelihoods, especially of fishers who depend on fisheries as their only source of livelihood. This study examined the effects of COVID-19 and flooding on the major inland capture fisheries in Kenya to illustrate the effect of such calamities on vulnerable communities to guide interventions. Socioeconomic data were collected across the fish value chains during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic and flooding in Kenya from May to early June 2020. The measures put in place to contain COVID-19 pandemic notably dusk to dawn curfew (66%) and lock-downs (28%) in major cities that act as main fish markets were cited as the main factors that influenced fishing and fishing trade. Negative consequences reported included livelihood losses from the COVID-19 pandemic. Reduced fishing time and trips as well as a decline in consumables such as boat fuel resulted in low fish catches. Although COVID-19 pandemic affected livelihoods, the fish stocks benefited from reduction in fishing effort. Similarly flooding led to livelihood and material losses but positively impacted on stocks through expansion of fish breeding and nursery areas. The respondents recommended that governments should have disaster preparedness programs in place to address such calamities. There is also need for more detailed research on calamities that are increasing in frequency to provide information and data to guide policy and interventions.
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COVID-19 poses acute threats to food security. The worst of these arise from the global recession that is causing many to lose their incomes and threatens the access of many vulnerable people to the food they need. Other threats arise from disruptions in agricultural input markets, production, marketing, and distribution of food. To avoid major food crises, governments of poor and rich nations should both focus on income support to protect food access for the most vulnerable, enact social distancing in innovative ways to avoid supply chain disruptions, and facilitate food trade and movement of food-sector workers.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly spread around the world with extensive social and economic effects. This editorial focuses specifically on the implications of the pandemic for small-scale fishers, including marketing and processing aspects of the sector, and coastal fishing communities, drawing from news and reports from around the world. Negative consequences to date have included complete shut-downs of some fisheries, knock-on economic effects from market disruptions, increased health risks for fishers, processors and communities, additional implications for marginalized groups, exacerbated vulnerabilities to other social and environmental stressors, and increased Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing. Though much of the news is dire, there have been some positive outcomes such as food sharing, the revival of local food networks, increases in local sales through direct marketing and deliveries, collective actions to safeguard rights, collaborations between communities and governments, and reduced fishing pressure in some places. While the crisis is still unfolding, there is an urgent need to coordinate, plan and implement effective short- and long-term responses. Thus, we urge governments, development organizations, NGOs, donors, the private sector, and researchers to rapidly mobilize in support of small-scale fishers, coastal fishing communities, and associated civil society organizations, and suggest actions that can be taken by each to help these groups respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Cryptococcus meningitis is aserious fungal infectionin HIV patients. India ink is the most used method for rapid detection of Cryptococcus neoformansin CSF specimens. Use of CrAg for laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcus meningitis at M.T.R.H will help reduce mortality. It isimportant therefore to compare the sensitivity of India ink test and CrAgagainst fungal culture for Cryptococcus neoformans in HIV AIDS patients at M.T.R.H. The main objective of the study was to compare the sensitivity of India ink test and CrAg against fungal culture for Cryptococcus neoformans in HIV AIDs patients. The study revealed that CrAg had high sensitivity of 94% and high specificity of 100% compared to 44% sensitivity and 98% specificity of India ink. Level of patients missed for cryptococcus meningitis using India ink was found to be 55.5% compared to 5.6% patients missed by CrAg. Risk ratio of CrAg compared to India ink in this study was 2.12. At 95% confidence interval, the 2.12 estimate is statistically significant at confidence limits of 1.65 and 2.74. In the final analysis, it was found out that cryptococcus meningitis in this study accounted for 18% of defining illnesses in HIV/AIDS patients at M.T.R.H. patients missed for cryptococcosis in the study was higher (55.5%) in India ink compared to that of CrAg. Due to high sensitivity in this study, CrAg test was recommended that it should replace India ink test that was used routinely for diagnosis of cryptococcus meningitis in HIV/AIDS at M.T.R.H.
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Available guidance to mitigate health risks from exposure to freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs) is largely derived from temperate ecosystems. Yet in tropical ecosystems, HABs can occur year-round, and resource-dependent populations face multiple routes of exposure to toxic components. Along Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya, fisher communities rely on lake water contaminated with microcystins (MCs) from HABs. In these peri-urban communities near Kisumu, we tested hypotheses that MCs exceed exposure guidelines across seasons, and persistent HABs present a chronic risk to fisher communities through ingestion with minimal water treatment and frequent, direct contact. We tested source waters at eleven communities across dry and rainy seasons from September 2015 through May 2016. We measured MCs, other metabolites, physicochemical parameters, chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton abundance and diversity, and fecal indicators. We then selected four communities for interviews about water sources, usage, and treatment. Greater than 30% of source water samples exceeded WHO drinking water guidelines for MCs (1 µg/L), and over 60% of source water samples exceeded USEPA guidelines for children and immunocompromised individuals. 50% of households reported a sole source of raw lake water for drinking and household use, with alternate sources including rain and boreholes. Household chlorination was the most widespread treatment utilized. At this tropical, eutrophic lake, HABs pose a year-round health risk for fisher communities in resource -limited settings. Community-based solutions and site-specific guidance for Kisumu Bay and similarly impacted regions is needed to address a chronic health exposure likely to increase in severity and duration with global climate change.
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The present study demonstrates the declining state of the major commercial fisheries of Lake Victoria, Kenya, a situation threatening sustainability of the lake's fishery. Data in the present study were derived from resource monitoring programmes that included hydro‐acoustics (2009–2018), trawl net fishing (2011–2018), frame surveys (2000–2016) and catch assessment surveys (2000–2015). The activities provided information on fish stocks and supported advice for fisheries management. The average fish stock densities for Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya of 8.92, 8.25 and 8.19 t/km2, respectively, were relatively similar. Diplomatic and sustainable efforts for harmony in fish harvesting among the fishers of the riparian countries are encouraged given the interdependence of the lake. The Kenyan and River Kagera regions had a higher proportion (≈ 4% each) of big‐sized Nile perch (≥50 cm total length) in 2018, signifying the critical breeding areas for Nile perch. To sustain the fishery, there is need to enforce a 36%–44% effort reduction for all the major fisheries, and enforcement of gear limits to avoid harvesting of immature fish and destruction of the lake ecosystem.
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The recorded catches of most of the larger commercial fish species in Africa, such as large breams (Cichlidae), carps (Cyprinidae) and perches (Perciformes), which have been the focus of fisheries management, have not changed greatly over the past three decades. In contrast, the landings of small species of herring (Clupeidae), carp, bream and characin species – mostly zooplankton feeders, predominantly living in open waters of African lakes and reservoirs – in short, “small pelagic fish”– have steadily increased. These fisheries have developed in addition to the fishing of, and sometimes as a reaction to, decreased catch rates of larger species, introductions and the creation of large water bodies such as reservoirs. They now represent nearly three quarters of the total inland fish catch of the African continent, although a large proportion of the inland fishery catch statistics are acknowledged to be incomplete and unreliable. Stock assessments and estimates of exploitation levels are also largely absent. The expansion, technical development and marketing of these fisheries have nearly all been achieved by a multitude of local stakeholders with very limited scientific monitoring or management. Even though small pelagic fish species, and small fish in general, have always been part of the catch of subsistence fisheries in the large water bodies of Africa, they have conventionally been regarded by fisheries managers as resources with “low economic value” and consequently have been afforded low priority with respect to research and monitoring. As a result, there are still major gaps in our biological knowledge and understanding of the full potential of many species. Common to all, however, is their small size and corresponding high turnover rate, with most species being able to reproduce their own biomass around five times or more per year, which is at least twice the rate of the larger commercial species. This unparalleled level of production, together with the relatively simple technologies used for their capture, the reduced availability of bigger species because of heavy exploitation and an increased demand for fish, are the main reasons for the considerable increase in fishing effort on smaller species that has been observed in African inland fisheries over the past three decades. Nevertheless, due to the small size of these species and the corresponding necessity of using fishing gear with small mesh sizes, many of the fisheries are operating within the constraints of the current fisheries legislation, which is largely aimed at protecting juveniles of the larger species. Many of the capture techniques are therefore illegal and this can cause conflict between fishers and managers. The theoretical foundation for the conventional single species legislation is increasingly challenged and there is an urgent need to examine and evaluate the fishing patterns from an ecosystem perspective and revise the legislation where necessary. The fishing pressure on most of the small species is only a fraction of the pressure on large fish species, and there is huge potential for increased production and more balanced exploitation if the overall fishing pressure was directed away from the large fish towards the small. In fact, this is what is already happening in many African fisheries, as evidenced by the huge increase in their catches, but it is taking place without comprehensive scientific evaluation of pressures, ecosystem effects or governance. Small fish are processed, sold and eaten whole. Most of the catch is simply sundried which is the most environmentally friendly and energy-efficient processing technology available, requiring limited investments to obtain potentially high quality products, although rainy seasons limit year-round preservation, and spoilage through overheating and rainfall remain serious issues. In addition, small whole fish are among the most vital suppliers of micronutrients, such as vitamins, iodine, iron, zinc and calcium, which all play a critical role in cerebral development, immune system support and general health. Thus, the unique combination of high-quality protein and important micronutrients in small fish plays a significant role in combating the triple burden of hunger, micronutrient deficiency and noncommunicable diseases. Malnutrition, or so-called “hidden hunger”, is responsible for about a third of premature deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, but national food policies virtually overlook the essential link between the production, distribution and consumption of small sun-dried fish and human health. In fact, the qualities of fish are hardly recognized in the global food security discourse, and fish is strikingly missing from current strategies to combat nutrient deficiency among disadvantaged groups. The lack of recognition of the importance of small pelagic fish for nutrition, food security, livelihoods and public health has also prevented the necessary investments for improving the quality, shelf life and public awareness of this vitally important resource. Most of the processing and packaging is done under basic, open conditions on the landing beaches, with unhygienic facilities and little protection from contaminants, insect infestations and moisture. Quality control in the whole value chain is virtually absent: there are significant post-harvest losses in the processing and trade of what are essentially low-quality, contaminated products, some of which are even infested with human pathogens. These factors all contribute to a vicious cycle that maintains the image of a “low-value” commodity, prevents the dissemination of knowledge and awareness of the huge potential that small pelagic fish have, and which could be greatly improved with proper policy attention as well as public and private investments. In summary, catching small pelagic fish, which are simply sun-dried, affordably purchased in local, often remote markets and consumed whole, is the most high yielding, eco-friendly, low carbon dioxide (CO2)-emission and nourishing way of utilizing the high productive potential of African inland waters. However, a range of social, technical, economic, legal and policy barriers inhibit the full potential of utilizing small fish to improve nutrition in low-income populations. These include lack of enabling fisheries management legislation and food safety challenges in processing and marketing. In addition, their local use as fishmeal in animal feeds, including for aquaculture, is increasingly competing for these resources.
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Climate change is altering habitats for marine fishes and invertebrates, but the net effect of these changes on potential food production is unknown. We used temperature-dependent population models to measure the influence of warming on the productivity of 235 populations of 124 species in 38 ecoregions. Some populations responded significantly positively ( n = 9 populations) and others responded significantly negatively ( n = 19 populations) to warming, with the direction and magnitude of the response explained by ecoregion, taxonomy, life history, and exploitation history. Hindcasts indicate that the maximum sustainable yield of the evaluated populations decreased by 4.1% from 1930 to 2010, with five ecoregions experiencing losses of 15 to 35%. Outcomes of fisheries management—including long-term food provisioning—will be improved by accounting for changing productivity in a warmer ocean.
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The human health risks posed by exposure to cyanobacterial toxins such as microcystin (MC) through water and fish consumption remain poorly described. During the last two decades, coastal regions of Lake Victoria such as Nyanza Gulf (Kisumu Bay) have shown severe signs of eutrophication with blooms formed by Microcystis producing MC. In this study, the spatial variability in MC concentration in Kisumu Bay was investigated which was mostly caused by Microcystis buoyancy and wind drifting. Small fish (<6 cm) mainly composed of Rastrineobola argentea were examined for MC content by means of biological methods such as ELISA and protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA) and partly by chemical-analytical methods such as LC-MS/MS. Overall, the MC content in small fish was related to the MC content observed in the seston. When comparing the MC content in the seston in relation to dry weight with the MC content in small fish the latter was found three orders of magnitude decreased. On average, the ELISA-determined MC contents exceeded the PPIA-determined MC contents by a factor of 8.2 ± 0.5 (SE) while the MC contents as determined by LC-MS/MS were close to the detection limit. Using PPIA, the MC content varied from 25⁻109 (mean 62 ± 7) ng/g fish dry weight in Kisumu Bay vs. 14 ± 0.8 ng MC/g in the more open water of L. Victoria at Rusinga channel. Drying the fish under the sun showed little effect on MC content, although increased humidity might indirectly favor photocatalyzed MC degradation.
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Quantity and species of fish consumed shape breast-milk fatty acid concentrations around Lake Victoria, Kenya - Kathryn J Fiorella, Erin M Milner, Elizabeth Bukusi, Lia CH Fernald
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Stunting affects 160 million pre-school children globally with adverse life-long consequences. While work within nutritional science suggests that stunting in early childhood is associated with low intakes of animal-sourced foods (ASFs), this topic has received little attention from economists. We attempt to redress this omission through an analysis of 130,432 children aged 6–23 months from 49 countries. We document distinctive patterns of ASF consumption among children in different regions. We find evidence of strong associations between stunting and a generic ASF consumption indicator, as well as dairy, meat/fish, and egg consumption indicators, and evidence that consuming multiple ASFs is more advantageous than any single ASF. We explore why ASF consumption is low but also so variable across countries. Non-tradable ASFs (fresh milk, eggs) are a very expensive source of calories in low-income countries and caloric prices of these foods are strongly associated with children’s consumption patterns. Other demand-side factors are also important, but the strong influence of prices implies an important role for agricultural policies—in production, marketing and trade—to improve the accessibility and affordability of ASFs in poorer countries.
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Fish products play an important role in human diet due to peculiar lipid composition. In Kenya Lake Victoria is an important source of fresh water fish contributing over 90% of the national fish production. The Lake Victoria fisheries support both the valuable artisanal and commercial fishery. This study aimed at identifying and documenting existing fish processing and preservation technologies practiced along Lake Victoria, Kenya and their adaptability in order to improve food security. Data documented in this study was gathered through open questionnaires, focus group discussions and stakeholders meetings. Demographically it reported that women accounted for over 85% of the fisherfolk of which over 70% had basic level of education. Technologically, sun-drying of fish is the most preferred fish processing method at the landing sites. However, over 97% of the sun-drying operations are done directly on the ground or on top of old fishing nets. The study observed that for new technologies to be utilized by the fisher’s three important factors may play an important role in technology uptake by the fisherfolk, namely ease of technology to be utilized, the effectiveness of the technology and the cost of producing and maintenance of that new technology.
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Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria in East Africa. Every year, intense nighttime thunderstorms cause numerous boating accidents on the lake, resulting in thousands of deaths among fishermen. Operational storm warning systems are therefore crucial. Here we complement ongoing early warning efforts based on numerical weather prediction, by presenting a new satellite data-driven storm prediction system, the prototype Lake Victoria Intense storm Early Warning System (VIEWS). VIEWS derives predictability from the correlation between afternoon land storm activity and nighttime storm intensity on Lake Victoria, and relies on logistic regression techniques to forecast extreme thunderstorms from satellite observations. Evaluation of the statistical model reveals that predictive power is high and independent of the type of input dataset. We then optimise the configuration and show that false alarms also contain valuable information. Our results suggest that regression-based models that are motivated through process understanding have the potential to reduce the vulnerability of local fishing communities around Lake Victoria. The experimental prediction system is publicly available under the MIT licence at http://github.com/wthiery/VIEWS.
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Christopher Golden and colleagues calculate that declining numbers of marine fish will spell more malnutrition in many developing nations.
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The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.
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Food-producing livelihoods have the potential to improve food security and nutrition through direct consumption or indirectly through income. To better understand these pathways, we examined if fishing households ate more fish and had higher food security than non-fishing households around Lake Victoria, Kenya. In 2010, we randomly sampled 111 households containing 583 individuals for a cross-sectional household survey in a rural fishing community. We modeled the associations between fish consumption and food security and fishing household status, as well as socio-economic variables (asset index, monthly income, household size) for all households and also for a subset of households with adult male household members (76 % of households). Participating in fishing as a livelihood was not associated with household fish consumption or food security. Higher household fish consumption was associated with higher household income and food security, and was weakly associated with lower household morbidity. Household food security was associated with higher incomes and asset index scores. Our results suggest socioeconomic factors may be more important than participation in food-producing livelihoods for predicting household consumption of high quality foods.
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Lake Victoria is the world's second largest freshwater body and home to one of the most dramatic speciation of indigenous cichlids in the world. Bordered by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda in East Africa, the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) provides food, water and livelihoods for over 30 million people around its shores, with 10 million engaged in the fisheries sector. The Colonial Era introduction of the invasive Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in the 1950's, combined with the introduction of industrialized fish processing in the 1980's, transformed fishing throughout the Basin. The introduction and commercial harvesting of the Nile perch, subsequent human population growth, and the looming problems of climate change continue to compromise the health of this important fishery. This paper applies a global commodity chain framework with an ethnographic approach to the case of the export-oriented Nile perch from the Kenyan island of Mfangano in July 2007. Unless otherwise noted, all price and empirical data are based on interviews, market surveys, and participant observation conducted by the author in Kenya in June, July, and August of 2007. In 2007, prices paid to local Kenyan fishermen, boat owners, and agents represent 24% of the total value from the fishery (∼ 3% to each fisherman, 14% to boat owners and 4% to agents); prices paid to processors represent 36% of the value, and 39% of the value accrues to international seafood wholesalers and retailers.
Article
COVID-19 is now a major global health crisis, can lead to severe food crisis unless proper measures are taken. Though a number of scientific studies have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on variety of issues, problems and food crises associated with aquatic resources and communities are missing. Therefore, this study aimed at bridging the gap in the existing situation and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries with dependent population. The study was conducted based on secondary data analysis and primary fieldwork. Secondary data focused on COVID-19 overview and number of confirmed, recovered and death cases in Bangladesh; at the same time its connection with small-scale fisheries, aquatic food production, demand and supply was analyzed. Community perceptions were elicited to present how the changes felt and how they affected aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries and found devastating impact. Sudden illness, reduced income, complication to start production and input collection, labor crisis, transportation abstraction, complexity in food supply, weak value chain, low consumer demand, rising commodity prices, creditor's pressure were identified as the primary affecting drivers. Dependent people felt the measures taken by the Government should be based on protecting both the health and food security. Scope of alternative income generating opportunities, rationing system, training and motivational program could improve the situation. The study provides insight into policies adopted by the policy makers to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries.
Article
Fishers’ economic status is hard to assess because fisheries socio‐economic data, including earnings, are often not centrally available, standardized or accessible in a form that allows scaled‐up or comparative analyses. The lack of fishing income data impedes sound management and allows biased perceptions about fishers’ status to persist. We compile data from intergovernmental and regional data sets, as well as case‐studies, on income earned from marine wild‐capture fisheries. We explore the level and distribution of fishers’ income across fisheries sectors and geographical regions, and highlight challenges in data collection and reporting. We find that fishers generally are not the poorest of the poor based on average fishing income from 89 countries, but income levels vary widely. Fishing income in the large‐scale sector is higher than the small‐scale sector by about 2.2 times, and in high‐income versus low‐income countries by almost 9 times. Boat owners and captains earned more than double that of crew and owner‐operators, while income from fisheries is greater than that from agricultural work in 63% of countries in this study. Nonetheless, incomes are below national poverty lines in 34% of the countries with data. More detailed fishing income statistics is needed for quantitative scientific research and for supporting socio‐economic policies. Key gaps to address include the lack of a centralized database for fisheries income statistics and the coarse resolution at which economic statistics are reported internationally. A first step to close the gap is to integrate socio‐economic monitoring and reporting in fisheries management.
Article
Migration forms an essential livelihood strategy for many fisherfolk in the developing world, largely responding to fluctuating fish availability and prices. On Lake Victoria, East Africa, most migration is characterized by movement between landing sites, particularly of male boat crew responding to localised changes in fish productivity and using social networks to identify better fishing grounds and areas of higher fish prices. This article uses the sustainable livelihoods framework to identify the risks and vulnerabilities mitigated, or generated, by fisherfolk movement, and analyses how these sources of vulnerability affect livelihood outcomes, looking at the experiences and situation of both male boat crew and women involved in processing and trading fish. Whilst vulnerability due to lower catches and reduced income is mitigated through movement, these sources of vulnerability are exchanged for vulnerability arising from risky sexual behaviour and increased fishing pressure.
Article
The rapid spread of mobile telephony throughout the developing world offers researchers a new and exciting means of data collection. This paper describes and analyses the experience of a research project that used mobile phones to collect high frequency, quantitative economic data from households in rural Tanzania. I discuss the research design, highlight some of the mistakes made and lessons learned, and speculate on the applicability of this method in other settings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Why the Floods in East Africa Are so Bad
BBC, 2019. Why the Floods in East Africa Are so Bad. BBC News.
Kenya Casts Nets Wider in Reviving Fishereis As Covid-19 Cuts Imports
Business Daily Africa, 2020. Kenya Casts Nets Wider in Reviving Fishereis As Covid-19 Cuts Imports. Business Daily Africa. Nation, Nairobi, Kenya.
State of the World's Fisheries and Aquaculture
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FAO, 2016. State of the World's Fisheries and Aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, ed., Rome.
The Impacts of COVID-19 to Small Scale Fisheries in Tun Mustapha Park
  • J Jomitol
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Jomitol, J., Payne, A.J., Sakirun, S., Bural, M.O., 2021. The Impacts of COVID-19 to Small Scale Fisheries in Tun Mustapha Park, Sabah, Malaysia; What Do We Know So Far? preprint.
Kenya Demographic Health Survey
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics and ICF Macro, 2015. Kenya Demographic Health Survey 2014. KNBS and ICF Macro, Calverton, Maryland.
Emerging COVID-19 impacts, responses, and lessons for building resilience in the seafood system
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Love, D.; Allison, E.; Asche, F.; Belton, B.; Cottrell, R.; Froehlich, H.; Gephart, J.; Hicks, C.; Little, D.; Nussbaumer, E.; Pinto da Silva, P.; Poulain, F.; Rubio, A.; Stoll, J.; Tlusty, M.; Thorne-Lyman, A.; Troell, M.; Zhang, W. Emerging COVID-19 impacts, responses, and lessons for building resilience in the seafood system; 2020
The Fisheries of Lake Victoria: past present and future
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Marshall, B.E., Mkumbo, O.C., 2011. The Fisheries of Lake Victoria: past present and future. Nature & Faune 26, 8-13.
In the shadow of global markets for fish in Lake Victoria
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Medard, M., Hebinck, P., Van Dijk, H., 2015. In the shadow of global markets for fish in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Rural Dev. Constr. New Markets 12, 168-189. Ministry of Health, K., 2020. Press Statement on Friday July 25, 2020. Nunan, F., 2010. Mobility and fisherfolk livelihoods on Lake Victoria: implications for vulnerability and risk. Geoforum 41, 776-785.
Press Statement on Friday
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Ministry of Health, K. Press Statement on Friday July 25, 2020. 2020
Early Impacts of COVID-19 on Household Food Insecurity and Dietary Diversity Among Kenyan Households Living Around Lake Victoria
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Okronipa, H., Bageant, E., Mojica, L., Pauls, J., Olela, P., Ochieng, J., Otuo, P., Onyango, H., Aura, C., Fiorella, K., Early Impacts of COVID-19 on Household Food Insecurity and Dietary Diversity Among Kenyan Households Living Around Lake Victoria, (in preparation).
Covid-19 recoveries hit record low as number of infections races towards peak
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Oluoch, V., 2020. Covid-19 recoveries hit record low as number of infections races towards peak. Daily Nation.
Coronavirus Provides Unexpected Boost for Kenyan Fishermen
  • Reuters Staff
Reuters Staff, 2020. Coronavirus Provides Unexpected Boost for Kenyan Fishermen. Reuters, Kisumu.