The ABCB1 gene is responsible for encoding the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter that prevents accumulation of exogenous substances in the body by utilizing ATP hydrolysis to transport these substances against their concentration gradient. In dogs, homozygous or heterozygous mutations for the previously described ABCB1-1Δ mutation lead to ineffective P-gp efflux transport function and puts the animal at risk for potentially devastating adverse drug effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ABCB1-1Δ gene mutation status in species belonging to the Canidae family, including each of the following: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), gray wolf (Canis lupus), red wolf (Canis rufus), coyote (Canis latrans), dingo (Canis lupus dingo), New Guinea singing dog (Canis lupus dingo), arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), and fennec fox (Vulpes zerda). These species were chosen based on an evolutionary study conducted by Belyaev that noted foxes, bred for temperament, tended to have similar behaviors seen in the modern-day dog. Wolves, known predecessors to the modern dog, were also included. In the current study, a buccal swab was performed on each animal and then tested at Washington State University's Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology Lab, where they were tested according to previously published methods validating buccal swab samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based genetic analysis. Knowledge of Canidae species ABCB1-1Δ gene mutation status allows for safe and effective therapeutic treatment of nondomestic animals, ensuring any anticipated adverse drug events are prevented. All eight species were found to have the wild-type ABCB1 gene and thus, expected to have normally functioning P-gp efflux transporters. Although these data can be used to guide clinical decision making, because of a small sample size, a more robust study is necessary to assess Canidae ABCB1-1Δ mutation status comprehensively.