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Background Considering the prevalence of mental health problems in older adults, this study aims to investigate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy using lavender and chamomile essential oils on depression, anxiety, and stress of community-dwelling older people. Methods A three-armed, parallel, randomized, and controlled trial design was used in this study. 183 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to three groups (n = 61): the lavender, chamomile, and control groups. The participants in the experimental groups inhaled three drops of 1.5% lavender and chamomile essential oils for 30 nights. The participants in the control group inhaled only distilled water in a similar fashion. Data were collected using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress-Scale (DASS) at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and one month after the intervention. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results Statistically significant improvement occurred in depression, anxiety, and stress levels immediately and one month after the intervention in lavender and chamomile groups compared to the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion Inhalation aromatherapy with both lavender and chamomile essential oils helped decrease depression, anxiety, and stress levels in community-dwelling older adults.
The effects of Lavender and Chamomile essential oil inhalation
aromatherapy on depression, anxiety and stress in older community-
dwelling people: A randomized controlled trial
Hossein Ebrahimi
, Abbas Mardani
, Mohammad Hasan Basirinezhad
, Azam Hamidzadeh
Fatemeh Eskandari
Center for Health-Related Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
Making Life Better, Mental health community support worker, Sydney, Australia
Article History:
Received 24 October 2020
Revised 23 December 2020
Accepted 27 December 2020
Available online xxx
Background: Considering the prevalence of mental health problems in older adults, this study aims to investi-
gate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy using lavender and chamomile essential oils on depression, anxi-
ety, and stress of community-dwelling older people.
Methods: A three-armed, parallel, randomized, and controlled trial design was used in this study. 183 partici-
pants were enrolled and randomly assigned to three groups (n= 61): the lavender, chamomile, and control
groups. The participants in the experimental groups inhaled three drops of 1.5% lavender and chamomile
essential oils for 30 nights. The participants in the control group inhaled only distilled water in a similar fash-
ion. Data were collected using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress-Scale (DASS) at baseline, immediately after
the intervention, and one month after the intervention. Chi-square, Fishers exact, one-way ANOVA, and
repeated measures ANOVA were used for data analysis.
Results: Statistically signicant improvement occurred in depression, anxiety, and stress levels immediately and
one month after the intervention in lavender and chamomile groups compared to the control group (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Inhalation aromatherapy with both lavender and chamomile essential oils helped decrease
depression, anxiety, and stress levels in community-dwelling older adults.
© 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mental health
Older adult
1. Introduction
Population aging is considered a global matter that is becoming
increasingly acute.
It is estimated that the aging portion of the worlds
population will nearly double from about 12% to 22% between 2015 and
The increase in aging populations brings many challenges to
public health.
For instance, mental or neurological disorders impact
more than 20% of adults aged 60 years old and over.
There is numerous
evidence of increasing morbidity, hospitalization, mortality, and func-
tional disability related to mental disorders in these populations.
Late-life depression is a crucial public health problem because of
its devastating consequences. It is related to an increased risk of mor-
bidity, suicide, and self-neglect, as well as reduced physical, cognitive
and social functioning.
Anxiety is another prevalent mental health
problem that impacts older adults and can have serious consequen-
ces on their quality of life and functional levels.
Perceived stress
symptoms, daily stressors, or other lifetime traumatic events also
negatively impact the mental health and well-being of older adults
and often lead to other physical and mental illnesses.
Generally, psy-
chotropic medicines are prescribed widely to manage depression,
anxiety, and stress symptoms in elderly populations; however, these
medicines have limited effects, signicant side effects, and can be
costly, so they are not considered viable options by some health pro-
Therefore, nonpharmacological modalities have been sug-
gested to manage these problems.
Aromatherapy is one of the most prevalent complementary and
alternative medicine (CAM) practices that has grown substantially in
recent years to relieve mental health symptoms.
For thousands of
years, aromatherapy has been used as a form of herbal medicine in
countries such as Iran, Egypt, and India, in which essential oils inu-
ence the connection between body and mind by interacting with the
olfactory system.
Aromatherapy can be practiced in different ways,
* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: (H. Ebrahimi),
(A. Mardani), (M.H. Basirinezhad), (A. Hamidzadeh), (F. Eskandari).
1550-8307/© 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Explore 000 (2021) 17
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journal homepage:
... inability to see what is going on inside the mouth, or the strong aversion to the sight or thought of blood which is also reported by others [16,19]. As a general, there is no difference between the study's results and the ndings of other studies [20][21][22][23][24]. Where the overall results of the study showed that the pleasant olfaction provides a signi cant reduction in dental anxiety and the intensity of pain. ...
... Many authors have documented that the mental stresses have an impact on the physiological frameworks of the body by increasing the cortisol production in the blood. Cortisol makes the patients more alert to the surrounding environment which increases pain perception in the brain and vice versa [20,29,35]. On the other hand, other authors mentioned that the effect of the pleasant olfaction is only limited to anxiety level with no signi cant impact on pain perception. ...
... This controversy could be due to the difference between studies regarding the type of the inhaled oil, its concentration, and inhalation period. This authors' explanation is in agreement with the opinion of Ebrahimi et al., [20]. ...
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Background: The study aimed to determining the magnitude of the power of the aromatherapy at which it reduces the intensity of dental pain and level of dental anxiety. Also, it aimed to correlate between olfactory aromatherapy, phases of dental visits, and different dental procedures. Methods: A randomized controlled study was enrolled on female patients. The olfaction was stimulated via lavender oils. Patients were randomly divided into a lavender group in which patients inhaled 2 % of lavender vapors and control group where the patients inhaled water vapors. The variables included pain score, anxiety score, and changes in vital signs. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires and visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess anxiety and pain. Vital signs included systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation (Spo2). Variables were assessed before inhalations, 20 minutes after inhalations, at the end of settings, and on the day after visits. Results: Each group included 175 subjects. Pain and anxiety scores were significantly reduced and vital signs were also improved, except for DBP. The MDAS, STAI, and pain scores are reduced by 3.4, 4.2, and 2.4 times more than control group, respectively. The greatest effect of the aromatherapy appeared in setting rooms. Conclusion: The pleasant olfaction minimizes anxiety scores three to four times and pain perception two times more than the control group. It also significantly reduces the fear of dental procedures which have mild to moderate scores.
... Similarly, other studies focused on geriatric patient undergoing hemodialysis Ilali et al. (2021) showed a significant reduction of anxiety levels after lavender oil inhalation. Furthermore, the results of the current study come in line with the findings from the randomized controlled trial of Ebrahimi et al. (2021), who found that inhaling lavender and chamomile essential oils for 30 days reduces anxiety in elderly people living in the community both immediately after the intervention and one month later. Additionally, similar findings were obtained by Xiong et al. (2018) in China and Bouya et al. (2018) in Iran. ...
... Furthermore, an integrative review of acupressure interventions for older adults concluded that the use of specific pressure points, with standardized acupressure protocols, may improve the psychological well-being of older adults (Hmwe et al., 2019). Consistent results were also achieved by other studies conducted in Iran by Ebrahimi et al. (2021), Dehghanmehr et al. (2020 and in Europe by Mącznik et al. (2017). Acupressure has also been found to reduce anxiety and vital signs in women with coronary artery disease (Rahmani Vasokolaei et al., 2019). ...
... This finding is likely related to the acceptance and cooperation of the lavender aromatherapy group due to the simple technique of lavender inhalation compared to acupressure which goes through many steps from identifying pressure points to the cooling process, in addition, diffusion of the aroma may lead to a faster mood improvement. A review study in Iran by Ebrahimi et al. (2021) investigated the role of complementary therapy on anxiety in patients before and after surgery found that lavender aromatherapy is more effective than acupressure technique in reducing anxiety. ...
... The alternative management for dysmenorrhea is using lavender [4]- [8]. Aromatherapy has a positive effect because of the fresh fragrant and aromatic scent so that could stimulate the body's sensor and reseptor which affect the other organ, also give the strength effects for controlling the emotions [9]- [11]. Aromatherapy could be applied by inhalation or topically with dabbbing into skin and do a massage [7]. ...
... Some research about the using of lavender aromatherapy in Semarang, 2017 for high school students was carried out with inhalation lavender aromatherapy as fragrance room with dose as much as 3 drops of lavender oil is included to in vaporizer Mix 100 ml of water for 30 minutes [8]. This study show that the pain scale of treatment group decrease with an average of 4.48 [9]. Whereas the pain scale of control group decrease with an average of 2.15 [10]. ...
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artikel ini merupakan hasil literatur review yang berisi tentang efektifitas aromaterapi lavender pada remaja yang mengalami dismenore.
... but in [K4] shows the behavior of mice that are increasingly active. 23 According to a Thailand study, subjects inhaled LEO were reported have more behavioral activation in terms of mood compared to control group, even though they were more relaxed, confirmed with increasing of theta and alpha waves significantly using electroencephalography. 24 Thus, behavioral activation should be distinguished from agitation. ...
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Introduction: Lavender essential oils (LEO) have been known to have relaxing effects, improve mood, and treat anxiety, but the effect on multiple organ stress concurrently is unknown. This multiorgan stress is related to depression can be caused by chronic psychological stress due to excessive cortisol levels and can lead to organ damage. This study analyzed LEO in preventing depression and multiorgan failure using intraperitoneal injection of corticosteroids in animal-model. Methods: Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Wistar strain, male, aged 7-8 weeks were involved in this study. Depression in animal-model is defined by immobilization using tail suspension test and anhedonia using sucrose preference test. LEO 5% was diluted in virgin coconut oils as vehicle. Serum cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Organs were extracted and processed using hematoxylin eosin staining. Results: The results of this study indicate that LEO was able to prevent damage to the glial cells, myocardiac cells, and gastrointestinal mast cells infiltration, but not to the hepatocytes and renal cells damage. LEO also induced behavioral activation as improvement of depression, but anhedonia was still remained. Conclusion: The effect of LEO is to prevent the increase in blood cortisol levels, thus reduce the reactivity of depressed individuals to stress, although the individual still has anhedonia as a residual symptoms
... Estudos comprovam que utilizar aromaterapia com óleo de lavanda geram redução de ansiedade, efeitos sedativos, antidepressivos, calmantes, antiespasmódicos, analgésicos e cicatrizantes. Estudos feitos com humanos utilizando esse óleo demonstraram redução dos níveis de ansiedade e estresse em diferentes contextos (Ebrahimi et al., 2022;Genc & Saritas, 2020). ...
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Studies prove that using aromatherapy with lavender oil generates reduction of anxiety, sedative, antidepressant, soothing, antispasmodic, analgesic and healing effects. A fact that occurs due to the inhibitory action of lavender on the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis, which results in the reduction in the release of cortisol, the stress hormone. Promoting, on the other hand, the release of serotonin, generating a feeling of pleasure and well-being. Thus, the present study aimed, through an integrative literature review, to describe the effects of the use of lavender oil in the treatment of anxiety. The psychological effects of inhaling lavender oil occur through conscious perception, belief and expectation. Meanwhile, the pharmacological effects occur through the modulation of the cyclic activity of adenosine monophosphate (reduction of cyclic adenosine monophosphate results with sedation) and inhibition of glutamate binding (sedative effects). Thus, the use of oil is considered safe, except for rare allergic reactions, and can be beneficial in patients with anxiety and reduce the use of antipsychotic drugs.
... In recent years, essential oils have been increasingly used to improve people's olfactory environment for their naturalness and possible efficacy in improving mood. A study of older adults found that after inhaling drops of 1.5% lavender oils for 30 nights, statistically significant improvement occurred in the scores of depression, anxiety, and stress-scale (Ebrahimi et al., 2021). Inhalation of bergamot oil was also found to reduce the salivary alpha-amylase level and scores on the state-trait anxiety inventory (Watanabe et al., 2015). ...
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Olfactory perception, and especially affective responses of odors, is highly flexible, but some mechanisms involved in this flexibility remain to be elucidated. This study investigated the odor perceptions of several essential oils used in aromatherapy with emotion regulation functions among college students. The influences of people’s characteristics including gender, hometown region, and fragrance usage habit on odor perception were further discussed. Odor perception of nine essential oils, which can be divided into the ester-alcohol type (e.g., lavender oil) and terpene type (e.g., lemon oil) were evaluated under three odor concentrations. The results indicated that chemical type, but not concentration, significantly influenced the odor perception and there was no interaction between the two factors in this study. The arousal and emotional perception scores of odors with terpene-type oil were significantly higher than odors with ester-alcohol type. In terms of people’s characteristics, participants from the southern Yangtze river gave a higher familiarity rating to almost all of these odors. The habits of fragrance usage also significantly influenced some of the odors’ subjective intensity and emotional perception ratings. However, there were no significant gender differences in most of the odor perceptions. In addition, familiarity and pleasantness were positively correlated, and emotional perception and subjective intensity also showed a weak correlation. These results suggested that users’ cultural characteristics could be considered to be important factors that affect the essential oil’s odor perception in aromatherapy.
Background Cang-Ai Volatile Oil (CAVO) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription that can be used for improving depressive symptoms through the regulation of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and inhibition of the inflammation. The purpose of this study is to verify whether CAVO has effects on depressed mood and cortical excitability in human. Methods Forty-six healthy individuals were enrolled and instructed to inhale the CAVO for a month (five times per day). Each inhalation lasted for at least one minute. Depressed mood was assessed using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (24-items) (HAM-D24), and cortical excitability was tested using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During fNIRS assessment, two types of verbal fluency tests (VFT) were adopted. Results One month of CAVO inhalation led to significant decreases in HAM-D24 score, and the mean concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) was significantly increased in the right frontal pole. Conclusion Inhaling the CAVO can significantly improve depressed mood and cortical excitability in human. The improvement of cortical excitability is mainly focused on the right frontal pole, which is closely associated with emotional processing and executive functioning.
Background : Preoperative anxiety can be reduced by aromatherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lavender aromatherapy in reducing intraoperative anxiety in patients undergoing caesarean section (CS) under spinal anesthesia. Methods : This study was two-armed and randomized controlled trial. A total of 96 patients who were scheduled for CS were randomly divided into two groups: the aromatherapy (A) group (n=48), comprising patients who were randomized to receive lavender aromatherapy with mask oxygen after the birth of the baby, and the control (C) group (n=48), comprising patients who inhaled carrier oil. During the preoperative period, baseline anxiety levels and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were recorded using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-I) scale. After birth, two drops of oil were inhaled in an oxygen mask for 5 min. After 5 min, the Ramsey Sedation Scale was evaluated, and patients with a score of 1 received 2 mg of intravenous midazolam for sedation. The STAI-I and VAS pain scores were re-evaluated at the third postoperative hour. Results : The primary outcome was the significant reduction in the need for midazolam brought about by lavender aromatherapy, and the secondary outcomes included postoperative third-hour STAI-I scores, intraoperative complications and patient satisfaction. Conclusion : The effectiveness of lavender aromatherapy, which reduced the need for intraoperative anxiolytics, can be offered as an alternative for pregnant women who undergo CS under spinal anesthesia.
The utilization of natural product resources is significant for economic growth and health care. Herein, Cinnamomum longepaniculatum essential oil (CLEO) was isolated by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAH). The composition of CLEO was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the antibacterial, nematicidal and anxiolytic activities of CLEO were evaluated. GC/MS results revealed that 33 compounds were identified, accounting for 99.87% of the total identified compounds. The major components of CLEO were monoterpenes, including β-myrcene (22.55%), eucalyptol (11.59%), α-pinene (11.56%), terpinen-4-ol (8.63%). Further research found that CLEO can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7.13 mg/mL, MBC 14.25 mg/mL), Escherichia coli (MIC 14.25 mg/mL, MBC 57 mg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC 14.25 mg/mL, MBC 28.50 mg/mL), the zone of inhibition were 17.49 ± 0.51 mm, 13.35 ± 0.27 mm and 15.15 ± 0.31 mm, respectively. CLEO could increase cell membrane permeability and make β-galactosidase, protein and other substances leak from the cell. Importantly, CLEO was first used to kill pine wood nematodes (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). It was found that CLEO was toxic to B. xylophilus (LC50=30.81 mg/mL), and PWN treated with CLEO rapidly died and extended. Furthermore, CLEO was used in anxiolytic for the first time. CLEO inhalation can effectively relieve anxiety-like behaviors in open-field test (OFT) and elevated plus-maze test (EPT), and restore neurotransmitters (5-HT, NE, GABA) in brain tissue to normal levels. This study provides a strategy for the industrial production of CLEO and discovers its potential role in food transportation and preservation, forest pest control, and relief of emotional disorders such as anxiety and stress, which are beneficial to health care and economic development and provides a basis for broader application of CLEO.
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Background: Labor pain is one of the most severe pains, which most of women experience. By using novel supportive methods, the labor pain can be reduced, which makes this event pleasant and delightful. Several original studies have been conducted in regard to the effect of lavender on reducing labor pain, whose results are controversial. One of the applications of meta-analysis studies is to respond to these hypotheses and remove controversies; therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of lavender on labor pain in Iran by using meta-analysis. Methods: In this study, to find published articles electronically from 2006 to 2019, the published articles in national and international databases of SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) were used. Heterogenic index between studies was determined by Cochrane test (Q)c and I2. Due to heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate standardize difference of the mean score of lavender test in order to assess the labor pain between intervention and control group. Results: In this meta-analysis and systematic review, finally 13 eligible articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The sample size from original studies enrolled in the meta-analysis entered in the intervention group was 794 individuals and in the control group was 795 individuals. Mean score for pain in the control group was 7.2 ± 0.42 and in the intervention group was 5.4 ± 0.58 and this difference was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that lavender can reduce labor pain, which can be considered by health policy makers and gynecologists.
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Purpose One of the main problems after inguinal hernia surgery is postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aromatherapy with lavender oil inhalation on postoperative pain after inguinal hernia surgery. Design A randomized controlled design was used. Methods Ninety participants were selected and assigned to two groups: the intervention group (n = 45) and the control group (n = 45). The patients in the intervention group inhaled four drops of 2% lavender essential oil with oxygen for 20 minutes. The patients in the control group inhaled only oxygen. Postoperative pain was measured 0 minutes after being transferred to the surgery ward, and then 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery using the visual analog scale. Findings In comparison to the control group, levels of pain severity in the intervention group were significantly lower in four stages of measurements (P < .001). Also, in all stages, measurements showed significant statistical differences within the groups (P < .001). Conclusions Aromatherapy with lavender essential oil helped decrease postoperative pain after inguinal hernia surgery.
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Nurses may be anxious due to critical and emergencies, and anxiety can affect their professional performance. Non-pharmacological interventions, as a safe method, can reduce anxiety. This study aimed to determine the effect of music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile - lavender essential oil on the anxiety of clinical nurses. This was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. One hundred twenty nurses from clinical wards of Besat Hospital in Sanandaj, Iran, were selected between 2018 and 2019 by purposeful sampling. The samples were randomly assigned to three groups with different interventions, namely music therapy, both aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil and music therapy, and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil, along with a control group as well. The anxiety of nurses was measured based on the Beck Anxiety Inventory before the intervention and after three work shifts. The data were analyzed using the SPSS v.22 software. One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the mean scores of the anxiety of nurses after the intervention in the three groups namely the group for which music therapy was applied, the group for which aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil was used and the group for which both music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil were applied, were (39.28), (37.82) and (40.03), respec�tively. Therefore, the obtained mean score of each group was significantly lower than that of the control group (56.08) (p < 0.0001). The results showed that the interventions of music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil could reduce the anxiety of nurses. Therefore, it is recommended to use music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil to reduce the anxiety of nurses in the clinical setting.
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p> The incidence of cervical cancer in the world is 17 per 100,000 women, while the mortality rate ranges from 8.2 per 100,000 women. One therapy for cancer treatment is chemotherapy. The side effects caused by chemotherapy are nausea and vomiting. In addition to drugs, complementary therapy given to chemotherapy patients is chamomile aromatherapy. This study aims to determine the effect of chamomile aromatherapy on reducing the scale of nausea after chemotherapy of cervical cancer patients in Dr. Moewardi Hospital. The type of research used is quasy experiment, using a research design non equivalent with the control group pretest and posttest design. The sample used was 30 patients with the criteria of patients who experienced Acute & Delayed Nausea. Analyze data used Paired Samples Test and Independent T-Test. The results showed that the average scale of nausea before chamomile aromatherapy intervention was 15.40. And the average scale of nausea after intervention was 2.87 as evidenced by the value p=0.000 (p<0.05). The average value of the nausea after treatment scale in the control group was 7.33, and the nausea scale average value in the intervention group was 2.87. So that it can be concluded that there is an effect after being given chamomile aromatherapy to reduce the scale of nausea after chemotherapy with p=0.000. </p
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Objectives: The present systematic review was conducted to compare the effect of lavender on the quality of sleep, sexual desire, and vasomotor, psychological and physical symptoms among menopausal and elderly women. Methods: There were five electronic databases which selected to search respective articles which included were Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library without any language restriction since the study inception to March 10, 2018. The quality of studies was assessed in accordance with a jaded scale. Results: According to three trials, the lavender as utilized in a capsule form or aromatherapy could significantly improve the measured Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score (P < 0.05) in the menopausal and elderly women. The aromatherapy with lavender improved sexual function (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and physical (P < 0.001) symptoms. Based on a trial, 66.7%, 70.0%, and 53.3% of subjects reported feelings of relaxation, happiness, and cleanness effects of having used lavender respectively. Conclusions: The results suggested the effectiveness of the use of lavender either in capsule form or aromatherapy on the improved quality of sleep, depression, anxiety, sexual desire, and psychological and physical symptoms. These results, however, should be interpreted with caution considering the limitations of the study.
Background Parents’ mental health can be impacted by sleep problems experienced by children diagnosed with ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group-based behavioral parent training (BPT) related to sleep problems of children with ADHD on parents’ mental health. Methods A parallel randomized controlled trial design was used in this study. Participants included 58 parents of school-age children with ADHD who had at least one sleep problem and who were known to medical services in a psychiatric clinic in Rasht city, Iran. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention or control groups equally. Participants in the intervention group received a 5-week BPT intervention program related to sleep problems of ADHD children including 3 sessions group-based training and 2 telephone follow-up. Data were collected before and two months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics via the SPSS software. Results The findings revealed two months after the intervention, participants in the intervention group had a significant improvement in the anxiety (p = 0.01) and stress (p = 0.02) levels compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggest that group-based BPT related to sleep problems of children with ADHD could be an effective strategy in improving parents' mental health.
Introduction: Regarding the importance of anxiety management and improvement of the quality of sleep in patients with burn injuries, this study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy massage (using aromatic oils of lavender and chamomile) on the anxiety and sleep quality of the patients with burn injuries. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, 105 patients with burns were recruited by convenience sampling method and then assigned into three groups (control, placebo massage, and combined aromatic oil massage). The study intervention was performed 20min before bedtime in three sessions, within a week. The control group was only under daily routine care. The study data were collected using the Persian version of Spielberg's anxiety scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 20. Results: The results showed a significant difference among the three groups in terms of anxiety score (P<0.001) and in terms of sleep quality after the intervention (P=0.027). Conclusion: Since the aromatherapy massage as a non-pharmacological and simple method can improve the anxiety and quality of sleep in patients with burns, it is suggested that nurses and burn medical care team apply it to reduce burn patients' anxiety and promote their sleep quality. Applying massage alone also reduces anxiety in burn survivors.
The essential oils of five Lavandula stoechas cultivars grown in Thailand were characterized for their volatile compounds using GC‐FID and GC‐MS methods as well as screened for antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Dried aerial parts, including flowers and stems from each cultivar, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 4 h. The essential oil yields were 0.18%‐0.82% w/w. Of the 95 compounds detected and identified, 1,8‐cineole, fenchone, and camphor were considered the major compounds. Essential oil from each cultivar demonstrated different patterns of antibacterial activity and a variety of antioxidant properties. The highest antibacterial activity, MIC = 0.39 mg mL ‐1 , was observed from the essential oil of L. stoechas ‘major’ (against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium) and the essential oil of L. stoechas ‘white lavender’ (against S. typhimurium ) . The essential oil of L. stoechas x viridis ‘St. Brelade’ possessed the highest antioxidant capacity, as determined by the DPPH and ABTS assays (IC 50 of 67.65 and 89.26 mg mL ‐1 , respectively). The results indicated that some of these essential oils could be used as key ingredients in lavender oil products in Thailand to increase their therapeutic efficacy, depending on their intended application.
Background: This study was conducted to determine the effects of lavender oil on the levels of anxiety and vital signs in benign prostate hyperplasia patients (BPH) in their preoperative period. Method: This was a quasi-experimental study and a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The population of the study consisted of elderly male patients who were hospitalized at the urology clinic of a hospital in Turkey, eligible for inclusion, and who were scheduled to undergo BPH surgery. These patients had a prostate mass >30 g on which medical treatment and minimal surgical treatment had not been succesful but which could be cured through open prostatectomy surgery and transurethral resection of the prostate. The sample consisted of 110 patients selected by the convenience sampling method and determined based on power analysis. Results: According to data analysis, both groups showed significantly reduced anxiety after the smelling lavender oil. However, the experimental group reported a significantly higher decrease in anxiety [mean change: -38.47 (SD 8.68) vs -2.78 (SD 3.27)] in comparison to the control group (p < 0.001). The posttest mean vital signs of the groups were compared and there was a statistically significant decrease in respiration and increase in oxygen saturation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings showed that lavender oil inhalation reduced anxiety levels and had effects on the vital signs of BPH patients in their preoperative period.
Introduction: Academic stress is prevalent among pharmacy students. Several factors such as hectic schedules, courses and exam load as well as lack of recreational time during semester have been reported as determinants of academic stress. Studies revealed; the use of aroma oils especially with relaxant properties may help ease stress. Methods: This study aimed to investigate the effect of lavender oil on academic stress during exams in pharmacy students. A randomized-single-blind placebo-controlled trial providing aromatherapy with lavender oil as an intervention was conducted in male pharmacy students. The outcomes assessed included stress, stool pattern, headache and vital signs that comprised of systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR). The study was approved from concerned authority and registered in (NCT#03460626). Results: The placebo and experimental group showed a significant (p < 0.01) difference in stress score (F = 244.865, p < 0.0001), headache VAS score (F = 8.187, p < 0.0001), SBP (F = 11.141, p < 0.0001), DBP (F = 3.873, p < 0.001) and HR (F = 8.537, p < 0.0001); at during-exam time-point as compared to control group. No significance was achieved; among three treatment groups in stool pattern (F = 2.143, p > 0.05) and, at post-exam time-point (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender oil did not have any effect on academic stress. Trial registration: The study was registered prospectively on (NCT#03460626) on 19th February 2018.