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Coping during the COVID-19 pandemic: Relations with mental health and quality of life.

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Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing widespread detrimental effects on mental health and quality of life, yetlittle research has examined effective coping strategies to mitigate these negative effects. The current studyexamined the association of 14 different coping strategies (categorized as approach or avoidance coping)with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and quality of life both cross-sectionally (N=797) and longitudi-nally (n=395). Avoidance coping was associated with higher depression, higher anxiety, and lower qualityof life at baseline, and increased depression and anxiety over time. Approach coping was associated withlower depression and better quality of life at baseline but not over time. Further, depression and anxietysignificantly mediated the association between coping and quality of life. Of the specific coping strategiesexamined, positive reframing was the most beneficial, suggesting that interventions focusing on reframingnegative aspects of the pandemic may be most beneficial to improve general well-being.

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... Several studies have demonstrated an association between coping strategies and depressive symptoms during the pandemic. For instance, it was shown that approach-related coping strategies like positive reframing or active coping tend to be associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (26)(27)(28). By contrast, avoidance-related coping strategies, such as selfdistraction, behavioral disengagement, and self-blame, seem to be significantly associated with a higher degree of depressive symptoms (26)(27)(28). ...
... For instance, it was shown that approach-related coping strategies like positive reframing or active coping tend to be associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (26)(27)(28). By contrast, avoidance-related coping strategies, such as selfdistraction, behavioral disengagement, and self-blame, seem to be significantly associated with a higher degree of depressive symptoms (26)(27)(28). During the pandemic, the most frequently employed coping strategy is that of "acceptance" (27)(28)(29). ...
... By contrast, avoidance-related coping strategies, such as selfdistraction, behavioral disengagement, and self-blame, seem to be significantly associated with a higher degree of depressive symptoms (26)(27)(28). During the pandemic, the most frequently employed coping strategy is that of "acceptance" (27)(28)(29). Overall, the non-pharmaceutical measures that were implemented to control the number of infections during the first wave in Germany amplified the risk factors for depressive symptoms that are especially relevant in highly urbanized populations, such as social isolation, while simultaneously limiting the utilization of protective factors. Given the higher psychological burden in more urbanized areas and the restricted protective factors during the pandemic, a better understanding of pandemicrelated stressors and protective factors such as coping strategies is needed. ...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a wide range of stressors related to depressive symptoms. Prevention measures like physical distancing have burdened the general population, especially in highly urbanized areas. However, little is known about the associations between pandemic-related stressors, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms in highly urbanized vs. less urbanized environments. Methods Participants were recruited in a cross-sectional online survey in Germany. Propensity score matching yielded a matched sample of city ( n = 453) and town ( n = 453) inhabitants. Depressive symptoms, COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies were compared between cities and towns. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine associations between pandemic-related stressors and depressive symptoms for the two groups separately. Results City inhabitants showed significantly higher depression scores than town inhabitants ( t = 2.11, df = 897.95, p = 0.035). Seven coping strategies were more often used by the city sample. Depressive symptoms were associated with “restricted physical social contact” and “difficult housing conditions” (adjusted R ² = 0.19, F [9,443] = 12.52, p < 0.001) in city inhabitants, and with “fear of infection” and “difficult housing conditions” (adjusted R ² = 0.20, F [9,443] = 13.50, p < 0.001) in town inhabitants. Limitations The data were collected at the end of the first wave and represent a snapshot without causal inferences. Pandemic-related stressors were measured with a newly developed scale. Conclusion Depressive symptoms, perceived stressors, and approach/avoidance coping strategies differed between city vs. town inhabitants. These differences should be considered in policy-making and mental health care.
... In Table 1, we report some examples of studies of coping strategies that can be coded according to this classification. Some studies have recently examined how adults coped during the pandemics, exploring the links between coping strategies and some indicators of positive psychological functioning and/or psychopathological symptoms (Fullana et al., 2020;Wakashima et al., 2020;Bakker and van Wingerden, 2021;Park et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021). Shamblaw et al. (2021) explored adaptive strategies in a sample of American adults and found that a variety of strategies, such as active coping, positive reframing, planning, acceptance, emotional support, and the use of informational support was associated with lower levels of depression and higher levels of quality of life. ...
... Some studies have recently examined how adults coped during the pandemics, exploring the links between coping strategies and some indicators of positive psychological functioning and/or psychopathological symptoms (Fullana et al., 2020;Wakashima et al., 2020;Bakker and van Wingerden, 2021;Park et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021). Shamblaw et al. (2021) explored adaptive strategies in a sample of American adults and found that a variety of strategies, such as active coping, positive reframing, planning, acceptance, emotional support, and the use of informational support was associated with lower levels of depression and higher levels of quality of life. Of the strategies they examined, they found that the most beneficial was positive reframing. ...
... Some data also suggest that most of the maladaptive coping strategies classified by Zimmer-Gembeck and Skinner (2011) for dealing with threats are, in fact, detrimental. In the research by Shamblaw et al. (2021), using avoidant coping (including strategies such as denial, substance use, venting, behavioral disengagement, distraction, and self-blame) was related to increases in depression and anxiety and decreases in quality of life. In a sample of Dutch adults, rumination was associated with lower well-being, operationalized in terms of depression, exhaustion, and less vigor (Bakker and van Wingerden, 2021). ...
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The psychological consequences of epidemics/pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, include an increase in psychopathological symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and stress, and negative emotions, such as fear. However, relatively little attention has been paid to how people cope with the pandemic. Coping is a multi-component process, helping to diminish the traumatic impact of stressful events in a variety of ways. We studied how university students coped with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, by developing the Robust - Pandemic Coping Scale (R-PCS), a new scale for measuring coping strategies related to epidemics/pandemics. The scale is based on a classification of coping strategies referred to the needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. To create a robust scale, such that the item values would be independent of the sample used for developing it, we employed Rasch modeling. We used a sample of 2,987 Italian university students who participated in an online survey including the R-PCS and the Power to Live with Disasters Questionnaire (PLDQ), during March 2020. First, we applied a dual approach combining exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which supported the goodness of a 4-factor model (i.e., Despair, Adjustment, Proactivity, and Aversion) for the R-PCS, invariant across gender and age of respondents (younger or as old as 23 years, older than 23 years). We then transformed the raw scores of the R-PCS into interval logit scale scores applying the Rasch model. Second, our findings supported the discriminant validity and the criterion validity of the R-PCS, examining the correlations with the PLDQ. They also confirmed its predictive validity: the R-PCS scores were related to 2-month-later enjoyment and anger, indicating that Adjustment and Proactivity were adaptive while Despair and Aversion were maladaptive. Third, our study revealed gender and age differences: the scores were higher for Despair, Adjustment, and Proactivity for females; for Aversion for males; and for Proactivity for students older than 23 years. The study suffers from limitations related to social desirability, gender imbalance, and self-selection effects in the recruitment.
... Gurvich et al. (2020) also concluded that positive emotion-focused coping strategies, such as positive reframing, are associated with better mental health. On the other hand, coping strategies such as avoidance and wishful thinking, were linked with poorer QoL and psychological well-being (Garbóczy et al., 2021;McFadden et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021). ...
... Specifically, we expected that greater sense of control and lower perceived risk of infection would predict better QoL (Lee et al., 2021;Li et al., 2020). Better QoL was also expected for participants with higher levels of reflective functioning and coping strategies involving positive reappraisal and seeking social support, while poorer QoL was expected for those using avoidance coping and demonstrating higher negative emotionality McFadden et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021). ...
... Psychology al. (2021) who found that wishful thinking was related to poorer psychological well-being. We obtained the same negative outcomes apply for avoidance, which is consistent with findings from previous research (McFadden et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021). In conclusion, the denial of a generalized crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, by avoidance of the recognition of the dangers it imposes or by wishing that the pandemic was non-existent, is not beneficial for QoL. ...
Article
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The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on quality of life is widely underscored. This study aimed to investigate the role of cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors on quality of life, as well as their mediating effect in the relationship of perceived risk of infection and control beliefs with quality of life. The sample consisted of 1730 adults. A battery of established and self-devised scales was administered online. It was found that higher levels of perceived risk of infection and negative emotionality predicted worse quality of life, while reflective functioning independently contributed to better well-being. Furthermore, a greater sense of personal control predicted better quality of life, but this effect was partially mediated by positive reappraisal, wishful thinking, avoidance, and trust. Specifically, higher level of control beliefs predicted better quality of life through higher levels of positive reappraisal and trust along with less use of wishful thinking and avoidance. Adherence to preventive measures was unrelated to quality of life. It is concluded that psychological factors and adap-tive coping strategies should be prioritized in designing interventions and policies against COVID-19 pandemic.
... The selection of coping strategies may be affected by stressors located on the micro (e.g., race/ethnicity or sex), mezzo (e.g., social support or employment context), and macro (e.g., state or federal social distancing policies) level (Wang et al., 2021). Researchers are examining the ways that individuals are coping with COVID-19 stress and the mental health correlates of subtypes of coping (e.g., de Bruin, 2020;Novacek et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021;Shanahan et al., 2020;Shechter et al., 2020). For example, behavioral strategies such as keeping a daily routine, regular physical activity, engaging in religious/spiritual practices, forms of problem-focused coping (e.g., seeking advice from experts, talking to others), and cognitive strategies such as positive reappraisal/reframing have been associated with lower levels of distress (e.g., Gerhold, 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021;Shanahan et al., 2020). ...
... Researchers are examining the ways that individuals are coping with COVID-19 stress and the mental health correlates of subtypes of coping (e.g., de Bruin, 2020;Novacek et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021;Shanahan et al., 2020;Shechter et al., 2020). For example, behavioral strategies such as keeping a daily routine, regular physical activity, engaging in religious/spiritual practices, forms of problem-focused coping (e.g., seeking advice from experts, talking to others), and cognitive strategies such as positive reappraisal/reframing have been associated with lower levels of distress (e.g., Gerhold, 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021;Shanahan et al., 2020). In an on-line longitudinal study of 395 community adults, avoidance coping strategies including self-blame were associated with increased anxiety symptoms over a one-month period (Shamblaw et al., 2021). ...
... For example, behavioral strategies such as keeping a daily routine, regular physical activity, engaging in religious/spiritual practices, forms of problem-focused coping (e.g., seeking advice from experts, talking to others), and cognitive strategies such as positive reappraisal/reframing have been associated with lower levels of distress (e.g., Gerhold, 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021;Shanahan et al., 2020). In an on-line longitudinal study of 395 community adults, avoidance coping strategies including self-blame were associated with increased anxiety symptoms over a one-month period (Shamblaw et al., 2021). However, research to date can be built upon in several ways. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented levels of stress to individuals in the U.S. and throughout the world. These high stress levels place individuals at risk for symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric disorders. The current study applies a control-based model of coping to contribute to the development of evidence-based interventions to promote resilience. Data were collected online from April 22 through July 12, 2020. Data from two samples of U. S. community adults who completed an online battery of standardized questionnaires were combined (N = 709). More than a quarter reported moderate to severe levels of depression symptoms, and more than one-fifth reported moderate to severe levels of anxiety symptoms; symptom levels were higher among adults who reported more COVID-19-related stress. As hypothesized, multiple regression analyses indicated that greater use of primary and secondary control coping was associated with lower symptom levels, whereas greater use of disengagement coping was associated with higher symptom levels, above and beyond the association of stress with symptoms. Race and ethnicity emerged as important moderators of these associations, indicating that what constitutes adaptive coping varies according to characteristics of the individual. Implications for public health policy and clinical practice are discussed. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02444-6.
... In the pandemic scenario, previous studies have already shown that the two main coping styles (i.e., approaching/engagement and avoidant/disengagement) had the expected role, respectively, in reducing and increasing psychological distress [22][23][24]. However, the role of the socially-supported/help-seeking style was not investigated. ...
... First, from a theoretical point of view, it over-simplified the relative complexity of the possible combination of approaches to coping with a stressor [51]. This criticism could also be applied to other studies on COVID-19 in which coping strategies were grouped as approaching and avoidant strategies [22,24]. Second, from a practical point of view, the pandemic could be considered a completely new stressor [52]. ...
... We found on average a mild to high level of psychological distress in our sample, in line with previous studies carried out during the first pandemic wave in Italy [35] and other countries [65,66]. Compared to previous studies assessing the coping strategies used during the COVID-19 pandemic with the BC, we originally implied a factor analysis to reveal the high order structure of the coping strategies [24,59]. Our analysis revealed that a three-factor model fitted the data well. ...
Article
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The spread of COVID-19 and its related confinement measures were important stressors for a large part of the global population, with massive effects on both physical and mental health. Assessing how individuals coped with such a stressor and which strategies were effective is one of the main challenges for psychological research. In this study, we aimed to investigate the coping strategies implied during the COVID-19 lockdown and their effectiveness. We recruited 374 Italian participants through convenience sampling during the first pandemic wave (April 2020). We administered to our participants an online battery of questionnaires including the Brief COPE, the use of alternative coping strategies proposed by the WHO to help people facing lockdown stress, and a range of psychological symptoms. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on the subscales of the Brief COPE revealed a three-factor structure. Following the previous literature, we named these factors engagement, disengagement, and help-seeking coping styles. In the pandemic scenario, the engagement and disengagement styles revealed the typical correlation patterns with psychological symptoms (i.e., the engagement was adaptive while the disengagement was maladaptive). Instead, contrary to previous literature, help-seeking was positively related to psychological symptoms, suggesting a mismatch between searching for help and finding it during the lockdown. This result supports the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of coping strategies in the pandemic scenario, to give more compelling and precise advice to the population.
... In contrast, planning, a primary coping strategy, appeared to be detrimental during the early days of the pandemic. 2 In another study that investigated coping strategies during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Slovenia, 17 researchers identified three types of coping profiles: engaged profile (high levels of problemfocused coping, acceptance, and positive reframing), disengaged profile (low levels of problem-focused coping, acceptance, and social support), and avoidant profile (substance use, self-blame, and humor). Engaged coping, which is a combination of primary and secondary coping in our model, was associated with lower levels of anxiety. ...
... Our results corroborate the idea that acceptance and positive reframing (as measured by secondary coping), rather than active attempts to control or remove the source of stress, predicted lower levels of negative mental health outcomes in times of COVID-19, which fits well with prior data from other western countries. 2,14,15,32 Thus, our study provides valuable supporting evidence for the generalizability of coping strategies that played a helpful role in reducing anxiety during lockdown. ...
Article
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Background/Purpose: In the context of COVID-19 lockdowns, extant research suggests that secondary coping (a strategy aimed at adjusting oneself self to the stressor) is more robustly associated with better mental health than primary coping (a strategy aimed at adjusting the stressor to oneself). We investigated whether these findings are generalizable to Spain—one of the most severely affected countries at that time. We also tested whether the link between secondary coping and mental health (as measured by anxiety) can be accounted for by how individuals perceive the COVID-19 impact (ie, perceived life changes and personal global impact) and how frequently they use traditional and social media to check COVID-19-related information. Methods: A diverse community sample (N = 408), collected during the first lockdown in Spain (early April 2020), completed a multimeasure online survey including the targeted variables. Results: Secondary coping outperformed primary coping in predicting reduced anxiety during the lockdown in Spain. Moreover, lower perceived life changes from COVID-19 and reduced personal global impact from COVID-19 both mediated the negative secondary coping-anxiety relationship. No indirect effects emerged for either conventional or social media exposure. Conclusion: These results (a) strengthen the cross-cultural validity of the link between secondary coping and anxiety and (b) advance our understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying this association.
... This was a non-probabilistic convenience sample. The sample size was estimated prior to the study using the Clinical and Translational Science Institute (University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA) online calculator for clinical correlational research [71] in 194 participants for an α of 0.05, a β of 0.02, and expected rs for associations among the study variables previously reported (e.g., r coping-mental health indicators≈ 0.20 [20] ...
... However, the obtained scores for these skills are still moderate, and some other functional strategies that could be also helpful for the management of anxiety symptoms have not been profusely used (e.g., social support for problem solving, suppression of distracting activities). The strategies used by the participants are similar to the strategies found in previous research where the importance of behavioral and emotional coping is highlighted, since they have turned out to be the most beneficial [19][20][21]28]. Nonetheless, the creation of intervention programs aimed at training the most effective and helpful coping strategies would be advisable in order to improve people's success when putting them into practice to deal with the emotional burden of a major life stressor such as a pandemic. ...
Article
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The features of the COVID-19 pandemic and the social operations to contain the spread of the virus might have limited or altered coping, including healthy habits such as exercise, this contributing to a myriad of negative consequences for the mental health of the global population. We explored the contribution of coping and physical activity to the management of anxiety in Spanish adults during an active phase of the epidemic, as well as the relationship between these strategies. A total of 200 young and adult individuals (70% women) voluntarily completed an anxiety inventory, a coping skills self-report and a personal data section including exercise practice. The participants reported in average a mild yet existing level of anxiety symptoms; a third reported noticeable symptoms. At the time of the study, the participants used more adaptive than maladaptive coping styles. Participants’ anxiety was inversely correlated with an active coping style, and positively with an avoidant style; physical activity correlated positively with an active coping style, and regular exercisers used more frequently active coping. Controlling for confounders, active coping, avoidant coping and exercise during the pandemic predicted anxiety symptoms. Other findings indicated that exercise was used as a coping strategy for dealing with emotional distress. Our results highlight the positive impact of functional coping and exercise for the management of negative states such as anxiety during the pandemic, and underline the importance of developing interventions aimed at enhancing coping skills for promoting physical and mental well-being of the population during health and social crises.
... Coping mechanisms affect negative emotions of the people. Therefore, the present study analyses the following: firstly, the impact of behavioural effect of the people during pandemic on the negative emotions; secondly, how adverse behavioural changes effects on negative emotions; thirdly, the impact of coping strategies on negative emotions (Kar et al. 2021); and lastly, can the control of adverse behaviour during the pandemic with coping strategies bring normalcy to the behaviour (Shamblaw et al. 2021). ...
... The study also concluded that mindfulness-based strategies can also decrease health anxiety by increasing the patience level experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Shamblaw et al. (2021) examined the relationship between 14 coping strategies with the symptoms of quality of life, anxiety, and depression during the COVID pandemic. Anxiety and depression were found to significantly mediate the relationship between quality of life and coping. ...
Article
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The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus adversely affected the material and mental well-being of the infected individuals and their families. The poor health system combined with lack of fear of infection has created significant negative health effects for people. The present research consider the notable models of coping with negative emotions, including ‘3Cs’ and ‘direct action and palliation approach’. With the observation method’s help, a detailed perspective was found on people’s coping processes, categorized as psychological, control, coherence, and connectedness coping. The present study considers the notable models of dealing with negative feelings, including ‘3Cs’ and ‘direct intervention and palliation strategy’. With the observation method’s support, a detailed viewpoint was found on people’s coping mechanisms, categorized as neurological, regulation, coherence, and connectedness coping. Using the ANOVA and t-tests, a significant augmentation in people’s negative emotions was found since the beginning of the pandemic. Using GMM regression technique, ‘avoidance’, ‘proactive preparedness’, ‘emotional resilience’, ‘entertainment’, and ‘spiritualism’ were highly significant techniques in curbing the negative emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, the LOGIT regression found cumulative negative emotions and emotions about negative career outlooks to be the most significant to bring negative emotions to normalcy. The study suggests that policymakers design a national-level strategy to strengthen the mental health systems to boost mental well-being.
... However, avoidant coping strategies are typically not useful for long-term coping as they do not effectively target the cause of the stress and can lead to maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., substance abuse). Indeed, during the COVID-19 pandemic, avoidant coping strategies have been typically associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and distress [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] and there does not appear to be any evidence to show that employing an avoidant coping strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic would produce positive or useful outcomes for an individual's psychological wellbeing. ...
... There is some evidence within the literature that positive coping is associated with higher psychological flexibility, and lower levels of negative psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, and distress) 55,56 . Indeed, during the COVID-19 pandemic, approach coping strategies have been associated with lower levels of psychological distress 54,55,57 . However, as pointed out in a recent study 58 , there is a lack of research into the association between psychological flexibility (and inflexibility) and coping styles. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to an increase in psychological distress. However, protective factors such as social support, psychological flexibility, and coping mechanisms can help individuals cope with the effects of psychological distress. This study aimed to test a recent hypothesis suggesting that psychological flexibility is not necessarily a coping strategy but a mechanism that can influence the coping strategies an individual employs during stressful events. We tested a mediation model that COVID-19 concerns would contribute to higher levels of perceived social support, which would directly increase psychological flexibility, and finally test if the effect of psychological flexibility on distress was mediated by approach and avoidant coping strategies. The results show that social support facilitates higher levels of psychological flexibility. Further, that psychological flexibility indirectly reduces psychological distress by reducing avoidant coping and increasing approach coping strategies. Within the context of COVID-19, we have shown the importance of social support and psychological flexibility for reducing distress. We have provided further evidence that psychological flexibility might not be a coping mechanism but a strategy that leads individuals to engage in more approach coping strategies and fewer avoidant coping strategies.
... Although wellbeing has a role to prevent psychopathology , Arslan et al., 2020a and links with better psychological health (Erdogan et al., 2012;Kansky & Diener, 2017) studies show that stress stemming from significant life changes contributed to decreasing in subjective well-being as lower life satisfaction (Fenge et al., 2012;Moksnes et al., 2018;Zheng et al., 2019). Similarly, mental health symptoms including stress, depression, and anxiety have been found to be negatively associated with psychological well-being and perceived life quality (Mangipudi et al., 2020;Saniti et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021). Subjective well-being is critical for individuals to cope with challenges in uncontrollable life events, however, there is limited knowledge available about the effects of stress on life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic (Shamblaw et al., 2021). ...
... Similarly, mental health symptoms including stress, depression, and anxiety have been found to be negatively associated with psychological well-being and perceived life quality (Mangipudi et al., 2020;Saniti et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021). Subjective well-being is critical for individuals to cope with challenges in uncontrollable life events, however, there is limited knowledge available about the effects of stress on life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic (Shamblaw et al., 2021). Therefore, the present study aims to analyze how perceived stress affects individuals' subjective well-being and identify underlying mediation mechanisms in the association between stress and subjective well-being, in light of the life changes associated with the pandemic. ...
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Coronavirus stress with the restrictions and unexpected life changes has affected individuals and their satisfaction with life. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of optimism and hope on the relationship between coronavirus stress and subjective wellbeing among young adults in Turkey. A sample of 331 (M= 20.86 and 64% females) college students participated in this study. The results demonstrated that coronavirus stress was negatively associated with the college students’ sense of hope and optimism. Moreover, coronavirus stress had an indirect effect on subjective well-being through optimism and hope. Optimism and hope mitigated the adverse impacts of stress on well-being during the pandemic. These results indicated that young adults with a high level of stress due to coronavirus have lower optimism and hope, which in turn have less subjective well-being. The study findings hence highlight that being hopeful and optimistic are the potential resources to explain how coronavirus stress is related to subjective well-being.
... Publics need to minimize physical touch and direct human contact [11]. This new regulation greatly affects healthcare management systems and many other systems in general [12][13][14]. For example, rehabilitation robots can be used to correct weakened hand function [15,16] so that rehabilitation is no longer entirely dependent on doctors and health workers. ...
... Lagrange analysis on dan was performed after and as the general coordinates had been determined. The completion of the Lagrange equation for p was written in Equation 13. ...
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COVID-19 is a very dangerous respiratory disease that can spread quickly through the air. Doctors, nurses, and medical personnel need protective clothing and are very careful in treating COVID-19 patients to avoid getting infected with the COVID-19 virus. Hence, a medical telepresence robot, which resembles a humanoid robot, is necessary to treat COVID-19 patients. The proposed self-balancing COVID-19 medical telepresence robot is a medical robot that handles COVID-19 patients, which resembles a stand-alone humanoid soccer robot with two wheels that can maneuver freely in hospital hallways. The proposed robot design has some control problems; it requires steady body positioning and is subjected to disturbance. A control method that functions to find the stability value such that the system response can reach the set-point is required to control the robot's stability and repel disturbances; this is known as disturbance rejection control. This study aimed to control the robot using a combination of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control and a Kalman filter. Mathematical equations were required to obtain a model of the robot's characteristics. The state-space model was derived from the self-balancing robot's mathematical equation. Since a PID control technique was used to keep the robot balanced, this state-space model was converted into a transfer function model. The second Ziegler-Nichols's rule oscillation method was used to tune the PID parameters. The values of the amplifier constants obtained were Kp=31.002, Ki=5.167, and Kd=125.992128. The robot was designed to be able to maintain its balance for more than one hour by using constant tuning, even when an external disturbance is applied to it. Doi: 10.28991/esj-2021-SP1-016 Full Text: PDF
... Supporting prior research, anxiety symptom severity was negatively correlated with QOL among individuals under COVID lockdown conditions, with females, older individuals, unemployed individuals, and individuals with or a caretaker for a chronic medical condition experiencing lower levels of QOL [87,88]. Research during COVID has also highlighted the role of maladaptive coping strategies, such that higher levels of avoidant coping, substance use, and denial as methods to cope with COVID-related anxiety predicted poorer QOL for non-clinical adults [89,90]. At the same time, higher levels of positive coping predicted better QOL. ...
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Purpose of Review Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent conditions that have a detrimental impact on quality of life (QOL), particularly when left untreated. In the present review, we summarize recent literature, published within the last 3 years, on QOL in anxiety disorders, with a focus on factors that may play a role in the relationship between anxiety and QOL. Recent Findings We organize our findings into four categories: (1) subjective distress, (2) behavioral responses, (3) functional impairment, and (4) clinical factors. Results indicate that greater anxiety symptom severity is linked with poorer QOL, and cognitive behavioral therapies for anxiety yield positive effects on QOL. Additional transdiagnostic mechanisms are highlighted, including anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, and avoidant coping. We examine the role of functional impairment, and we discuss factors related to treatment, including comorbidity and longitudinal effects. We also consider early research from the COVID-19 pandemic. Summary Understanding the underlying factors that contribute to QOL detriments provides important insight into the impact of anxiety disorders and identifies targets for enhancing QOL through treatment.
... Nevertheless, whereas behavioral disengagement, denial, and substance abuse were the least used by the participants, self-blame and venting were more widely used to deal with the de pandemic crisis, often related to a more detrimental psychological impact (Riolli and Savicki, 2010). Self-blame, specifically, appears to be particularly maladaptive in this pandemic crisis context (Shamblaw et al., 2021), which is characterized by uncertainty, unpredictability, and a decreased ability of individuals to act on the situation actively. As opposed to the catharsis theory, which suggests that emotional expression is psychologically beneficial, venting as a coping strategy seems to have amplified the job demands' effects on psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic (Ben-Ezra and Hamama-Raz, 2020). ...
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The global COVID-19 pandemic crisis has caused an unprecedented impact on most areas of people’s lives. Thus, framed within the scope of Existential Positive Psychology (PP2.0), this study aimed at assessing the psychological distress of adults living in Portugal during the first national lockdown, how they are coping with stress, as well to contribute to a deeper understanding about the role that positivity, experiential avoidance, and coping strategies have in psychological distress and well-being. For this purpose, 586 Portuguese adults (73% females) ranging between 18 and 78 years old (M = 38.96, SD = 12.20) completed an online survey during the initial phase of the pandemic crisis in Portugal. Findings suggest that experiential avoidance was the strongest predictor of a negative response (depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and negative emotions), whereas positivity was a better predictor of psychological well-being and lower levels of depression. Additionally, self-blame, behavioral disengagement, and emotional venting were strong risk factors for psychological distress, whereas positive reframing, planning, and acceptance were associated with more positive outcomes. These findings highlight the critical role of experiential avoidance on individuals’ psychological distress and the essential contribution of positive life orientation in promoting flourishing. By offering a better understanding of the complex navigation through the dialectics between positive and negative life features, this study provides important and useful cues for psychological interventions directed at promoting a more positive and adaptive human functioning even through such potential adverse and painful life events.
... Moreover, as also Romm et al. (2021) concluded, it is crucial to further examine protective factors and factors fostering resilience regarding decreases in SWB such as emotion regulation and coping strategies. Especially certain coping mechanism might help to buffer the negative effects of the pandemic on well-being or quality of life (Shamblaw et al., 2021). ...
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First empirical results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on adolescents' and adults' subjective well-being. In the present study we focus on the subjective well-being of elementary school children before and after the first pandemic-related school lockdown and examine if possible declines in subjective well-being are especially pronounced for some groups, considering socio-economic status, migration background, and gender as moderators. We tested N = 425 elementary school students (mean age: M = 8.19; SD = 1.04) longitudinally with four measurement points (three before the school lockdown and one after) regarding their general life satisfaction, mood, and domain satisfaction regarding peers, family, and school. Piecewise growth curve models revealed a significant decline in positive mood and in satisfaction with the family. Decline in life satisfaction and satisfaction with peers nearly missed significance. The investigated moderators had no impact on the changes in subjective well-being. We conclude that the pandemic had detrimental effects on young children's subjective well-being. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-022-00537-y.
... Not surprisingly, there were differences in income status, where women with average/high income were less likely to report depressive symptoms if they quarantined due to COVID-19. As we know, individuals who have both the resources and time to seek mental healthcare are more likely to utilize such care 43 50 . The recency of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US has focused research on the general population and its mental health, while very little, to our knowledge, has been implemented among cancer patients or survivors, and none regarding BRCA1/2-positive women. ...
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Purpose. During the COVID-19 pandemic, breast and ovarian cancer survivors experienced more anxiety and depression than before the pandemic. Studies have not investigated the similarities of this trend among BRCA1/2-positive women who are considered high risk for these cancers. The current study examines the impact of COVID-19 experiences on anxiety and depression in a sample of BRCA1/2-positive women in the U.S. Methods. 211 BRCA1/2-positive women from medically underserved backgrounds completed an online survey. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression for associations between COVID-19 experiences and self-reported anxiety and depression stratified by demographic factors. Results. Overall, women who reported quarantining/isolation (aOR, 0.46, 95% CI, 0.24-0.88) experienced significantly fewer depressive symptoms than women who did not report this experience. Racial/ethnic minority women caring for someone at home during COVID-19 were 3.78 times more likely (95% CI, 1.04-13.6) to report high anxiety while non-Hispanic white women were less likely (aOR, 0.36, 95% CI, 0.10-1.33, p-interaction=0.011). Conclusions. To date, this is the first study to analyze anxiety and depression considering several COVID-19 predictors among BRCA1/2-positive women. Our findings can be used to inform future research and advise COVID-19-related mental health resources specific to these women.
... However, planning can be associated with more severe anxiety symptoms during COVID-19. [45] Predictors of Mental Health facets: ...
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Background: Given varied forms of stressors in the backdrop of the COVID 19 pandemic, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to specific mental health challenges. It pertinent to explore how adolescents differ from adults regarding the comprehensive mental health facets amid the 'new normal, i.e., the duration between the first and second wave of COVID-19 in a developing country like India. The present study aimed to compare the comprehensive mental health facets of adolescents with the adults. Also, it aimed to explore the association of mental health facets with age, perceived stress, coping and impact of pandemic. Methods: The study followed a cross-sectional design with 1,027 participants [456 adolescents; 347 young and 224 middle age-adults] recruited from schools and colleges. The Comprehensive DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure, Perceived Stress Scale and Brief COPE Scale were used for assessment. The difference between groups was analyzed using the Chi-Square Test of Independence and correlational analysis was done using Spearman Rank Correlation. Multiple regression analyses were performed for the mental health facets along with bootstrapping method. Results: 33.77% of adolescents, 25.65% of young adults, and 17.41% of middle-aged adults reported that their symptoms started during the pandemic. Compared to adults, the adolescents reported higher depression, anxiety, suicidal ideations, anger, and somatic complaints. Significantly higher adolescent females (39.9%) were found to have sleep disturbances compared to their male counterparts (25.5%). Therefore, it can be observed Adolescents are more clinically vulnerable in most domains. The correlational analysis showed that most mental health domains, except substance use showed moderate-to-low correlations with ‘Impact of COVID’. Perceived stress, impact of COVID, self-distraction, self-blaming were significant independent positive predictors for all the mental health domains except substance use. ‘Age’ was negatively associated with depression anxiety, repetitive thoughts, personality changes, suicidal ideations and memory, and positively associated with ‘substance use’ at low levels. Maladaptive coping was moderately positively correlated with all the mental health domains. Conclusion: It can be observed Adolescents are more clinically vulnerable in most domains. This study provides a comprehensive analysis for assessment and clinical decision-making to combat the mental health problems arising and exacerbating due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings will help in planning and implementing an appropriate interventional program, and making policy decisions related to the vulnerable group of adolescents.
... Apart from these mostly sociodemographic factors, only a few studies have evaluated the use of psychological coping strategies during the pandemic. For example, Veer et al. [20] identified a positive appraisal style as a protective coping style, while Shamblaw, Rumas, and Best [21] found that avoidance-oriented coping styles were associated with higher depression and anxiety ratings. Nevertheless, little is known about protective coping behaviors in light of the pandemic. ...
Article
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is posing a global public health burden. These consequences have been shown to increase the risk of mental distress, but the underlying protective and risk factors for mental distress and trends over different waves of the pandemic are largely unknown. Furthermore, it is largely unknown how mental distress is associated with individual protective behavior. Three quota samples, weighted to represent the population forming the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring study (24 March and 26 May 2020, and 9 March 2021 with >900 subjects each), were used to describe the course of mental distress and resilience, to identify risk and protective factors during the pandemic, and to investigate their associations with individual protective behaviors. Mental distress increased slightly during the pandemic. Usage of cognitive reappraisal strategies, maintenance of a daily structure, and usage of alternative social interactions decreased. Self-reported resilience, cognitive reappraisal strategies, and maintaining a daily structure were the most important protective factors in all three samples. Adherence to individual protective behaviors (e.g., physical distancing) was negatively associated with mental distress and positively associated with frequency of information intake, maintenance of a daily structure, and cognitive reappraisal. Maintaining a daily structure, training of cognitive reappraisal strategies, and information provision may be targets to prevent mental distress while assuring a high degree of individual protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Effects of the respective interventions have to be confirmed in further studies.
... Successful coping is very important to people's physical health, mental health, and quality of life during the pandemic (Shamblaw et al., 2021). Some studies have demonstrated that older adults tend to show better resilience compared to younger adults. ...
Article
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COVID-19 is not only a threat to physical health but also a stressor to mental health, particularly for older adults. Previous studies have indicated that healthy older adults have resilience to cope with such stressful event through emotional and behavioral effort. However, very few have investigated the coping ability of older adults with High Risk of Cognitive Impairment (HRCI), as they are characterized with risk factors that can make them more vulnerable to COVID-19 in both physical and mental aspects. To examine whether older adults with HRCI were able to cope with and recover from the outbreak of COVID-19, we investigated the changes of their self-reported emotional states and intentions of taking protective behaviors between the outbreak period (data collected from February 17th to 24th, 2020) and the remission period (data collected from April 7th to 20th, 2020). The results showed that compared with the outbreak period, older adults with HRCI showed better emotional states and higher levels of intention to take more protective behaviors during the remission period. Subgroup analysis showed that even those who showed relatively poor coping abilities during the outbreak period could gradually improve their emotional states and intend to take more protective behaviors later on in the remission period. Therefore, these results suggested that older adults with HRCI were able to cope with and recover from the pandemic outbreak.
... Research from the pre-COVID-19 era has suggested that leisure activities may be able to protect against depression symptoms during stressful life events (e.g., Hutchinson et al., 2003;Nimrod et al., 2012). Since the beginning of the pandemic in spring 2020, many studies from several countries have explored possible factors associated with depression symptoms (e.g., Shamblaw et al., 2021;Solomou & Constantinidou, 2020), but only a few have examined leisure-related factors (e.g., Fullana et al., 2020;Rodr ıguez-Rey et al., 2020). ...
... However, the COVID-19 pandemic is an uncontrollable, chronic stressor for which coping is best assisted by emotional expressions of care-by nurturant support (Cutrona & Russell, 1990;Rettie & Daniels, 2021;Thoits, 2011). As a result, individuals are more likely to let these instrumental advice ties deteriorate because the resources they convey are less beneficial in addressing the affect-laden demands imposed by the pandemic (Shamblaw et al., 2021;Trougakos et al., 2020). These demands are coupled with a limit to the number of ties an individual can hold at any given time that depends on available versus exhausted intrapersonal resources (Jackson, 2010). ...
... Regarding mental health, 42.2% of the sample endorsed clinically significant anxiety symptoms (M = 9.66, SD = 6.25) and 37.2% endorsed clinically significant depressive symptoms (M = 8.90, SD = 6.11). Chi-squared tests revealed that as compared to a previous North American online adult sample collected in late April 2020 (Shamblaw et al., 2020), participants in the present study endorsed significantly higher levels of clinical anxiety, χ 2 (1, N = 1,015) = 13.50, p < .001, and comparable levels of clinical depression, χ 2 (1, N = 1,014) = .73, ...
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Using a cross-sectional survey design, we examined whether social support was a stress buffer against direct online and vicarious general racial discrimination for 218 Asian/Asian American college students in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the buffering effect depended on external locus of control (external LOC). An alarming percentage of Asian/Asian American students reported direct online (58.7%) and vicarious racial discrimination (88.1%). Moderated moderation with bootstrap analysis revealed detrimental effects of direct online and vicarious racial discrimination on mental health, and protective effects of social support and low external LOC. Importantly, we found several significant Racial discrimination × Social support × External LOC interaction effects. High levels of social support were only consistently found to be a significant buffer against direct online racial discrimination for those with moderate-to-high external LOC. Results indicated that the buffering effect of social support depended on external LOC and the type of racial discrimination during the current pandemic.
... Our present study suggests that higher mental well-being scores predict better life satisfaction among Filipino adult learners in their quarter and midlives, which extends previous research conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population in the Philippines (Aruta et al., 2021) and elsewhere (Karataş & Tagay, 2021;Liu et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021). The negative impact of poor mental health on life satisfaction has also been indicated among university students (Al-Abyadh & Azim, 2020; Egcas et al., 2021;Rogowska et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The 2019 novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has increased the mental health challenges and decreased the quality of life among students and the general adult population. However, adult learners and non-traditional students who are currently at their quarter and midlife during the pandemic, remain underrepresented in well-being research. Moreover, the unique sociocultural and historical contexts specific to generational cohorts may have an impact on the way they experience and cope with the challenges brought about by the pandemic. This study sought to determine the relationships among generational identity, mental well-being and life satisfaction among Millennial and Generation X Filipino adult learners. A total of 543 adult learners participated in this online cross-sectional study. Findings suggest that young millennials reported lower levels of mental well-being and life satisfaction compared to old millennials and Gen Xers. Moreover, mental well-being was found to be a predictor of life satisfaction among Filipino adult learners, regardless of their generational identity. Schools must implement initiatives to monitor and address mental health issues among adult learners, contextualized to quarter and midlife contexts.
... among Filipino adult learners in their quarter and midlives, which extends previous research conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population in the Philippines(Aruta et al., 2021) and elsewhere(Karatas & Tagay, 2021;Liu et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021).The negative impact of poor mental health on life satisfaction has also been indicated among university students(Al-Abyadh & Azim, 2020; Egcas et al., 2021;Rogowska et al., 2020). This significant positive predictive relationship between mental well-being and life satisfaction has been adjusted for the effects of generational identity. ...
Preprint
The 2019 novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has increased the mental health challenges and decreased the quality of life among students and the general adult population. However, adult learners and non-traditional students who are currently at their quarter and midlife during the pandemic, remain underrepresented in well-being research. Moreover, the unique sociocultural and historical contexts specific to generational cohorts may have an impact on the way they experience and cope with the challenges brought about by the pandemic. This study sought to determine the relationships among generational identity, mental well-being and life satisfaction among Millennial and Generation X Filipino adult learners. A total of 543 adult learners participated in this online cross-sectional study. Findings suggest that young millennials reported lower levels of mental well-being and life satisfaction compared to old millennials and Gen Xers. Moreover, mental well-being was found to be a predictor of life satisfaction among Filipino adult learners, regardless of their generational identity. Schools must implement initiatives to monitor and address mental health issues among adult learners, contextualized to quarter and midlife contexts.
... Participants who reported avoiding thinking about issues or who were unsure of their coping behaviors reported more psychological distress, including anxiety and depression (Kar et al., 2021). Avoidance coping has also been associated with greater depression symptoms and has indirect effects on overall quality of life (Shamblaw et al., 2021). However, the early literature on coping during COVID-19 in the United States is largely limited to health care workers (Babore et al., 2020;Labrague, 2021) and groupspecific insights, such as the experiences of nursing and medical students (Kim et al., 2021;Zhao et al., 2021), pregnant women and new mothers (Khoury et al., 2021;Kinser et al., 2021), and people with disabilities (Umucu & Lee, 2020). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increases in U.S. residents’ stressors while limiting many of the resources previously available to cope with stress. Coping behaviors may contribute to the prevention or proliferation of psychological distress during and after the pandemic. Understanding these coping behaviors and associated psychological outcomes can help health educators develop programs that encourage effective coping and promote mental health. This study used a sequential mixed-methods approach informed by Roth and Cohen’s conceptualization of coping to understand the use of approach coping behaviors— which are active and directed toward the perceived threat—and avoidance coping behaviors—which include activity directed away from perceived threat during the COVID-19 pandemic. U.S. residents ( N = 2,987) were surveyed online in April 2020 and again in September 2021. Open-ended responses at baseline were thematically analyzed to illustrate coping behaviors in participants’ own words. At baseline, more than half (56%) of the sample met criteria for probable depression, 51% for acute stress symptoms, and 42% for moderate to severe hopelessness. At follow-up, 45% meet criteria for probable depression and 23% for acute stress. However, the proportion of the sample who reported moderate to severe hopelessness increased to 48%. We used mixed-effects general linear models to examine changes over time and found that increases in approach coping behaviors were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms and hopelessness; increases in avoidance coping were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of hopelessness. Increases in both types of coping were associated with increases in acute stress symptoms related to COVID-19. Although there was some attenuation in distress in our sample between April 2020 and September 2021, our findings suggest a need for interventions that encourage the use of approach coping behaviors and that both increase access to and decrease stigma for mental health support.
... They also stated there was an accompanying 33% jump in anxiety related cases during the same time period. Due to increased illness, uncertainties, mortality, bereavement, economic losses, school closures, and social isolation, behavioral health concerns are expected to surge in the postpandemic period (Gruber et al., 2021;Holmes et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021). However, the behavioral health care system was unprepared to face such a disruptive force. ...
... Nuo COVID-19 pandemijos pradžios praėjo santykinai nedaug laiko, tačiau tyrėjai jau skyrė nemažai pastangų įvairioms jos sukeltoms problemoms nagrinėti: a) sprendimų priėmimui neapibrėžtumo ir informacijos trūkumo sąlygomis (pvz., kaip reaguoti į staiga kilusią grėsmę žmonių sveikatai, kaip sumažinti koronaviruso plitimą, patiriamus ekonominius nuostolius ir pan.) (Comfort et al., 2020;Gleißner et al., 2021;Pappas, Glyptou, 2021;Sun et al., 2020); b) pandemijos sukeltiems psichologiniams padariniams (patiriamam stresui, nerimui, baimei, depresijai, sumažėjusiai subjektyviai gyvenimo kokybei arba gerovei), taip pat taikomiems įveikos būdams ir jų efektyvumui (Nielsen, Levkovich, 2020;Park et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021;Zacher, Rudolph, 2021); c) impulsyviam pirkimui pandemijos metu (Ahmed et al., 2020;Brizi, Biraglia, 2021;Laato et al., 2020;Naeem, 2021); d) žmonių ketinimui skiepytis arba skiepyti savo vaikus nuo koronaviruso, taip pat tokio ketinimo veiksniams (Neumann-Böhme et al., 2020;Goldman et al., 2020;Loomba et al., 2021;Reiter et al., 2020) ir pan. ...
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The article analyzes how, during the 1st wave of the coronavirus pandemic, participants of a study (n = 331) assessed the government-imposed restrictions, prohibitions, liabilities and penalties for non-compliance with said restrictions, and the perceived fairness of the behavior of other people during the pandemic. The article also studies the relationships among these assessments, including the related well-being and sociodemographic characteristics.
... Moreover, Robillard et al. (2021) found that nearly one half and one third of their Canadian sample (N = 2,562) without a psychiatric history had clinically significant levels of depression and generalized anxiety, respectively. COVID-19 has had a significant negative impact on life satisfaction, daily functioning, and quality of life (QoL; e.g., Helliwell et al., 2020;Shamblaw et al., 2021), yet there is limited research examining specific risk factors that make individuals with COVID-19 anxiety more susceptible to negative outcomes. Investigating potential moderators of the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and (a) daily functioning, and (b) QoL may assist in predicting who is most likely to be adversely impacted and guiding potential points of intervention. ...
Article
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to a global increase in mental health problems including “COVID-19 anxiety,” the presence of dysfunctional anxiety about the novel coronavirus (e.g., fear of contracting or spreading the virus). The present study investigated potential moderators of the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety and (a) daily functioning and (b) quality of life, to determine which individuals are most susceptible to these negative outcomes. Intolerance of uncertainty and health locus of control were examined as possible moderators. This study recruited 193 Canadian adults using crowdsourcing platforms during the third wave of COVID-19. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing demographics and the constructs of interest. Regression analyses found that neither intolerance of uncertainty nor health locus of control significantly moderated the relationships between COVID-19 anxiety and daily functioning. However, both intolerance of uncertainty and health locus of control were significant moderators between COVID-19 anxiety and quality of life. These findings extend past research by emphasizing the need to target specific risk factors, such as intolerance of uncertainty and health locus of control, in therapeutic settings to better support individuals’ quality of life during this difficult and unpredictable time.
... recent pandemic's impact on the mental health of the general population has been published more often, noting that both the direct and indirect psychological impact of COVID-19 on the general public and vulnerable groups (e.g., elderly, people with pre-existing mental health issues, etc.) 57 should be studied in more detail. Similarly, symptoms of mental health during COVID-19 have been exacerbated by lower quality of life and focusing on the negative aspects of the pandemic 58 . The recency of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US has focused research on the general population and its mental health, while very little, to our knowledge, has been implemented among cancer patients or survivors, and none regarding BRCA1/2-positive women. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, breast and ovarian cancer survivors experienced more anxiety and depression than before the pandemic. Studies have not investigated the similarities of this trend among BRCA1/2 -positive women who are considered high risk for these cancers. The current study examines the impact of COVID-19 experiences on anxiety and depression in a sample of BRCA1/2 -positive women in the U.S. 211 BRCA1/2 -positive women from medically underserved backgrounds completed an online survey. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression for associations between COVID-19 experiences and self-reported anxiety and depression stratified by demographic factors. Overall, women who reported COVID-19 stigma or discrimination (aOR, 5.14, 95% CI [1.55, 17.0]) experienced significantly more depressive symptoms than women who did not report this experience. Racial/ethnic minority women caring for someone at home during COVID-19 were 3.70 times more likely (95% CI [1.01, 13.5]) to report high anxiety while non-Hispanic white women were less likely (aOR, 0.34, 95% CI [0.09, 1.30], p interaction = 0.011). To date, this is the first study to analyze anxiety and depression considering several COVID-19 predictors among BRCA1/2 -positive women. Our findings can be used to inform future research and advise COVID-19-related mental health resources specific to these women.
... Experiencing negative situations such as difficulty in establishing healthy communication, emotional change, difficulty in anger control, and the desire to be alone is considered an adverse effect of COVID-19 on the quality of life [94]. This current study presents similarities with research conducted in several countries, with different samples and age groups [95][96][97]. ...
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It is well acknowledged that the roles of both school administrators and teachers have changed due to the global education crisis caused by COVID-19. During this challenging and critical period, it is essential to investigate how those working in the education sector who undertake strategic tasks for sustainable education are affected by the new conditions brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the interrelationships between COVID-19 quality of life, loneliness, happiness, and Internet addiction. The research was designed according to the relational survey model, was conducted with 432 school administrators and teachers working in K-12 schools. The research data was collected through online questionnaires, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test and analyze proposed hypotheses. The study’s results revealed a positive relationship between the COVID-19 related quality of life and loneliness, and that loneliness significantly positively predicts Internet addiction. In this context, due to the impact of COVID-19 on the life quality, the participants’ loneliness levels significantly increased, and this increase in loneliness caused them to become addicted to using the Internet. Interestingly, it was also determined that a positive relationship exists between loneliness and happiness and that as the loneliness of individuals increased, their level of happiness also increased. In many studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a negative relationship was revealed between loneliness and happiness. In the current study conducted during the pandemic, the relationship between the two variables was positive. SEM results revealed that COVID-19 directly affects the quality of life, Internet addiction, loneliness, and happiness of school administrators and teachers. Furthermore, it was determined that Internet addiction indirectly affects the relationship between loneliness and happiness.
... Participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as part of a larger study on mental health and quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic (Leibovitz et al., 2021;Shamblaw et al., 2021). ...
Article
Cognitive-behavioural models of health anxiety propose a positive association between information seeking and health anxiety, however, it is unclear the extent to which cognitive mechanisms may mediate this relationship. Catastrophic cognitions are one type of cognition that may mediate this relationship and the COVID-19 pandemic has presented an opportunity to examine these relationships within the context of a global health catastrophe. The current study investigated both cross-sectional (N = 797) and longitudinal (n = 395) relationships between information seeking, health anxiety, and catastrophizing during the pandemic. Data were collected using Amazon Mechanical Turk during April and May 2020. Information seeking and health anxiety were positively associated both cross-sectionally and longitudinally (rs = .25 - .29). Catastrophic cognitions significantly mediated the relationship between information-seeking and health anxiety both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Developing effective methods of reducing information-seeking and catastrophizing may serve to reduce health anxiety during global health crises such as the current pandemic.
Article
Objectives During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, health care workers, including nurses and their family members, experienced various psychological problems. Coping skills may help them deal with the current challenge and maintain their mental health and improve their quality of life. Therefore, this study investigated the relation of coping skills with mental health and quality of life of the nurses’ family members during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on the family members of the nurses working at Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord dedicated to admission and hospitalization of COVID-19 infected patients using a census sampling method in 2020. Participation in this study was voluntary and finally 220 persons were included in this study. To prevent the spread of COVID-19 through respiratory droplets or contact, a weblog was created using blogging software that contained questionnaires for collecting data on demographic information, mental health (PHQ-9), coping skills (coping responses inventory [CRI], Billings & Moos), and quality of life (SF-36). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests in SPSS software version 22 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Results Of the 220 participants in this study, 101 participants were male and 119 were female. The mean age of the subjects was 35.78 years, and 56.4% of them had an academic education level. The Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between coping skills and mental health, quality-of-life items, total quality-of-life score, and demographic variables of participants (except education) ( P < 0.05). This was a direct relationship in such a way that as the score of coping skills increases, so does the score of mental health and quality of life. Based on the results of regression analysis, the predictive power of mental health, coping skills, and education level was obtained to be 0.634. The coping skill variable was the strongest predictor (ß = 0.467), and after that, the mental health variable (ß = 0.421) had the highest predictive power. Conclusion The obtained results showed that coping skill is the association between psychological health and quality of life such that the coping skill has a significant direct effect on psychological health and quality of life. The results also showed that, at the time of crisis, further attention should be paid to coping skills to develop and improve the quality of life and psychological health.
Chapter
In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic changed lives throughout the world. The present study focused on the effect of these changes on college students in the U.S. Specifically, the study examined the relationship between students' ‘mindsets' (i.e., attitudes toward the malleability of intelligence) and their adjustment to online schooling. Results indicated a strong positive correlation – the greater the belief in the potential growth of intelligence, the better the adjustment from in-person to virtual instruction.
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The article presents a review of foreign studies of mental disorders in the context of different strategies of government regulation to counter the spread of COVID-19. Special emphasis is placed on analysis of: 1) the specifics of the pandemic in the context of its impact on populational and personal mental health; 2) governmental regulation strategies aimed at saving individual and populational mental health in different countries; 3) pessimistic and optimistic scenarios of Pandemic’s consequences for populational and individual mental health, depending on the specifics of government regulation strategies in preventing of extension COVID-19. The purpose of the review is to summarize the available scientific data about the specifics of the situation in terms of COVID-19 and its impact on mental health of population under different strategies of government regulation to counter the spread of COVID-19.
Article
The present study is believed to be the first study to have evaluated the COVID-19 Pandemic’s effects on U.S. based emergency room (ER) physicians’ mental health. Specifically, the study assessed the levels of anxiety, depression, burnout, and coping skills of 226 ER physicians from 31 January to 6 February 2021. The results indicate that ER physicians reported a high level of both personal and work-related burnout even though few reported clinically significant symptoms of anxiety or depression. Results also align with previous research indicating that active and adaptive coping skills were related to a lower level of psychological distress during the COVID-19 Pandemic whereas maladaptive coping strategies such as self-blame, denial, disengagement, venting, and substance abuse, were related to lower overall mental health.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global context in which social isolation has become normative in order to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. As a result of social distancing policies, the risk for loneliness and associated decline in quality of life has increased. The current study examined factors associated with loneliness and quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic cross-sectionally (n = 797) and longitudinally (n = 395). Older age and larger social network size were associated with less loneliness, whereas having multiple physical or mental health diagnoses was associated with greater loneliness. Greater virtual social contact was also associated with increased loneliness. Greater loneliness was associated with all domains of quality of life both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Understanding factors associated with loneliness is critical to developing effective strategies at reducing loneliness and improving quality of life during the pandemic. Contrary to popular perceptions, older age was associated with less loneliness and more virtual social contact was associated with more loneliness. Thus, it may be prudent to deemphasize virtual social contact in public campaigns and to emphasize safe methods of interacting in person.
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global crisis necessitating drastic changes to living conditions, social life, personal freedom and economic activity. No study has yet examined the presence of psychiatric symptoms in the UK population in similar conditions.AimsWe investigated the prevalence of COVID-19 related anxiety, generalised anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms in a representative sample of the UK population during an early phase of the pandemic, and estimated associations with variables likely to influence these symptoms.Method Between March 23rd and March 28th 2020, a quota sample of 2025 UK adults 18 years and older, stratified by age, sex and household income, was recruited by online survey company Qualtrics. Participants completed measures of depression (PHQ9), generalised anxiety (GAD7), and trauma symptoms relating to the pandemic (ITQ). Bivariate and multivariate associations were calculated for age, gender, rural vs urban environment, presence of children in the household, income, loss of income, pre-existing health conditions in self and someone close, infection in self and someone close, and perceived risk of infection over the next month.ResultsHigher levels of anxiety, depression and trauma symptoms were reported compared to previous population studies, but not dramatically so. Meeting the criteria for either anxiety or depression, and trauma symptoms was predicted by young age, presence of children in the home, and high estimates of personal risk. Anxiety and depression symptoms were also predicted by low income, loss of income, and pre-existing health conditions in self and other. Specific anxiety about COVID-19 was greater in older participants.Conclusions The UK population, especially older citizens, were largely resilient in the early stages of the pandemic. However, several specific COVID-related variables are associated with psychological distress: particularly having children at home, loss of income because of the pandemic, as well as having a pre-existing health condition, exposure to the virus and high estimates of personal risk. Further similar surveys, particularly of those with children at home, are required as the pandemic progresses.
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Background and Objective: Suicide is a leading cause of death in young people. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors can be triggered by life and study stresses; therefore, it is important to understand the role of coping strategies. The current study analyzed the link between different coping strategies and suicidality in university students in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 2,074 undergraduate students from China used a stratified-clustered-random sampling method (response rate 94.4%). The Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised Scale was used to identify suicidal risks, while the Brief COPE scale was used to measure different coping strategies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to examine coping strategies and suicidality. Results: A negative association of some coping skills (active coping and positive reframing) with suicidality and a positive association of some other coping skills (self-distraction, substance abuse, behavioral disengagement, venting, and self-blame) with suicidality were observed after adjusting for sociodemographic and mental health variables. Conclusions: Training and supporting young people to identify and apply adaptive coping strategies to deal with life stress could help to reduce suicidal ideation and behavior.
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Objective: Trauma researchers have recently begun using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a data collection platform that is both time- and cost-efficient. Research is needed to determine the utility, generalizability, and validity of MTurk as a recruitment source for trauma-exposed samples. Method: Data were collected from 266 trauma-exposed MTurk participants on several clinical and psychological constructs relevant to trauma research. The mean scores, prevalence rates, and correlation strengths of the MTurk sample were compared to those reported in previously published studies of undergraduate, community, and treatment-seeking samples. Results: Findings indicated that prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were not significantly different from comparison samples, but prevalence rates of generalized anxiety were significantly higher than that of a community sample. The MTurk sample showed significantly lower mean scores of PTSD, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms than all comparison samples. Correlations were examined to determine whether established relationships between common trauma-related constructs were correlated for MTurk participants as they were in other samples. Correlations between PTSD symptom severity, posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs), and trauma coping self-efficacy (CSE-T) in the MTurk sample were not significantly different from the correlations observed in all comparison samples. Finally, MTurk participants who met criteria for probable PTSD scored significantly higher on measures of depression, generalized anxiety, and PTCs, and lower on CSE-T, than those without probable PTSD. Conclusions: Future trauma researchers utilizing MTurk should consider potential similarities and differences between MTurk samples and community, clinical, and undergraduate samples when interpreting the generalizability of findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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Introduction Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is frequently used to administer health-related surveys and experiments at a low cost, but little is known about its representativeness with regards to health status and behaviors. Methods A cross-sectional survey comprised of questions from the nationally-representative 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was administered to 591 MTurk workers and 393 masters in 2016. Health status (asthma, depression, BMI, and general health), health behaviors (influenza vaccination, health insurance, smoking, and physical activity), and demographic characteristics of the two MTurk populations (workers and masters) were compared to each other and, using Poisson regression, to a nationally-representative BRFSS and NHANES samples. Results Workers and master demographics were similar. MTurk users were more likely to be aged under 50 years compared to the national sample (86% vs. 55%) and more likely to complete a college degree than the national sample (50% vs. 26%). Adjusting for covariates, MTurk users were less likely to be vaccinated for influenza, to smoke, to have asthma, to self-report being in excellent or very good health, to exercise, and have health insurance but over twice as likely to screen positive for depression relative to a national sample. Results were fairly consistent among different age groups. Conclusions MTurk workers are not a generalizable population with regards to health status and behaviors; deviations did not follow a trend. Appropriate health-related uses for MTurk and ways to improve upon the generalizability of MTurk health studies are proposed.
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Purpose Amazon Mechanical Turk is an increasingly popular data source in the organizational psychology research community. This paper presents an evaluation of MTurk and provides a set of practical recommendations for researchers using MTurk. Design/Methodology/Approach We present an evaluation of methodological concerns related to the use of MTurk and potential threats to validity inferences. Based on our evaluation, we also provide a set of recommendations to strengthen validity inferences using MTurk samples. Findings Although MTurk samples can overcome some important validity concerns, there are other limitations researchers must consider in light of their research objectives. Researchers should carefully evaluate the appropriateness and quality of MTurk samples based on the different issues we discuss in our evaluation. Implications There is not a one-size-fits-all answer to whether MTurk is appropriate for a research study. The answer depends on the research questions and the data collection and analytic procedures adopted. The quality of the data is not defined by the data source per se, but rather the decisions researchers make during the stages of study design, data collection, and data analysis. Originality/Value The current paper extends the literature by evaluating MTurk in a more comprehensive manner than in prior reviews. Past review papers focused primarily on internal and external validity, with less attention paid to statistical conclusion and construct validity—which are equally important in making accurate inferences about research findings. This paper also provides a set of practical recommendations in addressing validity concerns when using MTurk.
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Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an increasingly popular tool for the recruitment of research subjects. While there has been much focus on the demographic differences between MTurk samples and the national public, we know little about whether liberals and conservatives recruited from MTurk share the same psychological dispositions as their counterparts in the mass public. In the absence of such evidence, some have argued that the selection process involved in joining MTurk invalidates the subject pool for studying questions central to political science. In this paper, we evaluate this claim by comparing a large MTurk sample to two benchmark national samples – one conducted online and one conducted face-to-face. We examine the personality and value-based motivations of political ideology across the three samples. All three samples produce substantively identical results with only minor variation in effect sizes. In short, liberals and conservatives in our MTurk sample closely mirror the psychological divisions of liberals and conservatives in the mass public, though MTurk liberals hold more characteristically liberal values and attitudes than liberals from representative samples. Overall, our results suggest that MTurk is a valid recruitment tool for psychological research on political ideology.
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Purpose Insufficient effort responding (IER), which occurs due to a lack of motivation to comply with survey instructions and to correctly interpret item content, represents a serious problem for researchers and practitioners who employ survey methodology (Huang et al. 2012). Extending prior research, we examine the validity of the infrequency approach to detecting IER and assess participant reactions to such an approach. Design/Methodology/Approach Two online surveys (Studies 1 and 2) completed by employed undergraduates were utilized to assess the validity of the infrequency approach. An on-line survey of paid participants (Study 3) and a paper-and-pencil survey in an organization (Study 4) were conducted to evaluate participant reactions, using random assignment into survey conditions that either did or did not contain infrequency items. Findings Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence for the reliability, unidimensionality, and criterion-related validity of the infrequency scales. Study 3 and Study 4 showed that surveys that contained infrequency items did not lead to more negative reactions than did surveys that did not contain such items. Implications The current findings provide evidence of the effectiveness and feasibility of the infrequency approach for detecting IER, supporting its application in low-stakes organizational survey contexts. Originality/Value The current studies provide a more in-depth examination of the infrequency approach to IER detection than had been done in prior research. In particular, the evaluation of participant reactions to infrequency scales represents a novel contribution to the IER literature.
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With progress in medicine, it gradually became apparent that the ultimate purpose of health interventions is to enhance the quality of life (QoL) rather than to simply prolong life. Over the last two decades, this concept has been applied to almost all aspects of health care. Despite debates on definition and components, it is now widely agreed that QoL is- sues are central to health care, including mental health care. Quality definition in mental health and its measurement poses special problems. However, QoL has been assessed in many psychiatric disorders, and serial QoL assessment now forms an essential part of research protocols in therapeutic trials. QoL issues in relation to mental health care is especially relevant with regard to: baseline assessment of severity of the disease condition; part of evaluation of treatment outcome; identification of high-risk population; setting goals for psychosocial therapies and rehabilitation; and finally, health education, prevention and policy making. Research conducted in QoL aspects of severe mental disorders are summarized and their implications highlighted. Conceptual and methodological questions in such research are also dis- cussed (German J Psychiatry 2004; 7 (3): 35-43).
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Few research studies have addressed the long-term effects caused by catastrophes, and no study has ever explored the life quality, physical diseases, and psychological impairment of earthquake survivors at the same time. This study seeks to reveal survivors' quality of life, physical diseases, and mental health. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through multi-stage sampling approach three years after the Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 2525 subjects were interviewed. Symptoms of PTSD were reported by 8.8% of the respondents from the seriously affected areas and 0.5%, the less hit areas. Prevalence of chronic diseases was 39.2% and 22.1% respectively, and two-week prevalence rate, 24.9% and 12.7% respectively. In the multivariate analysis, two-week prevalence, displacement, no regular income, receiving mental health support after the disaster, family members died or missing, injured due to the quake, and person who witnessed someone being killed or injured were independently associated with higher prevalence for symptoms of PTSD. Most subscales of SF-12 negatively correlated with age, chronic diseases, two-week prevalence, injured due to the disaster, home or property loss, and score of the 3-year PTSD symptoms, but positively correlated with higher education and higher household income. The rates of physical diseases and symptoms of PTSD were relatively high, and the quality of life was poor among victims in the hard-hit areas 3 years after the earthquake. Physical impairment correlated with symptom of PTSD, and both were negatively associated with quality of life.
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This study examined the main and interactive relations of stressors and coping related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with Chinese college students' psychological adjustment (psychological symptoms, perceived general health, and life satisfaction) during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. All the constructs were assessed by self-report in an anonymous survey during the final period of the outbreak. Results showed that the relations of stressors and coping to psychological adjustment varied by domain of adjustment. Regression analyses suggested that the number of stressors and use of avoidant coping strategies positively predicted psychological symptoms. Active coping positively predicted life satisfaction when controlling for stressors. Moreover, all types of coping served as a buffer against the negative impact of stressors on perceived general health. These findings hold implications for university counseling services during times of acute, large-scale stressors. In particular, effective screening procedures should be developed to identify students who experience a large number of stressors and thus are at high risk for developing mental health problems. Intervention efforts that target coping should be adapted to take account of the uncontrollability of stressors and clients' cultural preferences for certain coping strategies. A multidimensional battery of psychological adjustment should be used to monitor clients' psychological adjustment to stressors and evaluate the efficacy of intervention.
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This study aims to observe longitudinal change of quality of life (QOL) and psychological well-being in a community sample affected by an earthquake and to examine the relationship between QOL and disaster exposure, post-disaster support and other related variables. The subjects, from two villages at different distances from the epicenter, were assessed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) and three subscales of a symptoms checklist at 3 months (n=335) and 9 months (n=253) after the earthquake, respectively. Exposure to the earthquake was associated with multidimensional impairment in QOL, including physical, psychological and environmental domains at 3 months, and psychological and environmental domains at 9 months. The victims also suffered significantly more psychological distress in terms of depression, somatization and anxiety. At both assessment points the group that experienced lower initial exposure but then received less post-disaster help reported poorer QOL and psychological well-being. The two victim groups also differed significantly in changing trend along time. The group that received more support showed a general improvement in post-disaster well-being from 3 months to 9 months. The results confirm that post-disaster variables could be as important to post-disaster psychosocial outcomes as variables of pre-disaster vulnerability and disaster per se. A comprehensive and prospective assessment of disaster effects is imperative for the better organization of disaster relief programs and psychosocial interventions.
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Results for 160 samples of disaster victims were coded as to sample type, disaster type, disaster location, outcomes and risk factors observed, and overall severity of impairment. In order of frequency, outcomes included specific psychological problems, nonspecific distress, health problems, chronic problems in living, resource loss, and problems specific to youth. Regression analyses showed that samples were more likely to be impaired if they were composed of youth rather than adults, were from developing rather than developed countries, or experienced mass violence (e.g., terrorism, shooting sprees) rather than natural or technological disasters. Most samples of rescue and recovery workers showed remarkable resilience. Within adult samples, more severe exposure, female gender, middle age, ethnic minority status, secondary stressors, prior psychiatric problems, and weak or deteriorating psychosocial resources most consistently increased the likelihood of adverse outcomes. Among youth, family factors were primary. Implications of the research for clinical practice and community intervention are discussed in a companion article (Norris, Friedman, and Watson, this volume).
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Studies of coping in applied settings often confront the need to minimize time demands on participants. The problem of participant response burden is exacerbated further by the fact that these studies typically are designed to test multiple hypotheses with the same sample, a strategy that entails the use of many time-consuming measures. Such research would benefit from a brief measure of coping assessing several responses known to be relevant to effective and ineffective coping. This article presents such a brief form of a previously published measure called the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), which has proven to be useful in health-related research. The Brief COPE omits two scales of the full COPE, reduces others to two items per scale, and adds one scale. Psychometric properties of the Brief COPE are reported, derived from a sample of adults participating in a study of the process of recovery after Hurricane Andrew.
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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.
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Mediation models are widely used, and there are many tests of the mediated effect. One of the most common questions that researchers have when planning mediation studies is, "How many subjects do I need to achieve adequate power when testing for mediation?" This article presents the necessary sample sizes for six of the most common and the most recommended tests of mediation for various combinations of parameters, to provide a guide for researchers when designing studies or applying for grants.
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Given the devastation caused by disasters and mass violence, it is critical that intervention policy be based on the most updated research findings. However, to date, no evidence-based consensus has been reached supporting a clear set of recommendations for intervention during the immediate and the mid-term post mass trauma phases. Because it is unlikely that there will be evidence in the near or mid-term future from clinical trials that cover the diversity of disaster and mass violence circumstances, we assembled a worldwide panel of experts on the study and treatment of those exposed to disaster and mass violence to extrapolate from related fields of research, and to gain consensus on intervention principles. We identified five empirically supported intervention principles that should be used to guide and inform intervention and prevention efforts at the early to mid-term stages. These are promoting: 1) a sense of safety, 2) calming, 3) a sense of self- and community efficacy, 4) connectedness, and 5) hope.
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on all aspects of society, including mental health and physical health. We explore the psychological, social, and neuroscientific effects of COVID-19 and set out the immediate priorities and longer-term strategies for mental health science research. These priorities were informed by surveys of the public and an expert panel convened by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ: Transforming Mental Health, in the first weeks of the pandemic in the UK in March, 2020. We urge UK research funding agencies to work with researchers, people with lived experience, and others to establish a high level coordination group to ensure that these research priorities are addressed, and to allow new ones to be identified over time. The need to maintain high-quality research standards is imperative. International collaboration and a global perspective will be beneficial. An immediate priority is collecting high-quality data on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic across the whole population and vulnerable groups, and on brain function, cognition, and mental health of patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for research to address how mental health consequences for vulnerable groups can be mitigated under pandemic conditions, and on the impact of repeated media consumption and health messaging around COVID-19. Discovery, evaluation, and refinement of mechanistically driven interventions to address the psychological, social, and neuroscientific aspects of the pandemic are required. Rising to this challenge will require integration across disciplines and sectors, and should be done together with people with lived experience. New funding will be required to meet these priorities, and it can be efficiently leveraged by the UK's world-leading infrastructure. This Position Paper provides a strategy that may be both adapted for, and integrated with, research efforts in other countries.
Article
China has been severely affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) since December, 2019. We aimed to assess the mental health burden of Chinese public during the outbreak, and to explore the potential influence factors. Using a web-based cross-sectional survey, we collected data from 7,236 self-selected volunteers assessed with demographic information, COVID-19 related knowledge, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. The overall prevalence of GAD, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality of the public were 35.1%, 20.1%, and 18.2%, respectively. Young people reported a significantly higher prevalence of GAD and depressive symptoms than older people. Compared with other occupational group, healthcare workers were more likely to have poor sleep quality. Multivariate logistic regression showed that age (< 35 years) and time spent focusing on the COVID-19 (≥ 3 hours per day) were associated with GAD, and healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep quality. Our study identified a major mental health burden of the public during the COVID-19 outbreak. Young people, people spending too much time thinking about the outbreak, and healthcare workers were at high risk of mental illness. Continuous surveillance of the psychological consequences for outbreaks should become routine as part of preparedness efforts worldwide.
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Objective: Specific personality traits are associated with differential use of various coping strategies. Few studies have examined the relationship between personality and coping in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. We therefore examined the relationship between previously identified personality profiles (ie, Distressed [14.3% of total sample], Normative [53.8%], Resilient [31.9%]) and measures of coping and adjustment. Methods: Patients (n = 1248) undergoing chemotherapy for breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed measures of personality (NEO-Five Factor Inventory), coping (Brief COPE), and psychological adjustment to cancer (Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale). Differences in coping and adjustment among the three personality profiles were evaluated using analysis of variance. Results: On the Brief COPE, the Distressed class endorsed lower use of Active Coping, Positive Reframing, Acceptance, Emotional Support (ie, "engagement" coping); and greater use of Denial, Venting, Behavioral Disengagement, Self-Blame (ie, "disengagement" coping) compared to the Normative and Resilient classes. On the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale, the Distressed class scored higher on Anxious Preoccupation, Helplessness/Hopelessness, Fatalism, and Avoidance, and lower on Fighting Spirit, compared to the other two classes. Conclusions: In this sample of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy, patients in the Distressed personality class showed a reduced repertoire of adaptive coping strategies, while those in the Resilient class reported greater use of adaptive or engagement coping strategies. Further work should examine the potential mediating or moderating role of coping and adjustment in the relationships between personality and patient outcomes. Interventions to enhance beneficial and reduce harmful coping strategies in cancer patients should be evaluated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorders have been demonstrated. There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years. In cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable. It is more likely that this heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences. Anxiety disorders follow a chronic course; however, there is a natural decrease in prevalence rates with older age. Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders.
Article
Background: The paper reports on the development of the WHOQOL-BREF, an abbreyiated version of the WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. Method: The WHOQOL-BREF was derived from data collected using the WHOQOL-100. It produces scores for four domains related to quality of life: physical health, psychological, social relationships and environment. It also includes one facet on overall quality of life and general health. Results: Domain scores produced by the WHOQOL-BREF correlate highly (0.89 or above) with WHOQOL-100 domain scores (calculated on a four domain structure). WHOQOL-BREF domain scores demonstrated good discriminant validity, content validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Conclusion: These data suggest that the WHOQOL-BREF provides a valid and reliable alternative to the assessment of domain profiles using the WHOQOL-100. It is envisaged that the WHOQOL-BREF will be most useful in studies that require a brief assessment of quality of life, for example, in large epidemiological studies and clinical trials where quality of life is of interest. In addition, the WHOQOL-BREF may be of use to health professionals in the assessment and evaluation of treatment efficacy.
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This study examined the relation of coping strategies, social support, and hope to psychological distress [symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general distress] among Hurricane Katrina survivors. The research questions concerned whether different coping strategies (problem-focused or avoidant coping),perceptions of social support, and hope were associated with psychological distress within this sample, as well as whether level of hope moderated the relations between coping/social support and psychological distress. Results indicate that avoidant coping was positively related to PTSD symptoms and general psychological distress, hope was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms and general psychological distress, problem-focused coping was associated with many PTSD symptoms, and social support was associated with low general psychological distress. Hope moderated the relation between avoidant coping and general psychological distress. These results are important for extending research on various psychosocial factors as they relate to psychological distress among a sample of survivors of a major traumatic event.
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The importance of economic well-being is recognised in the recent UK Government policy. Older people may be particularly vulnerable to economic fluctuations as they are reliant on fixed incomes and assets, which are reducing in value. Within the literature, little is understood about the impact of the current economic downturn on people's general quality of life and well-being and, in particular, there is little research on the financial experiences and capability of the older age group, a concern in light of the ageing UK population. This article reports a qualitative research study into the nature of older peoples' vulnerability by exploring their perceptions of the impact of the economic recession on their well-being and quality of life. It explores specifically a group of older people who are not the poorest within the ageing population, but who may be described as the 'asset rich-income poor' group. Key themes relate to the impact of the recession on the costs of essential and non-essential items and dimensions of mental, physical and social well-being. Implications for health and social care practice in meeting the needs of older people during times of economic recession are then explored. The paper adds to the debate by demonstrating that the recession is having adverse consequences for older people's quality of life in terms of economic, mental and social well-being, although there is also evidence that some of them are equipped with certain resilience factors due to their money management and budgeting skills.
Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.
Article
Previous studies revealed that there was a significant increase in suicide deaths among those aged 65 and over in 2003. The peak coincided with the majority of SARS cases being reported in April 2003. In this paper we examine the mechanism of how the SARS outbreak resulted in a higher completed suicide rate especially among older adults in Hong Kong. We used Qualitative data analysis to uncover the association between the occurrence of SARS and older adult suicide. Furthermore, we used a qualitative study based on the Coroner Court reports to provide empirical evidence about the relationship between SARS and the excessive number of suicide deaths among the elderly. SARS-related older adult suicide victims were more likely to be afraid of contracting the disease and had fears of disconnection. The suicide motives among SARS-related suicide deaths were more closely associated with stress over fears of being a burden to their families during the negative impact of the epidemic. Social disengagement, mental stress, and anxiety at the time of the SARS epidemic among a certain group of older adults resulted in an exceptionally high rate of suicide deaths. We recommend that the mental and psychological well-being of the community, in particular older adults, be taken into careful account when developing epidemic control measures to combat the future outbreak of diseases in the community. In addition, it is important to alert family members to vulnerable individuals who are at potential risk because of their illnesses or anxieties.
Article
'Fighting spirit' in early-stage cancer comprises optimism about prognosis, a belief that the disease and/or its effects are controllable, and a determination to cope with the situation using various active coping methods. It is associated with better adjustment. In advanced cancer, the usefulness of this coping style is contentious. This systematic review identified eight studies that investigated these qualities in advanced cancer. They provided some evidence that positive attitude and self-efficacy may be associated with better emotional adjustment; active, problem-focused coping appears to be adaptive and avoidant coping maladaptive. However, major methodological flaws make any conclusions highly speculative. Further research in this area using larger samples and longitudinal design is required.
Article
We performed a series of meta-analyses examining the associations between coping and health-related outcomes in nonclinical adult samples. Results revealed that problem-focused coping was positively correlated with overall health outcomes, whereas confrontive coping, distancing, self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, avoidance, and wishful thinking were each negatively correlated with overall health outcomes. Neither planful problem solving nor positive reappraisal was significantly associated with overall health outcomes in our analyses. However, type of health outcome (i.e., physical vs. psychological) and situational characteristics (i.e., stressor type, controllability, and duration) moderated many of the overall associations.
Article
This study examined anxiety and coping responses to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong. Trait anxiety, situation-specific coping strategies, and coping flexibility were proposed as predictors of state anxiety during the early phase of the SARS epidemic. Seventy-two Hong Kong undergraduates (31 men, 41 women) participated in a prospective, multiple time-point study. Participants' trait anxiety and coping flexibility had been assessed in an earlier study. Five months later, they reported their anxiety and coping at each of the four time points during the outbreak. Results revealed fluctuations in state anxiety across time points. Results from hierarchical linear modeling showed that trait anxiety as well as the situation-appropriate coping strategies of avoidance and personal hygiene practice accounted for changes in state anxiety.
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