Article

The role of a local authority as a stakeholder encouraging the development of biogas: a study on territorial intermediation

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... Despite the growing number of applications for implementation, most AD projects fail due to difficulties in making investments profitable (Zemo and Termansen, 2018) and often as a result of the resistance of local populations, which can hinder the implementation of infrastructures (Bourdin and Nadou, 2020). The literature on social acceptability issues in territories (Schumacher and Schultmann, 2017;Zemo et al., 2019;Soland et al., 2013) argues that these fall under proximity conflicts of the same order as those concerning wind turbine development (Tegou et al., 2010) or other household waste treatment facilities (Mengozzi, 2010). ...
... By maintaining communication relations between the stakeholders, these actors guarantee the effective mobilization of material resources to make the installations profitable and prevent possible conflicts or opposition to the project. This result confirms Bourdin and Nadou's (2020) work on the fundamental role of territorial intermediation, which the owner of an AD project must fulfill. ...
... This was created from the project's inception through moments of exchanging information between local elected officials and the population, which adhered to the sustainability values of AD. The transparency of the choice of the Cavigny site and the administrative procedure for its implementation, and the possibilities for stakeholder participation in the management of the territorial project (Kortsch et al., 2015;Bourdin and Nadou, 2020), helped to prevent conflicts and ease tensions. ...
Article
Anaerobic digestion has recently gained interest in contributing to territorial strategy regarding the deployment of the circular economy and energy transition. Most projects bring together multiple actors from a wide variety of backgrounds. The article analyzes the evolution of synergies and cooperative behaviors between local stakeholders over the period 2010–2020 in an anaerobic digestion cluster in France. The study draws on social network analysis and proximity theory, which have recently been used for analyzing regional innovation systems, local clusters, territorial governance, and rural development. We reveal that local stakeholders develop dense relational networks that vary and evolve throughout the project. Different groups exist and behave in a semi-autonomous manner. All the actors are located in close geographical proximity. Still, their links in terms of organized proximities are related to various types of relations, resulting from cognitive resemblances or common origins. This explains the persistence and resilience of local relationships and how they maintain a collaborative dynamic over time.
... The development of this type of project does not always go smoothly, and the organizational difficulties related to the complexity of the relationships between stakeholders and the resistance of local populations fearing negative externalities are the main obstacles to the implementation of biogas units (Zemo et al., 2019;Bourdin & Nadou, 2020). Work on the analysis of social acceptability issues in biogas projects is increasing (Giuliano et al., 2018;Bourdin et al., 2019), but research does not focus on understanding the complex relationships built and developed between the local actors involved in anaerobic digestion projects. ...
... Indeed, it contributes to ensure local energy self-sufficiency and energy and nitrogen fertilizer savings in these areas, making it possible to reduce diffuse pollution and greenhouse gas emissions while generating value-creating activities and anchored jobs (Guenther-Lübbers et al. 2016). Its local challenges also concern reducing waste management expenditures for communities facing budgetary constraints (Bourdin & Nadou, 2020). Thus, anaerobic digestion biogas contributes in some way to territorial development defined as the improvement of the well-being and wealth of the stakeholders of a territory, given their relations of competition and cooperation, their initiatives and their oppositions, and the dynamic of territorial innovations. ...
... The innovations carried out in this framework are also organizational, through the development of networks of actors and collaborative relationships on which the territorial development process is strongly based (Torre & Wallet, 2016). These actor coordination networks, while guaranteeing the durability and sustainability of the territorial project (Reed et al., 2009), facilitate the circulation of flows, knowledge sharing, and collective learning, as well as the mobilization of technological innovations and the management of neighborhood conflicts (Bourdin & Nadou, 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogas is a process for producing renewable energy, which has recently gained interest in contributing to a territorial strategy for the deployment of the circular economy. The projects, which are collective in nature, bring together multiple actors or local stakeholders from a wide variety of backgrounds. The article proposes to analyze the territorial governance of this type of project by studying the relations of synergy and cooperation between stakeholders in the case study of the Syndicat Mixte du Point Fort (SMPF) of Cavigny (France). The results of the analysis of interaction and coordination networks show that local stakeholders develop dense relational networks that vary throughout the project. This high density is indicative of the importance of group cohesion in interactions, which is necessary to create a framework of trust and consultation that favors the success of territorial renewable energy projects. The measure of centrality of the interacting actors shows that the project leader (SMPF) plays the role of assembler and facilitator of the interaction networks facilitating the sharing of flows, knowledge, and collective learning.
... Despite the growing number of applications for implementation, most AD projects fail due to difficulties in making investments profitable (Zemo & Termansen, 2018) and often as a result of the resistance of local populations, which can hinder the implementation of infrastructures (Bourdin & Nadou, 2020). The literature on social acceptability issues in territories (Schumacher & Schultmann, 2017;Zemo et al., 2019;Soland et al., 2013) argues that these fall under proximity conflicts of the same order as those concerning wind turbine development (Tegou et al., 2010) or other household waste treatment facilities (Mengozzi, 2010). ...
... This was created from the project's inception through moments of exchanging information between local elected officials and the population, which adhered to the sustainability values of AD. The transparency of the choice of the Cavigny site and the administrative procedure for its implementation, and the possibilities for stakeholder participation in the management of the territorial project (Kortsch et al., 2015;Bourdin & Nadou, 2020), helped to prevent conflicts and ease tensions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anaerobic digestion has recently gained interest in contributing to territorial strategy regarding the deployment of the circular economy and energy transition. Most projects bring together multiple actors from a wide variety of backgrounds. The article analyzes the evolution of synergies and cooperative behaviors between local stakeholders over the period 2010-2020 in an anaerobic digestion cluster in France. The study draws on social network analysis and proximity theory, which have recently been used for analyzing regional innovation systems, local clusters, territorial governance, and rural development. We reveal that local stakeholders develop dense relational networks that vary and evolve throughout the project. Different groups exist and behave in a semi-autonomous manner. All the actors are located in close geographical proximity. Still, their links in terms of organized proximities are related to various types of relations, resulting from cognitive resemblances or common origins. This explains the persistence and resilience of local relationships and how they maintain a collaborative dynamic over time.
... La gouvernance territoriale représente un défi de taille car de nombreux nouveaux acteurs sont impliqués dans la transition énergétique. Par ailleurs, les porteurs de projet se retrouvent fréquemment en manque de soutien pour traiter la question de la place de leur projet de méthanisation sur le territoire (Bourdin et Nadou, 2020). Ainsi, non seulement les entreprises fournisseuses en électricité, mais aussi les collectivités, les entreprises, les associations, les agriculteurs et les particuliers peuvent participer à la planification et à l'exploitation de centrales locales d'énergies renouvelables. ...
... Les raisons invoquées dans ces manques d'acceptabilité sociale sont une série d'éléments qui pourraient entraîner une perte de bien-être pour les résidents locaux. Parmi ces causes, on retrouve les problèmes de pollution olfactive, l'augmentation du trafic de camions, la crainte de risques pour la santé publique, la baisse des prix immobiliers pour les habitations situées à proximité (Zemo et al., 2019 ;Dobers, 2019 ;Bourdin et Nadou, 2020). En conséquence, la formation d'associations de citoyens riverains contre l'installation d'unités de biogaz est encouragée (Sacchelli, 2014). ...
Book
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Nous avons le plaisir de vous présenter l’ouvrage numérique « Comment adapter et hybrider les démarches participatives dans les territoires ? » Vous y trouverez des outils qui impulsent, encouragent, fondent et favorisent le « décider ensemble » autour des processus de participation et d’apprentissage collectif. Cette production est elle-même collective, participative et interactive dans sa réalisation et son contenu : Collective, car elle a nécessité la conjugaison de compétences de Sylvie Lardon, Sabine Nguyen Ba et Grégoire Rouchit. Participative, car elle rassemble l’ensemble des contributions des participants, les débats en plénier et les enseignements tirés de quatre ateliers participatifs. Interactive, car échanges, discussions et témoignages des participants permettent de revivre les moments forts du colloque. Vous pourrez parcourir cet ouvrage en couleur et en musique... Bonne lecture et bonne écoute ! Sabine Nguyen Ba et Sylvie Lardon. Lien vers l’ouvrage numérique : https://www.iadt.fr/editions-webtv/psdr-opde . Cet ouvrage numérique est issu du colloque éponyme qui s’est déroulé les 15 et 16 octobre 2019 à Clermont-Ferrand, dans les locaux d’AgroParisTech. Organisé en coordination avec deux réseaux scientifiques, le réseau OPDE « Des Outils Pour Décider Ensemble » et le Groupe Transversal « Systèmes alimentaires et forestiers, circuits et circularités » du Programme de Recherche National PSDR « Pour et Sur le Développement Régional », cet ouvrage numérique constitue un livrable du projet PSDR INVENTER – Inventons nos territoires de demain.
... Concernant la justice procédurale, sont mis en avant les éventuels problèmes d'équité et de transparence du processus décisionnel dans l'implantation des usines de biogaz. Cela comprend le choix du site (sa localisation), la procédure administrative du permis de construire, les possibilités d'information et de participation appropriées pour les parties prenantes locales (Kortsch et al., 2015 ;Bourdin et Nadou, 2020). La justice procédurale peut être obtenue en offrant aux résidents locaux des options appropriées en matière d'information et de participation, ce qui, à son tour, aide à établir des relations de confiance entre les parties. ...
... Aussi bien du côté des porteurs de projets agriculteurs que du côté des porteurs de projets industriels, il ressort qu'associer des élus ralentit le processus, mais que cela permet d'intégrer un plus grand nombre d'acteurs, d'organiser des rencontres et de changer la dimension du projet. Nous retrouvons ici le rôle d'acteur intermédiaire territorial décrit dans certains travaux récents sur la méthanisation (Bourdin et al., 2019 ;Bourdin et Nadou, 2020). * * * L'identification et la discussion des principaux facteurs influençant les succès ou les échecs des projets d'unités de méthanisation constituent un élément nouveau au sein des travaux conduits au sujet de la méthanisation. ...
... Second, it calls for collaboration with different stakeholders in the territories, which reinforces territorial governance. It is important to consult not only the actors engaged in the bioeconomy projects but also the local population, who are sometimes opposed to certain initiatives, to ensure their agreement (Bourdin and Nadou, 2020;Niang et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The uneven rural development and the investigation of the place of rural areas in the modern knowledge-based economy raise an important question. How can we foster knowledge emergence and dissemination in peripheral areas that are often considered less innovative due to their remoteness and weak technological creativity? This paper aims to present the contributions of the French PSDR program to rural knowledge creation and dissemi- nation in France based on a comprehensive and synthetic analysis of its participatory research projects. We identify five key components of the knowledge-related PSDR approaches which have significantly contributed to rural innovation in France linked to (1) the governance of agricultural lands, (2) the territorial attractiveness and well-being, (3) the agroecological transition in the territories, (4) the territorialized food systems, as well as (5) the bioeconomy and circular economy. We emphasize the need to combine technological, organizational, and territorial innovation and involve local partners in the design and elaboration of research programs. Rural areas can thus produce new knowledge beneficial to local communities and transferable to other sectors or territories. Finally, we suggest a comprehensive territorial vision for knowledge-based rural development and discuss the importance of a national multidisciplinary and participatory research program.
... ADEME is also promoting the constitution of a national network of practitioners called SYNAPSE, whose objective is to provide feedback and allow the sharing of good ITE practices, and more than 150 initiatives promoting ITE in the French territory are partly funded by a public actor. Public actors are involved in ITE initiatives all over the world, taking on different roles, such as operator, organizer, financer, supporter, policymaker, or regulator (Bourdin & Nadou, 2020;Uusikartano et al., 2021), in order to make ITE a real strategy for the sustainable development of territories. ...
Article
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In this paper, we are interested in industrial and territorial ecology (ITE), whose aim is to optimize the management of material and energy flows between local economic players by drawing inspiration from the cyclical nature of natural ecosystems. The organizational elements, specifically the forms of coordination between actors, appear to be central in the setting out of these processes. This is why methodological devices promise to respond to the chronic difficulty of implementing local inter-firm relations conducive to cooperation. The work presented here, based on social network analysis, aims to determine their validity through three case studies. First, we examine the need to consider the spatial dimension of ITE approaches to understand the conditions for the emergence of inter-firm cooperation and sustainable development, and we present the methodological elements of our work. Then, we proceed to the case studies and identify inter-firm relations and study their evolution over time. We conclude with an assessment of the devices studied, the intermediary role of facilitators, and the difficulty of perpetuating these types of cooperative relations, which raises serious questions about the modalities of the implementation of sustainable territorial development processes.
... Ainsi, Karlsson et al. (2017) proposent une approche centrée sur les modèles d'affaires et leurs déterminants, mettant en évidence la complémentarité nécessaire entre déterminants économiques, sociaux et environnementaux. Pour d'autres auteurs, l'insertion territoriale doit être envisagée en tant que telle : soit comme clé d'entrée de la question de l'acceptation (Soland et al., 2013), soit comme composante d'une gouvernance territoriale (Bourdin et al., 2019 ;Bourdin et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
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This chapter aims to discuss how the rapid evolution of digital technologies is creating opportunities for new agricultural business models. First, it provides an overview of what the authors consider to be part of the digitalization in agriculture. Then it addresses the emergence of a community of practice based upon the data exchange and interconnections across the agricultural sector. Following, new business opportunities are presented first through an overview of emerging start-ups, then discussing how the inventor farmer profile could create opportunities for new business model through the appropriation of technologies, eventually highlighting the limits of some classic farm business models. Finally, the chapter presents an example of farmer-centred open innovation based on the internet of things, then discussing the related business model. The conclusions provide some perspectives on the use of agricultural digitalisation to increase the share kept by farmers in the value chain of agricultural productions.
Thesis
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L’économie circulaire se présente comme un nouveau modèle économique permettant de faire face aux défis actuels du système économique linéaire. Aujourd’hui reprise dans plusieurs pays comme un levier d’évolution des pratiques et des modèles de développement économique, ses démarches sont de plus en plus expérimentées dans les territoires, dans un contexte de transition socioécologique et énergétique. L’objectif de la thèse est de déterminer dans quelle mesure l’économie circulaire peut constituer, par son caractère innovant, une opportunité pour les territoires de mettre en oeuvre des processus de développement territorial. Le cadre d’analyse mobilise différentes théories et méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives dans le but de mieux comprendre les implications de l’ancrage territorial et l’importance des dispositifs de gouvernance pour la mise en place des stratégies d'économie circulaire sur les territoires. Les résultats montrent une croissance locale de l’économie circulaire, en phase avec les enjeux de plus en plus importants en termes de politiques publiques en faveur de l’emploi et de compétitivité de l’économie. Ils indiquent que le défi actuel n’est pas seulement une question d’innovations technologiques autour de l’efficience des ressources et de la création de valeur, mais aussi d’hybridation des actions et de capacité à faire coopérer des parties prenantes variées pour la mise en oeuvre d’externalités territoriales positives. L’exemple de la méthanisation permet de mettre en évidence le rôle du contexte local dans la capacité à générer ces activités nouvelles qui, par leurs vertus économiques et sociales contribuent à créer de nouveaux liens et des processus durables, grâce à l’activation ou au renforcement des proximités et de leurs potentiels.
Technical Report
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This ESPON report has been written by Sebastien BOURDIN. Europe is facing two major challenges: population decline and climate change. However, not all cities and regions are affected in the same way. Concerning the demographic issue, if we consider the double effect of longer schooling and an ageing population, this will result in a significant reduction in the working-age population with economic and social consequences that could be disastrous for certain territories. Concerning the climate problem, heat waves, marine submersions, forest fires, and other droughts are already very noticeable in certain regions and at certain times. Still, if nothing is done, they are likely to spread geographically, increasing in frequency and intensity. Moreover, the COVID-19 crisis has highlighted, and sometimes accentuated, socio-economic and territorial inequalities. It has also revealed the differences in the institutional, financial and anticipatory capacity of cities and regions. In this context, more than ever before, there is a need for structural changes in regional economies.
Article
The future European "Green Deal" will set ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2030. Reaching these targets will partly rely on the decarbonization of the gas sector and the development of the biomethane. In this context, this article aims to provide a vision of the European biogas sector development from 2020 towards 2030 and beyond. It appears that the biogas sector is facing a shift in its development paradigm. Indeed, this sector is still mainly dominated by a model based on energy crops, high feed-in tariffs and local electrical production via combined heat and power units. However, biogas sector is now moving towards a different model, where organic wastes, agricultural by-products as well as sequential crops are mainly used as feedstocks, biogas is upgraded to biomethane for various applications (transportation, chemical production, heat, etc.) and subsidy schemes are progressively reduced. Overall, current European policies are pushing the sector to increase its sustainability and to reduce biogas production costs. To answer these challenges, the main improvement tracks are identified and discussed. In the future, it is believed that the biogas sector should address these aspects to ensure its growth towards 2030 and beyond.
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