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Emergency Remote Teaching Scenarios, Struggles and Soundboxes: A Case Study on Malaysian Teachers


Abstract and Figures

The shift to emergency remote teaching has created a ripple effect in education across the globe. Although efforts to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic can be lauded, much remains unknown in terms of the challenges that teachers have gone through in fulfilling their roles during emergency remote teaching. The study is a necessary step to identify and determine how teachers articulate their perspectives as an educator during emergency remote teaching. A case study on a group of trained graduate teachers in Malaysia was conducted to investigate strategies and struggles they faced in the emergency remote teaching period through a survey and a thematic analysis of narratives they provided. Findings show that though respondents were equipped with pedagogical knowledge in integrating technology, they were unable to fully utilise what they have learned in their teacher training programme during emergency remote teaching due to lack of administrative support from school and poor infrastructure accessibility. Their narratives also suggested a pertinent need for future study to investigate the synergy between parents, schools and teachers in working cohesively to ensure learning is supported effectively at home and in school especially during emergency remote teaching.
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Emergency Remote Teaching Scenarios, Struggles and
Soundboxes: A Case Study on Malaysian Teachers
Kee-Man Chuah1, Fitri Suraya Mohamad2
1Faculty of Language and Communication, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan Sarawak
2Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak,
94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak
{kmchuah, mfitri}
Abstract. The shift to emergency remote teaching has created a ripple effect in
education across the globe. Although efforts to mitigate the impacts of COVID-
19 pandemic can be lauded, much remains unknown in terms of the challenges
that teachers have gone through in fulfilling their roles during emergency remote
teaching. The study is a necessary step to identify and determine how teachers
articulate their perspectives as an educator during emergency remote teaching. A
case study on a group of trained graduate teachers in Malaysia was conducted to
investigate strategies and struggles they faced in the emergency remote teaching
period through a survey and a thematic analysis of narratives they provided.
Findings show that though respondents were equipped with pedagogical
knowledge in integrating technology, they were unable to fully utilise what they
have learned in their teacher training programme during emergency remote
teaching due to lack of administrative support from school and poor infrastructure
accessibility. Their narratives also suggested a pertinent need for future study to
investigate the synergy between parents, schools and teachers in working
cohesively to ensure learning is supported effectively at home and in school
especially during emergency remote teaching.
Keywords: emergency remote teaching, teacher voices, teaching strategies,
COVID-19 pandemic
1 Introduction
The sudden onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic has not only disrupted the education
ecosystem but ironically, it has also created countless opportunities for administrators,
teachers, and students to explore unconventional strategies and methods to overcome
issues which came about with the emergence of the outbreak globally. As reported by
UNESCO [1], 1.5 billion learners are affected globally, due to school and university
closures or partial closures. While agencies and governments have put effort to mitigate
the pandemic’s impact on education, the widening gap in access to proper education is
alarming and many schools are hoping learning could happen by chance [2]. Such a
situation is due to the fact that teachers are expected to instantly respond to the call for
emergency remote teaching and the transition is shadowed by the perception that
Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal - IxD&A, N.46, 2020, pp. 13 - 28
technological tools could solve all problems. Hodges et al. [3] who introduced the term
“Emergency Remote Teaching” postulated that emergency remote teaching should not
be regarded as of the same value as online learning, distance learning or e-learning. To
them, it is a temporary shift of instructional delivery to an alternate delivery mode due
to crisis circumstances.
Numerous studies on emergency remote teaching focused on teachers’ readiness to
cope with demands and challenges of the seemingly new mode of learning [4, 5, 6]
particularly in the regions where online learning is vastly available only in
predominantly urban areas. Trust and Whalen [4] in their survey on 325 K-12 teachers
in the United States showed that many of the teachers (more than 60%) felt that they
should have been trained to properly plan and implement necessary actions during
emergency remote teaching. It was reported that teachers were unfamiliar with the
instructional tools and methods being introduced during the pandemic period. Nae [7]
in her review of school and university preparedness in Japan showed a similar pattern.
Teachers were reported to have a low competency in conducting classes online as
Japanese teachers were known to prefer face-to-face and hands-on teaching. She also
pointed out that students in some parts of the country faced challenges to learn online
due to limited access to the Internet and sufficient devices. It is worthy to note that these
studies were focusing on teachers’ readiness in coping with emergency remote teaching
and limited information was revealed about the instructional issues faced during the
implementation of emergency remote teaching.
A more recent study by Giovannella, Passarelli and Donatella Persico [19],
however, revealed insightful findings on how teachers in Italy coped with the closure
of schools during lockdown. Their survey on 336 teachers showed that 92% of them
were able to adapt to online education in less than two weeks. This transition time can
be considered as fast as compared to the current scenarios in Southeast Asia.
Giovannella et al.’s investigation also showed the importance of teacher education in
digital pedagogy, which is one of the challenges faced by Malaysian teachers as they
were predominantly trained to teach face-to-face due to the connectivity issue in many
parts of Malaysia. Aliyyah et al. [20] who conducted a qualitative study on 67 primary
school teachers in Indonesia revealed that teachers needed more time to adapt to the
online learning adoption due to the lack of support and insufficient pedagogical
knowledge on how to conduct classes remotely. They reported a heavy reliance on
third-party resources such as videos on YouTube and photos of printed materials and
sending them via WhatsApp chat app. They used these materials mainly for question
and answer (Q&A) instead of teaching the students systematically. The prevalent
problem of Internet accessibility is a key factor in stopping many teachers from being
more enthusiastic about online or remote teaching.
Several studies have looked at technological intervention and how several types of
tools would complement teaching and learning activities affected by the learning
disruption [8, 9]. The concept of “just putting everything online” seems prevalent, to
the extent that teachers reportedly became overwhelmed with the series of webinars,
online demonstrations and product placements which feature multiple educational
tools. This situation is expected since the need to shift the learning environment online
may not be as straightforward as converting all resources to digital format.
Nevertheless, as mentioned by Huang [10], online learning experiences are isolating
and require high-level of intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Such a situation has
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called for a more humanistic approach in identifying the hidden problems faced by the
teachers when dealing with emergency remote teaching.
From an empathetic perspective, as reiterated by Bizkurt and Sharma [9], it would
be crucial to listen to teachers’ voices (or “soundboxes” of opinions) not mainly in
terms of how they deliver educational contents successfully. A comparative study done
by Reich et al. [11] compiled voices from 40 teachers who were interviewed on their
coping strategies during the pandemic period. Their in-depth interviews identified three
emerging themes. Firstly, the teachers struggled to motivate their students remotely.
Secondly, the teachers mentioned professional loss and burnout as they no longer had
the sense of their own efficacy and professional identity. Thirdly, the teachers observed
a dramatic increase of societal inequities of students’ lives, particularly the
marginalised groups. These themes contribute to a scenario of how challenges faced by
the teachers are not solely about their readiness to use technology for the purpose of
emergency remote teaching. Teacher voices are a necessary tool to identify on-the-
ground challenges and coping strategies which transpired because of the lockdown due
to the pandemic. By understanding their struggles, it would provide significant insights
on the necessary assistance, support and solutions that could be given to teachers.
Research on emergency remote teaching has been mostly restricted to the heavy shift
of reliance on technology during the remote teaching period. It is still unclear how
teachers coped with limitations they faced in coping with the changes of instructional
delivery, quality of instructional input, and the nature of interactivity with students
when teaching remotely.
For context, the current study was designed to investigate in greater detail the causes
of why teachers in the Sarawak state of Malaysia were not utilising technology during
emergency remote teaching. Findings from an earlier unpublished research by the State
Education Department in April 2020 gave indications about issues with poor
administrative support, poor teacher-parental support and lack of computing and
internet access being the key factors why teachers did not embrace technology-based
instruction during emergency remote teaching. Both authors have access to the
respondents in the current study, as they were once students in a Masters of Learning
Sciences programme at a local university where both authors are currently teaching.
Knowing the scope of training that all the respondents have gone through in the Masters
programme, it was decided that investigating the issues and struggles of teachers who
have had training to use technology-based instruction would provide a useful insight
into reasons behind the poor use of technology among Sarawak teachers. It would also
provide a snapshot of how teachers are coping since Sarawak is the largest state in
Malaysia with more than forty ethnic groups and a dispersed population.
2 Method
At the point of writing, Malaysia, as a country, has undergone three waves of the Covid-
19 outbreak. As schools were closed, reopened, and closed again, teachers throughout
the country have had to cope with the resources they have at hand to provide school
tasks for their home-bound students. The first lockdown (known as Movement Control
Order) in Malaysia began from March 18, 2020 until March 31, 2020 but was
subsequently extended until June 9, 2020 due to the increase of COVID-19 cases in the
Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal - IxD&A, N.46, 2020, pp. 13 - 28
country. The lockdown was partially lifted in certain economic areas after that and
schools were allowed to resume operation gradually starting from June 24, 2020.
During the lockdown period of about three months, all classes were conducted online
but there was a lack of standardised procedures among the schools (particularly
government schools) in implementing online learning. We are aware that there was also
a disparity in terms of instructions given to schools at the district level. Thus, the
method of this study was designed to gauge what the group of teachers, whom we knew,
have experienced during this uncertain period.
An online survey was designed to capture experiences of fifty graduate trained
teachers, all who have completed a master’s degree in Learning Sciences in the past 10
years, and are currently teaching in urban, rural, and remote schools in Malaysia. The
survey contained two parts: background information, and strategies and struggles. The
second part included ten 4-point Likert scale items (1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Disagree,
3-Agree, 4-Strong Agree), three multiple-choice items and six open-ended questions
for teachers to share their narratives about their experience in emergency remote
teaching. In designing the constructs of the survey, we used:
a. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework [12]
b. Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework [13]
Both frameworks provided guidance to construct items to understand actual
experiences that respondents went through, as they utilised technology as the primary
means to teach remotely. TPACK serves as the reference point for items related to
teacher’s technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge while the CoI framework
offers input for the items related to the teachers’ efforts to create meaningful learning
experience through social, cognitive, and teaching presence. Table 1 shows the
mapping between the survey items and TPACK and CoI constructs.
Table 1. Mapping of survey items and constructs from TPACK and CoI frameworks
Cohort they enrolled into in the Masters
in Learning Sciences programme
Current place of teaching
Years of academic qualification
Highest academic qualification
Strategies and
4-point Likert scale items:
During this period, I am able to
design online activities for my
reach out to my students
use online tools to reach out to my
apply what I have learned during
redesign face-to-face teaching
materials to fit the needs of the
TPACK and Co1
(Teaching Presence)
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find solutions to technical problems
that I faced during online teaching.
offer assistance to my peers when
they face problems in online
provide advice to my school
administrators in dealing with
remote teaching
practise suitable strategies to
increase student engagement
participate in webinars that
enhances my knowledge and skills
on remote teaching
Multiple-Choice Items
Which collaboration tools do you
use the most? (You may choose
more than 1)
Which communication tools do you
use the most? (You may choose
more than 1)
How long does it take to plan for a
remote lesson?
Open-Ended Questions
1. Please share the main strategies that
you have used to teach during this
2. How do you plan interaction with your
students? (E.g., doing regular meet-up,
setting interesting discussion topics,
conducting real-time activities like
quizzes, games, etc)
3. How do you assess learning success?
(As in students participation,
engagement, task completion,
attendance, etc, which one do you
assess as "learning success").
4. What are the challenges that you face
during this period of emergency remote
5. Do you collaborate with subject
specialists? In the same school, other
schools in same district, or other
schools outside of district?
6. Are there any interesting stories that
you would like to share with us during
your experience in emergency remote
teaching so far?
PK and CoI (Social
TPK and CoI
PK and CoI (Social
(Teaching Presence)
PCK and CoI
(Teaching Presence)
(Social presence)
CoI (Cognitive and
Social Presence)
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The selection of respondents in the study was driven by a need to understand if these
trained Learning Science graduate teachers were able to cope and adapt with
Emergency Remote Teaching. In the Masters programme that they attended, they
learned pedagogical knowledge and skills (TPACK) which directly relate to technology
advancements. Both authors taught all the respondents in the programme and are
responsible for most curriculum design and development decisions for the programme.
Choosing to investigate the coping and adaptation strategies used by these former
students was a deliberate attempt to understand how the graduate teachers utilised their
training into action, in a time where technology becomes a necessary instructional
delivery platform.
The survey was disseminated from 25 May 2020 until 12 June 2020 (three weeks),
about two months after lockdown was imposed in the country. Out of 140 graduates
from the Masters programme, who are currently teaching in public and private schools
in the country, a total of 52 responses (37%) were collected but two were excluded from
further analysis as more than half of the items were not completed. The final number
of respondents stood at 50 (36%). 80% of the respondents (n=40) teach in public
schools while twenty percent (n=10) teach in private/independent schools and colleges.
Table 2 illustrates the respondents’ years of teaching experience.
Table 2. Teaching experience
Years of Teaching
1 to 3 years
4 to 6 years
7 to 9 years
10 to 12 years
12 to 15 years
More than 15 years
The data from the close-ended items were analysed using descriptive statistics while
the open-ended items were qualitatively analysed through thematic analysis [14]. The
interpretation of the data was done through member checking [15] to ensure reliability
and validity of the themes identified through the analysis. Coding was done by both
authors of this paper. Member checking was done by sending back the first draft of
thematic analysis back to the respondents. As the respondents knew both authors,
feedback was sought immediately through emails, phone calls and text messages. The
feedback was incorporated to refine the analysis of data. The methodological approach
employed for content analysis was grounded theory, as themes were first derived from
the data, and based on personal interactions with the respondents of the study, who were
students of both authors.
In terms of limitations, we acknowledge the small sample size as well as the
convenient sampling technique used in the study. Although the numbers may not be
representative of the whole population (N=140), yet the findings of the study serve as
a useful indicator of actual instructional issues faced by trained teachers who have
learned about using technology for teaching.
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3 Results and Discussion
All respondents were deliberately involved in emergency remote teaching from the
beginning of April 2020. As countries around the world faced lockdowns, schools in
Malaysia were also closed. Teachers in public schools were asked to use Google
Classroom, a platform which was prescribed by the Education Ministry, a year before
the pandemic happened. The uptake to use Google Classroom was pedantic before the
pandemic, and it slowly picked up speed as school administrators began to impose its
use. Those who were teaching in private schools, in contrast, were quickly shifting
their instructional delivery online. Most respondents reported the push from their school
administrators and parents which made them embrace online teaching almost
immediately as when the announcement of school closures was made. Fig. 1 shows the
tools that the respondents used the most during emergency remote teaching. These
tools were introduced to them when they were in the Masters programme; hence it was
expected that the respondents would be familiar with their features and functions.
Fig. 1. Most used teaching tools during emergency remote teaching
Many of the respondents used Google Classroom (92%, n=46) and Google Meet
(80%, n=40%) to conduct their emergency remote teaching. The trend was somehow
expected as these two tools were endorsed by the Ministry of Education, Malaysia as
the primary platform for Malaysian schools. The respondents have been exposed to
Google Classroom and Google Meet beginning late 2019 as a nationwide strategy to
adopt flipped learning approach as part of the 21st century learning blueprint but not it
was not compulsory to use it. Other popular tools used were Zoom (55%, n=28) and
YouTube (40%, n=20). The reported usage also shows the respondents’ tendency to opt
for synchronous teaching such as live class via Google Meet or Zoom. The respondents
also listed other tools, where they included the use of Kahoot, Quizziz, Flipgrid and
Microsoft Teams. These tools, however, were not as widely used among the
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In terms of time spent to prepare a lesson of about 35 to 45 minutes (including
materials), 42% of them (n=22) indicated less than 24 hours, 38% (n=20) indicated 1
to 3 days, 14% (n=7) indicated a week while the remaining 6% (n=3) indicated more
than a week. The finding is an eye-opener as despite the widely accepted notion that
teachers were not ready for remote teaching, they were mostly spending between one
to three days to prepare for a 35-40 minute lesson. From another perspective, the
teachers could be rushing to convert their materials online, to comply with what was
required by their school administrators, akin to the famous saying “building the plane
while flying it”.
The survey had also asked about the teaching activities during the lockdown phase
in the country, in which teachers were instructed to conduct emergency remote
teaching. Table 3 shows their level of agreement to the given list of teaching activities.
Mean scores that are higher than 3.00 signify a high level of agreement.
Table 3. Level of agreement on listed teaching activities
During this period, I am able to:
design online activities for my students
reach out to my students
use online tools to reach out to my students
apply what I have learned during studies/training
redesign face-to-face teaching materials to fit the needs
of the situation.
find solutions to technical problems that I faced during
online teaching.
offer assistance to my peers when they face problems in
online teaching
provide advice to my school administrators in dealing
with remote teaching
practise suitable strategies to increase student
participate in webinars that enhances my knowledge
and skills on remote teaching
The strongest points which were reported were their ability to design online activities
(mean = 3.42) and ability to use online tools to reach out to their students (mean = 3.44).
These aspects represent their competence and confidence to initiate instructional
strategies which require the integration of technology. It represents “technological
pedagogical knowledge” in the TPACK model, which classifies the ability to use
technology tools to deliver purposeful instructions. These aspects of teaching
competence also correlated with narratives collected in the open-ended items in the
same survey. As one of the respondents described:
[I was able to] look at my f2f activity and use appropriate apps/tools/approaches
to convert these activities to the online platform.”- Participant X
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The respondents also scored high in items which focused on ability to use relevant
strategies to increase learning engagement (mean = 3.28). The score also represented
their TPACK ability, which denote competency in matching content, pedagogical
strategies, and technology tools to achieve an instructional goal. Feedback from the
respondents also illustrated the same sentiment:
“[I am able to] provide guideline[s] (questions) to scaffold students’
[comprehension] in the reading.” Participant Y
“ [I teach at an] elementary school, [so I] prepared a project based learning that
integrated more than one subject. [for example, I] combined English + Maths [in
one project assignment].” Participant P
All respondents of the study are graduates from a Master’s programme in Learning
Sciences. In the full-time two-year coursework Master’s programme, they have had
exposure and training in integrating technology for classroom use. It indirectly reflects
the impact of the programme on their competency in using relevant pedagogical and
technological intervention in coping with the demands of emergency remote teaching.
Flipped Learning, for example, was frequently mentioned in their narratives. It is an
approach that was also taught in the Masters programme they attended. The
respondents described how it was timely for them to put their knowledge of Flipped
Learning into practice what they have learned (mean=3.20) as mentioned by Participant
“Flipped learning for sure, since we can't meet face-to-face, I did several videos
as well as curate some.” Participant A
The respondents also reported how they were able to redesign face-to-face teaching
materials to fit the needs of emergency remote teaching (mean=3.06) particularly by
considering the situation of the learners as pointed by Participant L and Participant O.
Having such consideration shows teachers are integrating their pedagogical and
technological knowledge to address a learning needs as reflected in the TPACK model.
“I try to understand the student’s level of Internet connectivity first then I decide
what is the best way to reach out to them in terms of content.” Participant L
“I produced self-recorded videos [for teaching] and some [video materials] I get
them from online resources. My videos are short so that students can load them
faster”. Participant S
In terms of the creating cognitive, social, and teaching presence (constructs of
Community of Inquiry framework), the respondents’ articulation of their willingness to
offer assistance to their peers when they face problems in online teaching (mean=3.16)
is a positive indicator of collaboration between peers. Besides, the respondents also
reported that they were actively participating in webinars to enhance their knowledge
and skills on remote teaching (mean=3.60) while engaging in virtual mentoring and
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knowledge sharing. One participant even specifically mentioned the initiative done at
the school to create the community of practice among them:
“Yes, I collaborate with subject specialists at my school. We have a community of
practice page on Canvas (learning management system) where we share and
discuss about any challenges we have, share course syllabus among each other,
and biweekly check-in meeting on Zoom.”. Participant M
The awareness to form a healthy sharing of knowledge and expertise among the
teachers seem encouraging. However, most of them did not provide advice to school
administrators in dealing with remote teaching (mean=2.20). They might think that the
administrators have received directives from the Ministry of Education, and they were
not in the appropriate position to offer any further advice. One participant mentioned
how the teachers would normally follow instructions given from the administrators and
try to adapt although sometimes the instructions may be unclear.
“[What is challenging during this period is] the issue of support from various
parties especially from top (the administrators), even the directive was unclear to
a certain extent”. Participant E
On the other hand, the narrative analysis illustrated how technology access played
a dominantly discouraging role in enabling emergency remote teaching. The
respondents described how instructional problems were caused by network
accessibility issues faced by both teachers and students, especially those teaching in
rural or remote areas where Internet availability is limited. It has disabled effort to reach
out to their students effectively (mean=2.76). Some of the feedback from the
respondents described:
“Initially, I tried devising discussions and collaborative activities using Google
Classroom but many students had limited data or intermittent internet connection”
Participant C
“[The students have] poor Internet connection and accessibility to the
communication tools as learning medium” Participant B
In relation to the issue of Internet connectivity, the respondents were also asked to list
the communication tools that they used the most when reaching out to the students as
shown in Fig. 2. 90% (n=45) of them indicated WhatsApp while 55% (n=28) mentioned
they used Telegram as the means to communicate with their students. Both applications
are simple, secure, and reliable; they run on a minimal data requirement, making them
a forerunner choice among Malaysian teachers. 40% (n=20) respondents said they also
used Short Message Service (SMS) texts to communicate with their students. 20%
(n=10) had also used direct voice calls while WeChat and Facebook Messenger were
used by 10% (n=5%) of the respondents respectively. The respondents were clearly
relying on WhatsApp and Telegram as the main medium of communication, largely
due the low bandwidth requirement to run both applications.
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Fig 2. Most used communication tool during emergency remote teaching
Responses from Participant D and Participant G echoed this situation.
“Most of the students are reachable on WhatsApp since it is accessible even in areas
with only 2G” Participant D
“Setting discussion in WhatsApp group three times per week because it is easier for
the students to respond to me without high-speed InternetParticipant G
The main teaching and communication tools mentioned by the teachers were similar
to those reported by Aliyyah et al. [20], signalling the same obstacle faced by teachers
in Indonesia due to geographical constraints. As opposed to the findings reported by
Nae [7] and Giovannella [19], most of teachers in study struggled to make the transition
to online teaching and took them longer than expected to adjust to the “new way” of
delivering of lessons. On the bright side, peer support seems to be strong in which
teachers are co-organising webinars to assist each other in coping with the sudden
change. The findings of this study also indicated a high level of agreement on the
teachers’ willingness to assist their peers. This seems to encourage those who were
reluctant at first to begin learning new tools for teaching. The benefit of such mentoring
system is that teachers are more willing to open up their lack of skills and seek help. As
reported by Flores and Gago [23] about the situation in Portugal, even novice teachers
find it hard to cope with remote teaching and any form of support from peers or mentors
would help ease the pressure.
In summary, the remote teaching experience has affected the nature of instructional
delivery for teachers. From the survey, we conclude that there are phases within a
typical instructional process that have had to be compromised, either by choice, chance,
or competence. The narrative analysis sharply suggested the lack of internet access
being the “numero unoculprit in the provision of learning throughout the emergency
remote teaching experience.
To understand how the respondents’ instructional planning and delivery were
affected throughout the lockdown period, we illustrate the instructional gaps in Fig. 3,
Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal - IxD&A, N.46, 2020, pp. 13 - 28
to denote the phases which were implemented to their best ability during emergency
remote teaching. The constituents within the reference framework (Fig. 3) represent
commonly used instructional phases which would take place in a lesson. In the planning
stage, a teacher would typically identify the topic and syllabus to use, and to create
learning activities which would provide comprehensible input. The findings from the
study revealed how the respondents, despite struggling with emergency remote
teaching, were still able to implement several solutions based on their pedagogical and
technological knowledge that they have. In the emergency remote teaching situation,
the teachers were able to articulate evidence of their efforts in assessing resources and
access (particularly network access) as well as selection of instructional goals. These
two steps correspond to the planning phase in face-to-face teaching but were more
challenging in terms of determining access levels as in most cases it could be affected
by extraneous factors.
In emergency remote teaching, the planning stage is largely focused on searching
for resources which would be plausible to be shared through technology-based
platforms available for both students and teachers. While the teachers are familiar with
the textbook materials, during emergency remote teaching, they spent time looking for
resources on platforms like YouTube and Vimeo that would provide comprehensive
input for their students. While planning for a lesson, the teachers would determine the
learning goals, to match the resources they could find and disseminate. Unlike when
teaching in a physical class, teachers would typically present readily available hardcopy
materials, and provide lesson input and guidance. During emergency remote teaching,
lesson input is not a priority. Rather, the focus was on providing tasks for students to
undertake, so they would be able to physically work on a lesson on their own time. Due
to the lack of internet access, a typical lesson material is reduced to the minimum, so
students would only have to work on a fraction of a typical lesson. The decision to
reduce the amount of content input was led by the lack of computing and network
access, as most families were reported to have limited hardware and data access from
their homes.
Subsequently, the delivery of input and delivery of tasks during emergency remote
teaching go beyond just a difference in mode of delivery. The shift to online platforms
also includes the need to consider learners’ prior knowledge on technological use,
which in turn influences the teachers’ ways of delivering the input and tasks. What is
visibly missing in the data gathered is the teachers’ efforts to seek clarification as well
as setting the provision of feedback. The lack of these two steps has resulted in many
scenarios where teachers were merely “dumping” contents through various platforms
(e.g., Google Classroom, WhatsApp Group, or Telegram Group).
In every learning session, the measurement of learning is designed into the lesson
to provide an indication of growth. Fig 3 illustrates how the measurement of learning
was done through the use of online quizzes. In a typical physical lesson in a classroom,
teachers could use a variety of assessments which would be selected based on students’
responses and interaction. With the lack of live interaction in remote classrooms,
respondents of the study reported that they have used quizzes they found online, to
establish assessment into the learning experience.
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Fig 3. Parallel comparison of instructional phases implemented by respondents
Another notable gap is the absence of reinforcement and reflection which are
common in face-to-face teaching. Many respondents reported that they were not able
to provide reinforcement and reflection after the quizzes. Such phenomenon is largely
caused by the minimal interaction between teachers and their students. Quality of
comprehension may have been compromised; however, teachers who opted to use
online quizzes relied on the prompts provided through the quizzes as a way to provide
immediate feedback.
The final section in the survey required the respondents to share personal stories
related to their own experiences during emergency remote teaching. Most of the stories
shared were positive, indicating satisfaction they sought in putting their knowledge
about online learning to practice.
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“I get to put my knowledge on online learning into practice as my school is still
used to face to face teaching.” Participant D
“It makes me feel proud of my past experience as Learning Sciences student.”
Participant F
“Happy to see every teacher/academician/instructor use online learning in their
teaching & learning process. So no more ‘alasan’ (excuses) the gov didn’t
provide sufficient facilities at school. Now everyone berusaha sendiri (has to work
hard).” – Participant H
“I was happy that during MCO (lockdown) I get to join so many trainings. I could
not have joined during other time. Learned so much.” Participant J
“During this MCO, I joined A LOT OF webinar organized by (Digital Classroom,
ARUS Academy, SGM and CGC) that helped me to find ideas to make my class
interesting and how to engage my students. I satisfied my 7-days’
course/workshop required by KPM.” Participant M
One participant also shared about the changes in students’ disposition when
transitioning to online learning.
“Students who are known to be talkative in f2f classes are surprisingly quiet in
online classes. And people prefer to type their questions (rather) than simply
asking using mic and/or video.” Participant B
In sum, the respondents were notably excited to test all possible means to meet the
demands of emergency remote teaching despite struggling to cope in the initial stage of
emergency remote teaching. The solutions devised by the respondents are reflective of
their ability to transform what they have learned into plausible means to solve problems
that they faced during this period although there was limited support from the
administrators. As expected from the contents of their training in the Masters of
Learning Sciences programme, traces of their application of TPACK and CoI constructs
in their emergency remote teaching experience are noticeable from their responses,
especially in the narratives they had shared.
4 Conclusion and Future Work
Although this study was conducted at a small scale, the findings have unveiled
individual efforts and struggles they had faced, to cope with emergency remote
teaching. One of the main struggles is how the respondents are going the extra mile to
design lessons that are reachable by learners who are now in various learning
environments at home, which may not be conducive for learning. In the context of
Malaysia (similar to its neighbouring country, Indonesia [20]), most families still
depend on schools in providing an appropriate space for learning and with diverse
Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal - IxD&A, N.46, 2020, pp. 13 - 28
backgrounds, it is a challenge for teachers to cope. Another notable struggle gathered
from this study is getting the support from the parents. There is widespread concern
that teachers are not able to function at their best due to the lack of support from the
parents. Conversely, there are also parents who are frustrated by the inability of some
teachers to deliver online lessons effectively. Therefore, it is worthy to investigate the
juxtaposition of values, as parents’ readiness to support learning from home could be a
contributing factor to teachers’ motivation to continue teaching remotely [21, 22].
The responses given by the respondents of this study could initiate a deeper and
larger investigation on strategizing relevant interventions to assist the teachers during
crises, not only exclusive to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the key issue quoted
by almost all teachers was the limited computing and internet access, other fundamental
issues such as teacher readiness, teacher knowledge (TPACK) and competencies to be
resilient educators amidst any crises, should be addressed in a more systematic manner.
Findings from this study resonates with other studies [16, 17, 18] that have reported on
Internet coverage as a hindrance to teachers’ ability to fully engage the students. A
nationwide survey on the disparity between urban and rural schools in terms of the
implementation of remote teaching should be conducted in the near future to assess
aspects in which support could be provided for teachers. Future investigations could
also include scope of parental support and educational level as key variables in
understanding the relationship between home learning environment and overall
educational experience in remote learning.
As the world shifts focus on making sure “no child is left behind”, it is necessary
for relevant authorities to invest time and effort to understand on-the-ground issues
faced by teachers, parents, and students. Equity in education would only happen when
access is provided. As the global education movements chant the call for nurturing
“future-ready students”, teachers too, have to be “future-ready” by equipping
themselves with necessary skills and knowledge to thrive during emergency remote
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... A questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were both designed by the researchers based on the reviewed literature (Alruwais et al., 2018;Chuah & Mohamad, 2020;Mohmmed et al., 2020;Slimi, 2020) that have tackled the online assessment challenges. The initial versions of the instruments were reviewed and checked by nine experts in the educational assessment field to check the clarity, relevancy to the main research question and detect potential issues and concerns emerging during the actual data collection process. ...
... The teaching load and the number of students per section were two other challenges related to administrative issues, supporting Chuah and Mohamad's (2020) findings. In an online learning environment, the educational administration doesn't need to worry about the capacity of the physical infrastructure, like teaching venues, computer labs, students' accommodation and transportation. ...
... Thus, the educational administration needs to configure staff's professional development needs and address them. Some challenges were impacting both learners and academic staff and were considered quantitatively at the moderate level, whereas reported as serious challenges in other local and international studies (Chuah & Mohamad, 2020;Mohmmed et al., 2020;Slimi, 2020). These challenges were learners' feelings of isolation, learners' late submissions, poor IT infrastructure, the unfamiliarity of academic staff with technology, learners' lack of technological competencies, online grading, internet accessibility, LMS issues and offering feedback to students. ...
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With the emergence of COVID-19, many educational pillars have been altered from conventional ways to online solutions. The educational assessment has been administered in online environments despite all encountered challenges. This descriptive study aimed to uncover the online assessment challenges that were confronted. Furthermore, it intended to display the impact of these challenges on the assessment principles. A mixed-method approach was adopted for data collection. A survey was used to collect quantitative data from 60 academic staff at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with four of them. The study found some challenges when applying online assessment such as learners’ refusal to turn on cameras, heavy teaching loads, cheating, the long time required for developing online assessment instruments, impersonation/dishonesty, assessing practical experiences, plagiarism, grades’ inflation, assessing group’s work, academic integrity and a large number of students per section. The study concluded that these challenges respectively threatened assessment principles of validity, efficiency, fairness, reliability and variability.
... In addition, some have difficulties in comprehending objectives and do not manage to simply carry them out (Kruszewska et al., 2020). Therefore, poor motivation and reflection (Chuah and Mohamad, 2020), together with a lack of useful knowledge for engaging with electronic devices for meaningful learning (Babinčáková and Bernard, 2020) should not be overlooked in a healthy discussion of ERT. ...
... Furthermore, collaboration among teachers, students, parents and other educational stakeholders may provide a sound basis for smooth communication systems and ensure better understanding of the challenges surrounding remote teaching and learning settings. In this way, engaging families in students' online learning (Koskela et al., 2020;Raguindin et al., 2021) can be constructive even when other household members continue with other online activities (Beattie et al., 2021;Chuah and Mohamad, 2020). In summary, the necessity of educational stakeholders' collaboration cannot be underrated in the overarching effort of instituting responsive ERT across varied national contexts. ...
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Emergency remote teaching (ERT) has potential for transforming future instruction and learning across the K–12 educational domain. The study presented here evaluated empirical evidence from peer-reviewed literature pertaining to the challenges and opportunities experienced by teachers and students during the implementation of ERT prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To locate relevant reports and research, the authors explored three databases: Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Scopus. Based upon predefined selection criteria, they selected 51 studies for thematic and content analysis. Next, they developed a taxonomy which comprised three categories: (1) K–12 education responses to ERT; (2) educational inequality; and (3) learning outcomes. Using this taxonomy, the authors conducted a deep analysis and critical review to highlight multiple challenges and critical gaps in the literature surrounding ERT in K–12 education settings. Their review reveals innovative strategies for overcoming obstacles to technological readiness, online learning adaptation and teachers’ and students’ physical and mental health. This knowledge will be valuable to policymakers, researchers, practitioners and educational institutions in reducing the adverse effects of catastrophic situations on childhood education in the future.
... Due to the rapid transition, Huijser and Fitzgerald (2020) caution that 'teaching staff within universities may be ill-prepared to meet these demands, either due to being non-users or exhibiting either the same or lower levels of digital competency as their students' (929), resulting in poor digital learning outcomes. In fact, Chuah and Mohamad (2020) report that some teachers were overwhelmed as the need to shift the learning environment online may not be as straightforward as converting all resources to digital format. ...
... This challenge is understandable and has been reported in several other studies. Chuah and Mohamad (2020) reported that though the teachers were equipped with pedagogical knowledge in integrating technology, they were unable to fully utilise what they have learned in their teacher training programme during emergency remote teaching 'due to lack of administrative support from school and poor infrastructure accessibility' (13). Portillo et al. (2020) maintain that the most significant 'difficulties reported by educators are shortcomings in their training in digital skills, the existing digital divide between teachers based on their gender, age, and type of school' (1). ...
Exploring online teaching competencies is paramount in the pandemic setting. This study explores and compares the perceived importance of teachers’ online teaching competence and ability in two higher education (HE) institutions in Sarawak, Malaysia. The study employs the validated Faculty Readiness to Teach Online (FRTO) instrument which assesses four online teaching competencies: Course Design, Course Communication, Time Management, and Technical Competence, to gather data. The findings from 156 respondents revealed that Course Design was rated highest for online teaching competence and ability, followed by Course Communication, Time Management, and Technical Competence. A multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, was conducted to examine whether demographic variables made a difference in teachers’ perceived importance and ability. All demographic variables did not influence the perceived importance of online teaching competence and ability. Further analysis from the t-test revealed no significant variation between the perceived importance of online teaching competence and ability. The findings highlight opportunities for strategic orientation to change during crisis. Further qualitative and longitudinal research among more HE institutions is needed to uncover whether such perceptions were articulated into online teaching practices. Implications for pedagogy and policy are discussed.
... In Malaysia, though not a full lockdown, the movement control order (MCO) introduced on March 18, 2020. Non-essential sectors including education in which schools, universities and colleges were required to close (Chuah & Mohamad, 2020;Toquero, 2020). The MCO was extended with different sets of requirements depending on the numbers of COVID-19 cases but in general, most students and educators were largely engaging in remote learning for almost two years. ...
This study investigated the effects of work from home (WFH) on language educators in Malaysian universities gauging specifically their perceptions on its advantages and disadvantages during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods research design was employed involving 152 language educators. The results revealed that although the overall mean scores were rather neutral, language educators were more inclined toward positive effects of WFH, most notably in terms of saving commuting time and being closer to family. However, the negative effects were missing colleagues and feeling glued to the computer. The results also shed interesting insights into Malaysian language educators' high confidence in focusing on their tasks and using tools to fulfill their teaching and work-related responsibilities. The outcome from this study is a guiding model that not only informs the literature on the feasibility of WFH in the higher education context but also highlights pertinent areas of concern for its future planning and implementation. Pr Practitioner Notesactitioner Notes 1. The study informs the literature on the work from home (WFH) policy and practices in the Malaysian higher education contexts which is similar to those within Southeast Asia. 2. The study ventures into an underrepresented domain by sampling university language educators during the COVID-19 pandemic to substantiate the feasibility of WFH beyond the pandemic. 3. The study provides university management with a viable WFH policy that can be folded into the fabric of institutional practice. 4. A model is proposed to guide university leaders/educators in planning, implementing, and continue assessing future WFH policy. 5. Future studies are encouraged to assess the effectiveness of the proposed model across different learning and cultural settings.
... They feel students are unlikely to benefit much from this type of education (Lizcano et al., 2020). Another challenge is to engage students in group activities as collaborative work is difficult when students are not physically present together, and most virtual classes become very instructor centred (Chuah & Mohamad, 2020;Mpungose, 2020). Other notable issues include security of online learning programs, user reliability, misuse of technology (Maatuk et al., 2021), high internet data usage and signal strengths in rural areas (Coman et al., 2020). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has forced higher education institutions to execute mitigation efforts such as an e-learning mode of instruction to reduce the impact on pedagogical activities. These challenges have raised concerns on students' engagement in e-learning as students are at risk of falling behind in education. However, there is little empirical research focusing on students' engagement in e-learning experiences. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' engagement in e-learning as well as specifically assess their engagement based on gender, age, ethnicity, level of education and field of study in a Malaysian public higher education institution. This study used a non-experimental quantitative research design. Data were collected from a sample of 281 students using the Blended Learning Engagement Questionnaire ©. WINSTEPS Rasch model measurement software was used to determine the reliability and validity of the research instrument. Subsequently, Differential item functioning (DIF) was conducted to assess students' engagement in e-learning as well as specifically assessing student's demographic factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, level of education and field of study. Findings indicate students have high levels of behavioural engagement as compared with cognitive and emotional engagement in e-learning. Further analysis indicated there were differences in students' engagement based on demographic factors such as gender, age, and field of study. This study provides insight into students' engagement in e-learning that will help lecturers to reflect on their own teaching practices. Implications and recommendations for future research are presented.
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Offering insights into the adaptational strategies that were employed by higher education institutions worldwide during the Covid-19 pandemic, this volume considers the lasting effects of adaptation and change, as well as the perception of universities’ role in society and desired ways of operating. Nearly overnight, the pandemic forced university leaders and faculty across the world to switch to remote models, not only of teaching and learning but also of managing an entire institution. This book recognizes how the scale of challenges as well as the range of measures specific universities had to undertake was uneven, with some being better equipped than the others. Using a selection of international case studies, it offers an insight into strategies employed by institutions worldwide to navigate the crisis, and highlights the targets and objectives addressed by them during these processes. In so doing, it offers invaluable lessons for the years to come. An indispensable study into strategies that result in resilience and sustainability for universities, this book is essential reading for scholars of education, pedagogy, and organizational change in the higher education sector, as well as educational leaders around the world.
Object: The chapter presents the first results of an exploratory study on faculty perspective transformations due to the massive shift to blended learning after the pandemic of Covid-19.Aims: The aim is to explore how faculty development can be informed by transformative and informal learning when facilitated through the set of communities of practice and focused on perspective transformation in time of disruptive changes like the post-pandemic one.Conceptual Framework: The conceptual framework included the international literature on faculty development, faculty community of learning, and collaborative research in HEIs.Methodology: The research design is an exploratory study. Faculty, institutional and managerial actors, Directors of Centers for Teaching & Learning took part in the research. Data collection was carried out through 35 in depth interviews and 8 focus-groups.Results: Results allowed to formalize a model to respond to the new challenges of the post-Covid 19 university: the 4S model to faculty development, where the 4S is the acronym for Sociocracy, Space, Sustainability and Share dimensions of faculty development.Implications: The final section includes recommendations on ways for HEIs to support faculty engagement in communities of practice.KeywordsCommunity-based learningFaculty developmentTransformative learningInformal learningCommunity of practiceCovid-19
This study aimed to evaluate the status of newly-hired public school teachers in terms of their TPACK Components and Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) as indicated in their e-learning readiness, perceived effectiveness, attitude, satisfaction, and anxiety. Quantitative research particularly the correlational research design was employed in this study. Thirty-four(34) purposefully selected newly hired public school teachers were the participants of the study. Results showed that among the TPACK components, those that have technology integration were among the areas where teacher-participants need major improvement. Their ERT Readiness scores showed 55.5% of the teacher-participants scored low in e-Learning Readiness, 55.9% scored moderately in perceived effectiveness, 73.5% were neutral in terms of attitude towards ERT, 58.8% moderately satisfied with ERT implementation, and 61.8% showed no anxiety. Findings showed a moderately positive and significant correlation between perceived effectiveness and attitude (r=.56, p<0.01); satisfaction and readiness (r=.35, p<0.05), satisfaction and perceived effectiveness (r=.34, p<0.05), attitude and anxiety (r=.34, p<0.05), but strongly positive and significant correlation between satisfaction and attitude (r=.69, p<0.01). Moreover, in terms of relationship between TPACK Components and ERT Indicators, a positive and significant correlation were also showed between perceived effectiveness and PK (r=.58, p<0.01), CK(r=.50, p<0.01), PCK(r=.48, p<0.01), and TCK(r=.40, p<0.05); and attitude between PK(r=.47, p<0.01) and PCK(r=.39, p<0.05The overall ERT readiness, where 56% of the teacher-participants scored low, is a product of the availability of ICT infrastructures in public schools, EdTech training, and pedagogical approaches in distance learning. It is recommended that the formulation of DepEd policies and programs are geared towards addressing these issues.
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The current article investigates tertiary level learners' satisfaction with a novel synchronous hybrid learning method (SHLM) that combines face-to-face and virtual teaching simultaneously using real-time audio and video technology to facilitate interaction between two groups. The originality of this approach stems from teaching two groups simultaneously (one group face-to-face and the other online) and rotating them consecutively in order to offer them 50% of the classes face-to-face and 50% virtually. This approach gave students equal learning opportunities by studying at home on specific days whilst not depriving them of face-to-face communication with their tutors, as well as establishing contact with their peers. We believe that this learning model has not been implemented in this fashion before and that the study has not been conducted elsewhere. For the most part, it was introduced as a solution to provide face-to-face teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed at examining learners' opinions, motivation, attention, and success in this new learning environment. The study employed a mixed methods approach that included a survey and semi-structured interviews to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The overall results revealed that learners were generally in favor of SHLM. Furthermore, it found that reducing the group sizes from 40 to 20 students had a positive impact on learner satisfaction. Students also highlighted that feeling safe, the use of technology, the teachers' attention during classes, sense of equality, and collaborative efforts between students contributed to their positive learning experience as a whole. Learners also indicated that their experience during classes with various digital tools such as Padlet, Google Jamboard, and Nearpod had a positive impact on their learning. However, the findings from some of the interviews revealed that there was a variation in opinion dependent on the students’ learning style, personality traits, and linguistic ability. Some beginner and intermediate learners pointed out that at times, their proficiency level hindered their understanding when alternating to online classes. The study alluded to the fact that the implemented learning approach is subject to modifications and may remain in place for an extended period in case the pandemic still poses a problem or in the event of a shortage of physical classrooms or faculty. This model can also be applied during emergency remote instruction in educational institutions that have a suitable infrastructure. Since this study only focused on the students’ perception of this hybrid approach, it is recommended that the teachers’ experience with the approach should be examined. It is also recommended that the teaching of the four English language skills should be examined through this model to find whether all the skills can be taught effectively.
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This article reports on a survey of New Zealand teachers, designed to assess their experiences of distance learning during the COVID-19 lockdowns. The survey gathered detailed quantitative and qualitative data from 31 schoolteachers who had previously experienced professional development in digital learning. The questions addressed many areas of practice, including the issues faced by teachers in the move to online distance learning, the impacts on relationships with students, families, and other staff, the impacts on workload and practice, and the experience of working intensively with digital technologies. The results suggested that this group of relatively well-prepared teachers were able to effectively move their practice online in a short period of time and, in most cases, to maintain the relationships with, and the learning of, their students. However, there were some indications in the data that learners from the Māori community faced resource challenges in successfully transitioning to online distance learning.
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Millions were affected by COVID-19 school closures, with parents and schools caught unprepared. Education is expected to play a role in creating equal opportunities, so transferring schooling responsibilities to families may have increased learning inequalities generated by family backgrounds. We examined the time students spent on home learning and explored the role of the schools’ distance teaching provision in explaining differences traditionally attributed to parental education, eligibility for free school meals, ethnic background and single parenthood. Using the Understanding Society COVID-19 dataset, we found children who received free school meals, single-parent families and children with parents with lower formal education qualifications and Pakistani or Bangladeshi backgrounds spent significantly less time on schoolwork. However, schools’ provision of offline and online distance teaching and homework checking significantly increased the time spent on learning and reduced some inequalities, demonstrating the policy relevance of digital preparedness to limit learning loss in school closures.
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This study is one of the first investigations conducted within the Italian school system to capture teachers' perspective, experiences and perceptions about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on school education. It was performed two months after the beginning of lockdown, when online teaching and learning processes were fully in place and had reached a steady state. The paper reports a descriptive analysis together with a network analysis, and the search for causal relationships among the variables that have been investigated. Generally, respondents reported that the reactions of educational institutions and individual teachers were satisfactory, preventing the collapse of the education system in spite of loss of contact with 6-10% of the student population and a significant teacher workload increase that posed individual time management challenges. Although teachers tended to adopt teaching strategies that reproduced standard classroom dynamics, the possibility of operating in this comfort zone generated a positive feeling about using technologies, a perception of increased digital skills mastery and a change in mindset about educational processes. In turn, this led to an increase in the perceived sustainability of online education, with about a third of the teachers expressing the wish to adopt a blended configuration for future teaching activities. Almost all participants recognized the significance of a digital pedagogy and the need to include it in the training curricula to prepare future teachers.
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This paper focuses on the national, institutional and pedagogical responses as a result of the closure of schools and universities in March 2020 in Portugal. It includes a brief description and analysis of the initiatives and responses to the crisis as well as the difficulties, the challenges and the opportunities. The paper concludes with the discussion of the implications for teaching and teacher education in such uncertain times, particularly in regard to the role of practice as well as issues of mentoring within the context of a practicum as a ‘real practice’ versus ‘an ideal(ised) practice’.
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This study explores the perceptions of primary school teachers of online learning in a program developed in Indonesia called School from Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Data were collected through surveys and semi-structured interviews with 67 class teachers in primary schools. Data analysis used thematic analysis of qualitative data. The analysis results found four main themes, namely, instructional strategies, challenges, support, and motivation of teachers. This research contributes to the literature of online collaborative learning between teachers, parents, and schools that impact student success. Broadly, the success of online learning in Indonesia during the COVID-19 Pandemic was determined by the readiness of technology in line with the national humanist curriculum, support and collaboration from all stakeholders, including government, schools, teachers, parents and the community.
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Purpose While educational shifts in response to COVID-19 at the state, district and school-level may have been grounded in the best of intentions, these decisions may not fully respond to the everyday realities of teachers, parents, caregivers and students living within historically marginalized communities. In addition to evidence-based and pragmatic approaches to emergency remote teaching (ERT), there is also a need to understand the experiences of students and families living in urban and rural contexts, who in light of existing educational inequities, are being further exposed to inequitable access due to school closures and the abrupt shift to ERT. This paper aims to use a reflexive dialogic approach to explore these issues. Design/methodology/approach Drawing from a larger phenomenological study highlighting the lived experiences of families being impacted by emergency shifts in educational policy and practice, this paper presents a dialogue between two teacher-educators of color working directly with teachers and administrators in the K-12 system across urban and rural contexts. This dialogue acknowledges and interrogates inequitable educational practices exacerbated by the pandemic for marginalized communities, and the shared responsibility of supporting the most vulnerable students as they transition to ERT. Findings Reflecting across their local contexts, the authors highlight the importance of educational decision-making that centers the perspectives of families in local communities; develop both pedagogical and structural approaches to address educational inequities; and purposefully approach ERT to disrupt such inequities and move toward a vision of educational justice. Social implications Broader implications of this discussion speak to the ever-widening divide between marginalized and dominant communities, which undergirds the and educational inequities that continue to threaten the academic achievement of all students. Originality/value As educational decision-makers imagine new pathways in the days ahead, this dialogue highlights the importance of keeping complex issues of educational inequity at the center of the conversation.
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The 2020 novel coronavirus pandemic has forced schools around the world to take measures to protect their students, staff, as well as reconsider new approaches to learning and teaching. Educational institutions have been confronted with the dilemma of either postponing classes indefinitely, or relying on emergency measures by moving their courses online and adapting to the new reality of distance learning. The first part of present paper discusses Japanese higher education's preparedness for this upheaval of its conservative ways and the current situation of information and communication technology (ICT) deployment in learning. The second part reflects upon the difference between classroom-based learning and online/distance learning, and discusses the current trend of "emergency remote teaching" with its problems and future tasks.
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Educational institutions (schools, colleges, and universities) in India are currently based only on traditional methods of learning, that is, they follow the traditional set up of face-to-face lectures in a classroom. Although many academic units have also started blended learning, still a lot of them are stuck with old procedures. The sudden outbreak of a deadly disease called Covid-19 caused by a Corona Virus (SARS-CoV-2) shook the entire world. The World Health Organization declared it as a pandemic. This situation challenged the education system across the world and forced educators to shift to an online mode of teaching overnight. Many academic institutions that were earlier reluctant to change their traditional pedagogical approach had no option but to shift entirely to online teaching–learning. The article includes the importance of online learning and Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, & Challenges (SWOC) analysis of e-learning modes in the time of crisis. This article also put some light on the growth of EdTech Start-ups during the time of pandemic and natural disasters and includes suggestions for academic institutions of how to deal with challenges associated with online learning.
Online learning has been widely promoted to replace traditional face-to-face learning during the COVID-19 pandemic to maintain young children’s learning and play at home. This study surveyed 3275 Chinese parents’ beliefs and attitudes around young children’s online learning during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most parents (92.7%) in the study reported that their children had online learning experiences during the pandemic, and many (84.6%) spent less than a half-hour each time. The parents generally had negative beliefs about the values and benefits of online learning and preferred traditional learning in early childhood settings. They tended to resist and even reject online learning for three key reasons: the shortcomings of online learning, young children’s inadequate self-regulation, and their lack of time and professional knowledge in supporting children’s online learning. Also, the hardship caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has made them suffering, thus more resistant to online learning at home. The results suggested that the implementation of online learning during the pandemic has been problematic and challenging for families. The Chinese parents were neither trained nor ready to embrace online learning. The paper concluded with implications for policymakers and teacher education.
In the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak, many educators across the country and around the world scrambled to shift their practice from in-person to remote teaching within a matter of days. This global pandemic exposed a significant gap in teacher preparation and training for emergency remote teaching, including teaching with technology to ensure continuity of learning for students at a distance. To learn more about educators’ experiences during this crisis, we designed and distributed an online survey that received 325 responses from K-12 educators between April 4 and May 10, 2020. In this article, we share initial insights from the survey and provide recommendations for how to better prepare and support educators for teaching remotely in times of need.