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Industrial Air Emission Pollution: Potential Sources and Sustainable Mitigation



Air of cities especially in the developing parts of the world is turning into a serious environmental interest. The air pollution is because of a complex interaction of dispersion and emission of toxic pollutants from manufactories. Air pollution caused due to the introduction of dust particles, gases, and smoke into the atmosphere exceeds the air quality levels. Air pollutants are the precursor of photochemical smog and acid rain that causes the asthmatic problems leading into serious illness of lung cancer, depletes the stratospheric ozone, and contributes in global warming. In the present industrial economy era, air pollution is an unavoidable product that cannot be completely removed but stern actions can reduce it. Pollution can be reduced through collective as well as individual contributions. There are multiple sources of air pollution, which are industries, fossil fuels, agro waste, and vehicular emissions. Industrial processes upgradation, energy efficiency, agricultural waste burning control, and fuel conversion are important aspects to reducing pollutants which create the industrial air pollution. Mitigations are necessary to reduce the threat of air pollution using the various applicable technologies like CO2 sequestering, industrial energy efficiency, improving the combustion processes of the vehicular engines, and reducing the gas production from agriculture cultivations.
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Industrial Air Emission Pollution:
Potential Sources and Sustainable
RabiaMunsif, MuhammadZubair, AyeshaAziz
and Muhammad NadeemZafar
Air of cities especially in the developing parts of the world is turning into a
serious environmental interest. The air pollution is because of a complex inter-
action of dispersion and emission of toxic pollutants from manufactories. Air
pollution caused due to the introduction of dust particles, gases, and smoke into
the atmosphere exceeds the air quality levels. Air pollutants are the precursor of
photochemical smog and acid rain that causes the asthmatic problems leading into
serious illness of lung cancer, depletes the stratospheric ozone, and contributes in
global warming. In the present industrial economy era, air pollution is an unavoid-
able product that cannot be completely removed but stern actions can reduce it.
Pollution can be reduced through collective as well as individual contributions.
There are multiple sources of air pollution, which are industries, fossil fuels, agro
waste, and vehicular emissions. Industrial processes upgradation, energy efficiency,
agricultural waste burning control, and fuel conversion are important aspects to
reducing pollutants which create the industrial air pollution. Mitigations are neces-
sary to reduce the threat of air pollution using the various applicable technologies
like CO sequestering, industrial energy efficiency, improving the combustion pro-
cesses of the vehicular engines, and reducing the gas production from agriculture
Keywords: environmental, pollution, industrial, emission, global warming
. Introduction
A unique chemical wrapping that promotes life on glob and support numer-
ous activities often referred to as air. Rapid industrialization is becoming serious
concern for fresh air and healthy life [–]. Abundant discharge of industrial toxin
making natural environment harmful, unstable, and uncomfortable for physical
and also for biological environment and it leads to pollution by energy sources and
chemical substances. Physical and biological environment are damage by the heat
and pollutants in the air. These pollutants including vapors, aerosols, solid particles,
toxic gases and smoke drive from industrial processes. Emission of air pollutants is
also because of many human actions. List of six air pollutants presented by World
health organization (WHO) which known as classic air pollutants in industrialized
countries as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO), carbon monoxide (CO),
Environmental Emissions
and suspended particulate matter []. A number of industrial sources are responsible
for the emission of carbon monoxide along with, fuel-fired boilers, internal combus-
tion gas boilers and gas stoves []. The quality of the combustion process is primary
indicated by carbon dioxide. Emissions of CO, as a result of combustion of fuels, are
creating consequences on environment []. For the industrial combustion system
carbon dioxide was also examined a major greenhouse gas []. For the emission of
carbon dioxide from any type of combustion source a prescribed national standard
was present but it is important to check that carbon dioxide emission enter into air
at steep rate. Oxides of nitrogen as nitrogen dioxide (NO) and nitric oxide (NO)
produce from thermal power plants, vehicles, industrial process and, coal burning
processes []. Oxides of nitrogen are produced by the reaction of free oxygen and
nitrogen of air which achieved at high temperature during combustion process.
Fuels, rich in sulfur contents produce sulfur dioxide (SO) gas when used for the
energy. Bennett [] reported sulfur dioxide lifetime is about days in air. Industrial
stacks emitting sulfur dioxide because fuels contain a standards higher concentra-
tion of sulfur. Generally, in Pakistan the electric power supply is not adequate and
consistent for supporting employments; consequently, to overcome electric energy
shortage all business sectors still extensively use their private generator (Figure ).
These generators mostly installed next to their services or along the road which
is not an appropriate location. Therefore, by importing exhaust gases into the air
they create many complications to the people who are traveling on the roads and the
resident. Smoke opacity of industrial gas is also a parameter which has consider-
able potential to enhance environmental air pollution by smoke particles emission.
Industrial stack points were also analyzed with reference to clean air for smoke
opacity (). It was noticed that boilers operating on furnace oil have larger value
of smoke than on natural gas. According to an estimate, at least  different
chemicals have been identified in air through sampling of various nature. A term
commonly used to describe any harmful chemical or other substance that pollutes
Figure 1.
Presentation of energy sources based upon hydrocarbon fuels: (A) domestic generator; (B) power houses;
(C) industrial generators; and (D) energy production.
Industrial Air Emission Pollution: Potential Sources and Sustainable Mitigation
the air we breathe, thereby reducing its life-sustaining quality is called air pollutant.
In principle, air pollutants refer to any chemical substance that exceeds the concen-
tration or characteristics identified as safe for the natural ingredients in the air both
by nature or anthropogenically. More strictly, pollutants can be defined a substance
which is potentially unsafe to the well-being or health of humans, plant and animal
life, or ecosystems. Air pollution is characterized as “the presence of substances in
the atmosphere that may adversely affect humans and the environment.” It may
be a single chemical that is initially produced, or chemicals that are formed by
subsequent reactions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), poor
outdoor air caused . million premature deaths in , of which about  were
in third world countries. Indoor smoke poses a health threat to . billion people
through heating system and burning biomass, kerosene and coal [, ]. Air
pollution is linked to a high incidence of respiratory diseases such as cancer, heart
disease, stroke and asthma []. According to estimates from the American Lung
Association, nearly  million people are at risk due to air pollution []. Although
these effects come from long-term exposure, air pollution can also cause acute
problems such as sneezing and coughing, eye discomfort, headache, and dizziness
[]. Particles smaller than  microns (classified as PM or PM. even smaller)
pose higher health risks because they can be breathed deeply into the lungs and can
enter the bloodstream where air pollutants and nanoparticles have the direct impact
on our health [].
. Sources of air pollution
Pollutants are commonly classified into solid, liquid, or gaseous substances that
are discharged into the air from a fixed or mobile source, then transmit through
air, and contribute in chemo physical transformation, and eventually return to the
ground. It is impossible to describe the full range of potential sources and actual
damage caused by various sources of air pollution but few which are more vulner-
able are discussed below:
. Combustion of fossil fuels
Fossil fuels as coal and oil for electricity production and road transportation,
add huge amount of air pollutants like carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide.
Sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and fly ash are produced as main pollutants
if coal is used as a fuel. Major pollutants during combustion of oil are oxides of
nitrogen and sulfur dioxide, whereas coal emits particulate air pollution to the
atmosphere. Similarly, important air pollutants emitted from power station are
particulate matter (fly ash and soot) oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO) and sulfur
oxides (SO and SO) [, ]. These pollutants and other closely related chemicals
are primarily source for acid rain. When PM is released into the atmosphere due to
traffic and industries, these PM scatter the visible part of the sunlight radiation,
but the other part of the spectrum particularly inferred and far-infrared, cause
the internal heating effect of the air atmosphere below the PM surface. The Sun
radiation is heating our air from outside and the traffic and industries from inside.
And the PM surface is like a shield or barrier, through the heat diffusion cannot
penetrate bidirectional ways.
Volcanic eruption disperses an enormous amount of sulfur dioxide into the
atmosphere along with ash and smoke particle sometimes causes the temperature
to rise up over the years. Particles in the air, based on their chemical composition,
can also have a direct impact of being separated from climate change. They either
Environmental Emissions
change the composition or size and may deplete the nutrients biosphere, damage
crops, and forests and destroy cultural monuments such as monuments and statues.
Many living and non-living sources emit carbon dioxide that contribute largely as
pollutant. Carbon dioxide is the most common greenhouse gas, among many others
which traps heat into the atmosphere via infrared radiation matching vibrations and
causes climate change through global warming. Over the past years, humans
have driven enough CO into the atmosphere to make its levels higher than they
have been for hundreds of thousands of years. Air pollution in many cases prevents
photosynthesis, which has a significant impact on the plants evolution, which has
serious consequences for purifying the air we breathe. It also results to form acid
rain, atmospheric precipitation in the form of rain, snow or fog, frost, which is
released at the time of fossil fuels burning and converted by contact with water
vapor in the atmosphere.
. Industrial emissions
Industrial process emits huge amounts of organic compounds carbon monoxide,
hydrocarbons, and chemicals into the air. A high quantity of carbon dioxide is the
reasons for the greenhouse effect in the air. As the greenhouse gases absorbs infra-
red radiation from the surface of the planet so its presence is good for the planet.
The recent climate change is due to excessive quantity of these gases as well as PM
into the atmosphere [, ]. Different greenhouse gases contribute differently in
global warming due to their unique physical and chemical properties, molecular
weight and the lifetime in the atmosphere. A simple working method can calculate
the relative contribution of the unit emissions of each gas relative to the cumulative
CO unit emissions over a fixed period of time [, ]. Therefore, global warm-
ing potential (GWP) can be defined as the warming effect of any greenhouse gas
relative to CO over a certain period of time. Greenhouse gas emissions from various
sources have led to climate change, which has been accompanied by an increase in
greenhouse gases [, ]. Greenhouse gas emissions change the Climate that is a
global issue having significantly negative impacts on economic growth humans, and
natural resources []. The main greenhouse gases (GHGs) and their relative
quantities are carbon dioxide, (–), water vapor, HO (–), nitrous oxide
(–), methane, (–), and other trace gases []. Among all the greenhouse
gases, CO and CH cause major global surface temperature increase []. These
gases are emitted by natural and anthropogenically. After carbon dioxide, methane
is the second gas that contributes to global warming. Methane has larger impacts
as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, with global warming potential (GWP)s
– times higher than CO [–].
. Agricultural sources
Agriculture activities often release harmful chemicals like pesticides and fertil-
izers []. Organic matter gradually reduces the water and oxygen in soil during
flooding of rice fields; as a result, methane is produce by anaerobic decomposition
[, ]. Globally methane emission is much lower than CO emissions annually.
The concentration of CH in the air is  times lesser than carbon dioxide []
but approximately  effects of global warming, because of methane [, ].
Naturally it is emitted by marshland [], termites, wildfires [], grasslands
[], coal seams [] and lakes []. Human sources of methane include public
solid waste landfills coal mine paddy fields oil and gas drilling, pastures rising
main sewers, wastewater treatment plants, manure management and agricultural
Industrial Air Emission Pollution: Potential Sources and Sustainable Mitigation
products. Its emission through agriculture sector increased by – from 
to  [, ].
. Other natural and anthropogenic sources
Natural sources are particulate matter (PM) includes dust produced from the
earth’s crustal surface, coastal sea salt, form pollens of plant and animal debris [].
Volcanic eruptions also contribute huge quantities of particles into the environ-
ment. Majorly an amount of . thousand tons of sulfur dioxide emits every day
while episodes of great activity. Forest fires of rural areas produce large amounts
of all kind of particulate matter including carbon black. Among other sources
of natural pollution of air includes lighting in the sky that generate significant
quantities of oxides of nitrogen (NOx); hydrogen sulphide produced from oceans
algae and marshy methane. Additionally, concentrations of ozone at ground level,
formed because of reaction of nitrogen gases and volatile organic compounds in
the presence of sunlight. As far as the human sources are concerned in urban areas,
air pollutants come from human-activities, such as cars, trucks, air planes, marine
engines, etc. and factories, electric power plants, etc. Nowadays, vehicles on the
road constitute the major source of air pollution in the populated areas of countries.
Carbon constituted fossil fuels produces carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
whereas NOx a combination of nitrogen and oxygen gases produced at high tem-
perature. Another very significant thing that road transport accounts a major source
of air pollution []. It is specified that road transport is the second source of air
emissions up to . after the industrial use of solvents which is ..
. Mitigation
Countries, departments and researchers all over the world are dealing for several
forms of mitigations for air pollution. In order to restrict global warming, there
is a need to take different measures. Important is the addition of more renewable
energy sources, substituting gasoline vehicles with zero-emission vehicles as electric
vehicles. As an example rapid industrial expansion is China. In china the govern-
ment is supporting coal-fired power plant. Similarly, in the United States, emission
standards setting has improved the air quality, especially in places of worth impor-
tance. Contrarily by adding ventilation, using air purifiers, purifying radon gas,
running exhaust fans in bathrooms and kitchens and avoiding smoking people can
avoid indoor air pollution. While working on a home project, use paint and other
products with less volatile compounds. Countries all over the globe have commit-
ments to limit carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases in the light of
Paris Agreement [, ] banning hydrophobic hydrocarbons (HFCs) other than
chlorofluorocarbon CFCs [].
. CO sequestering
In this method carbon dioxide is extracted from the air using a solid or liquid
adsorbent. Examples of mostly used solid adsorbents include, activated carbon,
zeolite, or activated alumina whereas liquid sorbents include, high pH solutions of
sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide some organic solvents such as monoetha-
nolamine [, ]. A method for capturing carbon dioxide from the air includes a
number of steps including exposing CO in air to a solution containing an alkali to
obtain an alkaline solution that absorbs the carbon dioxide [].
Environmental Emissions
. Biomass burning
Incomplete combustion of biomass results into production of hazardous
gases. The main sources of such emissions are burning of wood, domestic waste,
agricultural residues, waste, and charcoal. In developing economies combustion
of biomass generally refers to the biofuels combustion for heating, lighting
purposesand cooking in small combustion equipment. Because the conditions of
burning and types of these fuels vary widely, measures for this category are highly
difficult anduncertain to predict.
. Coal mining
Produced of methane by coalification process, and vegetation is transformed
into coal by many environmental conditions []. The amount of methane gas
evolved by mining operations is a function of two main factors: coal depth and coal
level []. From coal mining, there are four main sources of methane emissions,
which are underground coal mines and surface coal mines. These processes account
for most of the global emissions of methane from mining. Surface coal mines emit
much lower methane as compare to underground coal mines because generally coal
mines are at lower rank and capture methane into methane during post-mining
operations. Activities of coal mining and processing, continues after operations
which emit the methane [].
. Rice cultivation
Methane emissions through rice production and cultivation can be decreased
by selecting proper rice varieties, fertilizers, and water systems. It has been proved
that larger total weight rice varieties emit less methane [, ]. Fresh straw in the
 months before transplantation and combined with straw fertilizers before trans-
plantation, plus methane emissions, intermittent irrigation were reduced by  and
, respectively []. Application of potassium fertilizer during flowering period
drainage reduce methane emissions.
. Direct utilization of gas
For the production of liquid natural gas and to run leachate evaporators landfill
gas can be directly used as fuel. In industrial processes such as kiln operations,
boilers, drying operations, and asphalt and cement production landfill methane
gas can be used and transported. Natural gas collected from landfills can be
transported to local industries directly and use as an alternative or supplementary
fuel [].
. Fuel conversion
Shifting to low-carbon fuels from high-carbon can be comparatively cost-effec-
tive principle to reduce the emissions of gaseous because this enhance the efficiency
of combustion and reduce the amount of pollutants. In addition, briquette coal and
carbon burnout techniques are used in fuel based power plants to minimize the
production of pollutants. This pre-combustion method requires almost no hardware
changes to the facility and therefore has a lower investment cost. Fuel conversion
application to industrial sectors such as the steel, cement and chemical CO emis-
sions can be reduced by –. There are some essential interrogations about
Industrial Air Emission Pollution: Potential Sources and Sustainable Mitigation
the opportunities that exist for converting fuels in a cost-effective manner. Fuel
choices are usually industry dependent, so cost-effective alternatives are limited
however, some special opportunities to replace coal-fired boilers with natural gas
fired gas-driven steam production; and use natural gas instead of coal to burn blast
furnaces []. For example, briquette alternative fuels result in a – increase in
fuel costs, although an estimated  CO emissions are reduced. Improved fuel
efficiency and reduced standard pollutant emissions depends on variable fuel costs
which cannot be completely estimated. According to an estimate carbon depletion
can save . of fuel costs. Carbon reductions achieved from ash, by replacing
the production of Portland cement is estimated to reduce , tons of carbon
dioxide annually [].
. Combustion efficiency
Improvement in the current combustion systems have the potential to gear up
the energy efficiency. The average thermal performance of current combustion
is – []. Control of wasted heat into electricity may result into efficien-
cies of –. According to the Department of Energy, the combined energy
projects are the main source of greenhouse gases reduction. Technologies like
the natural gas combined cycle and combined cycle gas turbine proved for the
improving of combustion efficiency and proportionally reduced greenhouse gas
emissions and standard pollutant emissions. Additionally, integrated gasifica-
tion combined cycle system is a step forward to reduce the costs associated with
capturing and separating CO from the exhaust stream. Increased operating and
fuel costs may be offset by the combined benefits of increased efficiency, reduced
pollutants, and credits for emission reductions. An ample evidence that industrial
upgradation can reduce greenhouse gas emission, pollutants, and lower operat-
ing costs, and current environmental regulations have hindered the adoption of
this technology []. Air quality regulations determine the operational fuel input
rather than power output emission to upgrade of thermal efficiency. However,
the environmental agencies provide a guidance document on energy efficiency
which begun to address regulatory barriers to improving thermal efficiency
[]. Another source of energy efficiency that can be achieved in the industrial
sector is the use of direct fossil fuels. Manufacturing is a major candidate for
improving energy efficiency, both of which are achieved through many techno-
logical upgrades. Overall, process control and energy management systems for
all industries can better control combustion efficiency and fuel use; combined
heat and power systems can use waste heat as additional energy; high-efficiency,
low-friction motors and drive systems improved the overall efficiency of success-
fully generating power. In addition to these general categories, various manufac-
turing industries also have opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Specific
industrial sectors with greenhouse gas mitigation potential include cement
manufacturing, metal production, refineries, pulp and paper mills, and chemical
manufacturing [].
Combustion efficiency of combustion systems depends on the factors such
as type of combustion system, fuel, burner and air fuel ratio for combustion.
Significant amount of air pollutants depending on nature of fuel enter into the
environment. World health organization (WHO) has provided six listed air pol-
lutants known as classic air pollutants []. If coal is used as a fuel, fly ash, sulfur
dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are the major pollutant. Combustion of coal pro-
duces particulate air pollution whereas in case of oil, sulfur dioxide and oxides of
nitrogen are major pollutants emitted to the atmosphere. Similarly, three major air
Environmental Emissions
pollutants, particulate matter (fly ash and soot) sulfur oxides (SO and SO) and
oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO) emitted from power station.
Method for calculating efficiency:
Efficiency ( E)= Σ losses ()
Losses are as:
. Temperature flue gas.
. Moisture in fuel.
. Combustion of hydrogen.
. Un-measured losses.
In one of our research work different textile units were examined for stack
emissions from boilers and generators. Table illustrates the results of emissions
from boilers. Values of carbon monoxide (CO) were in the range of mg/Nm in
CT-Tex to mg/Nm in HS-Tex. Most of the industries were in compliance of
national quality standards of Pakistan, i.e., mg/Nm. HS-Tex was exceeding
the limit of standards for CO emission. Similarly, Table  represents the gaseous
emission of diesel generators. A massive amount of gaseous emissions are produced
from generators along with heating which affect the climatic condition at the large
scale [].
Industries CO CONO + NOSOH
IP-Te x  ,  
C T-Te x  ,  
BR-Tex  ,  
KH -Tex  ,   .
NF -Tex  ,  
HS-Tex  ,  
Table 2.
Gaseous emissions diesel generators operation in different industries [70].
Industries Fuel CO CONO + NOSOH
mg/Nmmg/NmNOx g/Nmmg/Nmmg/Nm
IP-Te x Furnace oil  ,   .
C T-Te x Natural gas ,  .
BR-Tex Natural gas  ,  .
KH -Tex Natural gas  ,  .
NF -Tex Natural gas  ,  .
HS-Tex Natural gas  ,  .
Table 1.
Gaseous emissions of boilers of textile industries operating with different fuels [70].
Industrial Air Emission Pollution: Potential Sources and Sustainable Mitigation
Author details
RabiaMunsif, MuhammadZubair*, AyeshaAziz and Muhammad NadeemZafar
Department of Chemistry, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan
*Address all correspondence to:
. Conclusion
Quality of life (air) in cities is getting worse as the industrialization, popula-
tion, energy use and traffic increase. Some air pollutants in larger amount crossing
WHO standards, mainly in cities of industrialized countries permitting meaningful
statistical trends to air pollutants. The complexity of air pollutants, particularly
related to the health impacts in cities, has improved indicators to analyze the acces-
sible monitoring data sufficient for decision making and reporting. Our assessment
illustrates that the economic costs of the environmental clash proceeding from
sources of combustion in industries tested is potentially excessive. Regarding to
the living quality it will be serious concern if no additional control measures were
implemented in future. For industrial air pollution there is an immediate need to
improve the evaluation and monitoring systems. In cities where strategic planning
is not-existing or weak, to improve the quality of air there should be an implemen-
tation of environmental management system.
Authors are highly thankful to the IntechOpen publishing organization for
open invitation to publish a chapter regarding the serious concern of the human
atmosphere. Moreover, our especial thanks to Sara Debeuc, who sincerely coordi-
nated to accomplish this chapter. Authors are obliged to Department of Chemistry,
University of Gujrat, Pakistan, for providing support of facilities for completing
this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
©  The Author(s). Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution License (
by/.), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
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... Particulate matter pollution in Poland is mainly caused by low stack emissions (emissions from chimneys less than 40 m high) from household heating [35][36][37]. This is a very important argument for replacing outdated solid fuel boilers with environmentally friendly energy sources. ...
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Wood pellets play an important role among biomass materials used as fuel. At the same time, today’s economic, environmental, political and social realities, as well as other circumstances related to fuels used for heat generation, mean that there is demand for increasingly efficient and environmentally friendly combustion sources. As is well known, each combustion source has a different efficiency due to its intended use, design, principle of operation and the type and composition of the fuel burned. The amount of pollutants emitted into the environment during combustion also largely depends on these factors. The aim of this study was to compare the flue gas emissions and efficiency of two pellet burners of different design, burning certified A1 wood pellets from different suppliers. The emission requirements were met during the combustion of wood pellets in a boiler with the two burners tested (one with a moving grate and an overfed burner). The analyses and studies carried out aim to improve the capability of managing the efficiency and environmental performance of the heat source (i.e., a boiler or a burner) and the fuel (type of wood pellets). This is done in the context of demonstrating a better combustion source when selecting the right burner and fuel in terms of efficiency and emissions. In this paper, comparisons of flue gas emissions are presented along with characteristics in the form of graphs, as well as thermal and combustion efficiencies for the corresponding solid fuel used in the form of wood pellets. After comparing the emissions, it was found that the statistical averages of CO, NOx, dust and VOCs were similar for combustion at full power using the burners tested. Taking into account the pollution levels at combustion, it can be said that the difference in CO emissions at full and minimum combustion is lower for the experimental burner compared with the moving grate burner (reference burner). In summary, it can be concluded that the experimental overfed burner under consideration can be successfully used as a solid fuel boiler to burn wood pellets.
... Since the industrial revolution and widespread urbanization, air pollution has risen to the top of the environmental concerns list in both developed and developing nations (Anwar et al. 2021;Wei et al. 2021;Zhang et al. 2022). The key source of pollutants that contribute to the degradation of air quality are various human activities, such as fossil fuel combustion to drive production processes, motor vehicles, and industrial plants (Pachón et al. 2018;Rajput et al. 2021;Munsif et al. 2021;Molina 2021). In addition, the primary factors contributing to the degradation of air quality in developing nations are the tremendous expansion of the urban population and the changes in land use carried on by urban development (Liang et al. 2019;Surya et al. 2020). ...
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The ambient air quality in a city is heavily influenced by meteorological conditions. The city of Siliguri, known as the “Gateway of Northeast India”, is a major hotspot of air pollution in the Indian state of West Bengal. Yet almost no research has been done on the possible impacts of meteorological factors on criterion air pollutants in this rapidly growing urban area. From March 2018 to September 2022, the present study aimed to determine the correlations between meteorological factors, including daily mean temperature (℃), relative humidity (%), rainfall (mm), wind speed (m/s) with the concentration of criterion air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and NH3). For this research, the trend of all air pollutants over time was also investigated. The Spearman correlation approach was used to correlate the concentration of air pollutants with the effect of meteorological variables on these pollutants. Comparing the multiple linear regression (MLR) and non-linear regression (MLNR) models permitted to examine the potential influence of meteorological factors on concentrations of air pollutants. According to the trend analysis, the concentration of NH3 in the air of Siliguri is rising, while the concentration of other pollutants is declining. Most pollutants showed a negative correlation with meteorological variables; however, the seasons impacted on how they responded. The comparative regression research results showed that although the linear and non-linear models performed well in predicting particulate matter concentrations, they performed poorly in predicting gaseous contaminants. When considering seasonal fluctuations and meteorological parameters, the results of this research will definitely help to increase the accuracy of air pollution forecasting near future.
... Industrial growth is also included. Both these sectors are a source of atmospheric pollution (WBPCB 2005;Munsif et al. 2020). ...
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Air pollutants are constantly increasing with rapid industrial development and growing population pressure in Kolkata City. The present study is undertaken to understand the temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 , PM 10 , sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) in the City of Kolkata from 2017 to 2020. For analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution of the ambient air quality data, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were collected from West Bengal Pollution Control Board and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at eight sample locations. The spatial locations of each selected monitoring station were fed to the Geographic Information System (GIS), and the distance indicates the time difference between two data series observations, allowing for temporal analysis of pollutant fluctuation. The radial basis function (RBF) method was used to estimate the spatial distribution of pollutant levels for each of the sample locations. Mean standardized error (MSE) and a root mean square standardize error (RMSSE) were used in selecting the model fit that estimates the air pollutants distribution. The highest SO 2 concentration is recorded from Cossipore Police Station, B.T. Road. The highest value of PM 2.5 is collected from Moulali and Salt Lake region. There is a significant correlation analysis between NO 2 and minimum temperature (R 2 = 0.759; P < 0.0002), maximum temperature (R 2 = 0.916; P < 0.000), and rainfall (R 2 = 0.459; P < 0.015). The concentration of NO 2 exceeds the limits as per the standard of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the small pockets east of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). The concentration values were maximal in the KMC situated in the north and east of the KMC. The minimum concentration was observed in the southeast part and extended to the small pockets the west of the KMC. The results of this study could provide a scientific basis for rational decisions in the design of industrial urban planning, improving the quality of environmental air, and responding actively to environmental pollution.
... As well as burning wheat straw, many factories use gas stoves to heat their components, producing carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, in the process, which has led many countries to set standards for carbon dioxide emissions from factories. Moreover, for instance, in Pakistan, much of the business sector uses private generators under the insufficient electricity supply [17]. As a result, those private generators are placed in unsuitable road locations, with emissions drifting directly into the air. ...
Full-text available
This study explores the impact of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) on the health of Asian countries as they develop economically. The study calculated how much each country would invest per person in air pollution to reduce morbidity and even mortality, given current economic conditions, by selecting countries from each of Asian five tiers of average annual PM2.5 emissions concentration. The study identifies three main causes of Asian high GHG emissions: the burning of agricultural waste, emissions from the increase in the number of vehicles, and emissions from mass production in factories. Finally, reducing fertilizer use and reprocessing agricultural waste, vehicle restrictions and promoting new energy cars, and “eliminating” the number of urban plants and the use of renewable energy to produce and meet the demand of life are the policies can government implementations that support to contain GHG emissions and slow down the greenhouse effect, improving the air quality in Asia. Through the use of VSL model, this study obtained the different investment of the people in air pollution control under the economic conditions of different Asian countries, which shows that reducing air pollution is not only what the government departments need to do, but everyone has the responsibility to maintain together.
... Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, China has lived up to expectations and developed as the world's second-largest economy. However, increasing pressure on resources and environmental protection, as well as social trends, such as the urgent need to transform the market to an efficient, clean, and sustainable one [1,2], have forced the Chinese government to rethink how to deal with the challenges of air pollution management. As early as the National Conference on Ecological Protection of the Environment in 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized the need to address outstanding ecological and environmental issues as a priority area of people's livelihood. ...
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This paper takes the air pollution governance performance as the research object, establishes the evaluation index system of air pollution governance performance using the pressure-state-response (PSR) model, and uses the data of 11 prefecture-level cities in Jiangxi Province from 2014–2017 to carry out empirical tests. The results show that, in terms of indicator weights, the state and pressure categories have higher weights than the response category, further highlighting the importance of reducing pollution emissions rather than post-pollution treatment. Regarding regional comparisons, only a few regions show a good balance between “stress-state-response”, while most regions show a “loss of balance”. In terms of annual changes, the performance of most regions in several categories rose and showed a wave-like upward trend, reflecting the intermittent improvement characteristics of air pollution governance performance in most regions of Jiangxi. Finally, combined with the evaluation results, this paper proposes policy suggestions, such as improving the performance evaluation index system of air pollution governance, promoting the comprehensive governance of air pollution, focusing on regions with weaker air pollution governance, and strengthening the regional collaborative governance of air pollution.
... According to World Health Organization [1], air pollution can be described as a change in ambient air quality that alters the natural properties of the atmosphere by any chemical, physical, and biological factors. Pollutants may classify into solid, liquid, or gaseous compounds that are released into the surrounding air from stationary or mobile sources [2]. It will then travel through the air, interact in chemo physical transformations, and return to the ground and affected the people. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
End-of-life (ELV) initiatives are at its infancy stage which required multi-level involvement of the public, non-government organisations (NGO), industries, local governments and government agencies. Its implementations revolve around disposing of old cars and its disassembly operations, involve extracting valuable materials and systematically disposing of the remaining waste. During these operations, it is expected that pollution, especially air pollution released into the environment. Without proper understanding and controls, it will harm both the environment and people. The purpose of this paper is to create an air pollution emission evaluation system for ELV industries using IoT applications. Parameters that are monitored include temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, five-parameter emission SO2, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, and particulate matters-PM2.5 & PM10 as well as typical refrigerant gasses. This article discusses the operations of this system and the example of collected data in two days study. It is expected that local governments as well as stakeholders including many government agencies will use the data in this project to evaluate the effectiveness of ELV operations.
... Nevertheless, we must be aware of the environmental impacts of renewable power plants [83], which must be planned already during GHG mitigation. The modernization of industrial processes, energy efficiency, regulation of the burning of agricultural waste and fuel conversion are important aspects in the reduction of pollutants that cause industrial air pollution [84]. Achievements in industrial transformation and non-fossil fuel development have defined China's leading provinces in reducing carbon emissions [85]. ...
Full-text available
The Paris Climate Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals declared by the United Nations set high expectations for the countries of the world to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to be sustainable. In order to judge the effectiveness of strategies, the evolution of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in countries around the world has been explored based on statistical analysis of time-series data between 1990 and 2018. The empirical distributions of the variables were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method, and improvement-related utility functions have been defined based on the European Green Deal target for 2030 that aims to decrease at least 55% of GHG emissions compared to the 1990 levels. This study aims to analyze the energy transition trends at the country and sectoral levels and underline them with literature-based evidence. The transition trajectories of the countries are studied based on the percentile-based time-series analysis of the emission data. We also study the evolution of the sector-wise distributions of the emissions to assess how the development strategies of the countries contributed to climate change mitigation. Furthermore, the countries’ location on their transition trajectories is determined based on their individual Kuznets curve. Runs and Leybourne–McCabe statistical tests are also evaluated to study how systematic the changes are. Based on the proposed analysis, the main drivers of climate mitigation and evaluation and their effectiveness were identified and characterized, forming the basis for planning sectoral tasks in the coming years. The case study goes through the analysis of two counties, Sweden and Qatar. Sweden reduced their emission per capita almost by 40% since 1990, while Qatar increased their emission by 20%. Moreover, the defined improvement-related variables can highlight the highest increase and decrease in different aspects. The highest increase was reached by Equatorial Guinea, and the most significant decrease was made by Luxembourg. The integration of sustainable development goals, carbon capture, carbon credits and carbon offsets into the databases establishes a better understanding of the sectoral challenges of energy transition and strategy planning, which can be adapted to the proposed method.
... However, air quality is not only related to gas emissions, but also to solid waste production, the indirect determinants of air pollution have also received increased attention. For example, solid, gases and liquid pollutants from industrial production and human actions, like fume and dust (Abdelkader et al., 2015), industrial solid pollutants (Munsif et al., 2021), exhaust gas (Lozhkin et al., 2018), and wastewater contaminants (Devda et al., 2021), have toxicological impacts on the environment. So, we use these related indicators as explanatory variables of air quality. ...
Full-text available
Ambient air pollution is an important environmental problem that impacts the health and sustainable development of human beings. Many measures have been taken by governments to decrease air pollution. This paper focuses on whether government investment has a positive effect on air quality. Based on China’s environmental statistics from 2003 to 2020, the Spatiotemporal Weighted Regression Model is used to observe the spatiotemporal correlation between environmental governance investment and air quality in different provinces in China, finding that there is a negative time-space correlation between environmental governance investment and air quality. In addition, environmental governance investment will not immediately improve air quality, and air pollution has the characteristics of spatial overflow that the pollution between regions affect each other. Then, to further research governments how to deal with environmental protection, configuration analysis has been used, and finds out four high-performance paths for environmental governance of China’s provinces. At the end of this research, we put forward four suggestions for air protection. Firstly, government should formulate long-term air governance policies. Secondly, government environmental governance of air pollution should pay attention to the cooperativity of environmental governance between regions. Thirdly, the third sectors, companies and the public should be encouraged in air protection. Fourthly, government should build a whole-process air governance strategy.
Plants are regarded as the crucial creatures in the formation of life on the planet Earth. Unfortunately, the climate of the Earth is rapidly deteriorating, primarily because of the increasing concentration of pollutant gases in the atmosphere, and the consequent rise of temperature and its after effects. Emissions from power plants and various factories (mostly a combination of oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur) and the release of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) are mainly responsible for this grave situation. The presence of these unwanted molecules in the atmosphere has a big impact on plants’ growth and productivity. Since plants cannot move away from harmful conditions due to their sessile nature, they have to face the harsh environment and undergo various alterations in their form and function. Metabolic alterations, or more precisely, fluctuation in the concentration of secondary metabolites, are thought to be one of the plants’ defense mechanisms against unfavorable environments. Secondary metabolites, although not required for a plant’s usual functions, do form the immune system of plants. Climate change has the potential to alter the quality of natural products, as well as the flavor and medicinal value of various plant species. Rising temperatures, drought, salinity, and erratic rainfall, which are an outcome of all these gaseous emissions, have an obvious impact on plant growth and physiology. This chapter presents a brief discussion of these atmospheric impacts on the form and function of medicinal plants with a special focus on their secondary metabolism.
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Main conclusion Consequences of air pollutants on physiology, biology, yield and quality in the crops are evident. Crop and soil management can play significant roles in attenuating the impacts of air pollutants. Abstract With rapid urbanization and industrialization, air pollution has emerged as a serious threat to quality crop production. Assessing the effect of the elevated level of pollutants on the performance of the crops is crucial. Compared to the soil and water pollutants, the air pollutants spread more rapidly to the extensive area. This paper has reviewed and highlighted the major findings of the previous research works on the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in some important crops and fruits exposed to the increasing levels of air pollutants. The crop, soil and environmental factors governing the effect of air pollutants have been discussed. The majority of the observations suggest that the air pollutants alter the physiology and biochemical in the plants, i.e., while some pollutants are beneficial to the growth and yields and modify physiological and morphological processes, most of them appeared to be detrimental to the crop yields and their quality. A better understanding of the mechanisms of the uptake of air pollutants and crop responses is quite important for devising the measures ‒ at both policy and program levels ‒ to minimize their possible negative impacts on crops. Further research directions in this field have also been presented.
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Air composition influences Dry Eye (DE) symptoms as demonstrated by studies that have linked the outdoor environment to DE. However, there is insufficient data on the effect of short-term exposure to indoor environments on DE symptoms. We conducted a prospective experimental research, in which an older building served as an experimental site, and a newer building served as the control site. Indoor air quality was monitored in both buildings. One-hundred-and-ninety-four randomly selected individuals were interviewed in the afternoon exiting the buildings and de-identified responses were recorded. Self-reported DE symptoms were modeled with respect to experimental and control buildings, adjusting for potential confounders. The experimental site had 2-fold higher concentration of airborne particulate matter (24,436 vs. 12,213 ≥ 0.5 µm/ft3) and microbial colonies (1066 vs. 400/m3), as compared to the control building. DE symptoms were reported by 37.5% of individuals exiting the experimental and 28.4% exiting the control building. In the univariate analysis, subjects exiting the experimental building were 2.21× more likely to report worsening of DE symptoms since morning compared to the control building (p < 0.05). When adjusting for confounders, including a history of eye allergy, subjects from the experimental building were 13.3× more likely to report worsening of their DE symptoms (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that short-term exposure to adverse indoor environmental conditions, specifically air pollution and bioaerosols, has an acutely negative impact on DE symptoms.
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To assess the indoor air quality of urban and rural houses of Lucknow region, the present study was conducted from November 2014 to October 2015. Concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO2, CO, NH3, H2S, PM10 and PM2.5 were measured in five urban and five rural houses. House selection was done after a questionnaire survey in two medical colleges. The average concentrations of PM10 (280 and 315 μg m-3) and PM2.5 (185 and 210 μg m-3) were highest in the winter season. Excessive consumption of crude fuel to combat cold conditions was associated with high particulate concentrations in rural houses. Smoking was observed as a common indoor habit. Skin irritation was a common symptom reported during rainy season whereas complaints of cataract, cough and sneezing were prevalent in winter season. Air quality index with respect to particulate concentration was predicted by three different methods and found to be poorest in rural houses during winter season with values 716.1, 457.0 and 7.427 respectively.
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In this study commissioned by GIZ, Perspectives’ authors discuss how to finance HFC mitigation beyond the KA commitments. They propose an integrated approach of public finance and international market mechanisms under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.
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The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in Article 2 is ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C’. Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to achieve ‘balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases'. This statement on ‘greenhouse gas balance’ is subject to interpretation, and clarifications are needed to make it operational for national and international climate policies. We study possible interpretations from a scientific perspective and analyse their climatic implications. We clarify how the implications for individual gases depend on the metrics used to relate them. We show that the way in which balance is interpreted, achieved and maintained influences temperature outcomes. Achieving and maintaining net-zero CO2-equivalent emissions conventionally calculated using GWP100 (100-year global warming potential) and including substantial positive contributions from short-lived climate-forcing agents such as methane would result in a sustained decline in global temperature. A modified approach to the use of GWP100 (that equates constant emissions of short-lived climate forcers with zero sustained emission of CO2) results in global temperatures remaining approximately constant once net-zero CO2-equivalent emissions are achieved and maintained. Our paper provides policymakers with an overview of issues and choices that are important to determine which approach is most appropriate in the context of the Paris Agreement. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.
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Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. Model results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photo-smog where air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe, the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to indigenous air pollution in the dry local weather conditions, which are likely to get worse in future.
In Semi urban cities, most of the hospitals are situated in the midst of heavy traffic and pollution which causes additional burden in the health management of patients admitted. As per the World Health Organization report, outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting everyone in low, middle, and high-income countries. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide per year in 2016; this mortality is due to exposure to small particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM2.5), which causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and cancers. This article addresses the immediate need for health management in such areas. Here we propose an automatic low cost system to scrub the excess carbon in patient’s living room and try circulating more oxygen produced by biological process using Algae. In this proposed method we measure the carbon content [1] in patient’s room and according to the need we make the system to switch on a pump automatically to scrub the carbon content and release excess oxygen produced by Algae naturally into the environment.
Biomass is the first-ever fuel used by humankind and is also the fuel which was the mainstay of the global fuel economy till the middle of the 18th century. Then fossil fuels took over because fossil fuels were not only more abundant and denser in their energy content, but also generated less pollution when burnt, in comparison to biomass. In recent years there is a resurgence of interest in biomass energy because biomass is perceived as a carbon-neutral source of energy unlike net carbon-emitting fossil fuels of which copious use has led to global warming and ocean acidification.The paper takes stock of the various sources of biomass and the possible ways in which it can be utilized for generating energy. It then examines the environmental impacts, including impact vis a vis greenhouse gas emissions, of different biomass energy generation–utilization options.
A steady increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane concentrations in recent decades has sparked interest among researchers around the globe to find quick solutions to this problem. One viable option is a utilization of CO2 with methane to produce syngas via catalytic reforming. In this paper, a comprehensive review has been conducted on the role and performance of Ni-based catalysts in the CO2 reforming of methane (sometimes called dry reforming of methane, DRM). Coke-resistance is the key ingredient in good catalyst formulation; it is, therefore, paramount in a choice of catalyst supports, promoters, and reaction conditions. Catalyst supports that have a strong metal-support interaction created during the catalyst preparation exhibit highest stability, high thermal resistance and high coke resistance. In addition, the outlook of the Ni-based catalysts has been proposed to provide researchers with critical information related to the future direction of Ni-based catalysts in industrial settings. Among others, it has been a great interest among researchers to synthesize catalyst supports from cellulosic materials (plant-based materials). The unique properties of the cellulose which are a well-defined structure and superior mechanical strength could enhance the catalytic activity in the DRM reaction.