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This study presents the first checklist of the lesser known terrestrial biodiversity in forests over limestone karst of Calicoan Island in Guiuan Marine Reserve Protected Landscape and Seascape, Guiuan, Eastern Samar, Philippines. Plants and terrestrial vertebrate species in nine 20x20 m plots and 18 line transects were recorded and identified. A total of 60 bird, eight reptile, one amphibian, and six mammal species were recorded. Moreover, a total of 41 floral species were documented belonging to 17 plant families and 24 genera. Of the plant species recorded, 5 were shrubs and 35 were trees. This study reported a new locality record of the Philippine endemic tree species Hancea wenzeliana, and new island records for fauna such as Varanus samarensis and Cyrtodactylus sumuroi, among many others. To date, the present study is the only assessment of herpetofauna and mammals in Guiuan and represent new island records for most of these taxa in Calicoan Island. Among plants, Shorea negrosensis, Aquilaria cuminigiana and Wallaceodendron celebicum were identified to have a vulnerable conservation status based on their IUCN Red List and DENR-DAO 2017-11. These native and endemic plants can be used for reforestation programs in the area, and conserving biodiversity in general will be crucial to potential ecotourism programs.

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A comprehensive list of plant and animal biodiversity is necessary as a basis for local government and concerned agencies to enact local policies on species conservation. This article provides an enumeration of the vascular flora and vertebrate fauna in the karst forests of Basey, Samar, Philippines. A review of literature concerning plants and animals of Basey, Samar Island Natural Park, from various published sources was done. A total of 67 plants, represented by 54 genera and 38 families were included in this list, with 23 threatened and 28 Philippine endemic species. For the vertebrates, a total of 70 species were enumerated, which was composed of 6 amphibian, 12 reptile, 43 bird, and 9 mammal species. Among these, 21 were threatened and 14 were endemic to the Mindanao Pleistocence Aggregate Island Complex (PAIC). This checklist can be used as a reference in crafting local conservation policies and strategies for protection and sustainable use of this ecotourism site.
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The old nickel mining site in Manicani Island could greatly contribute to the deposition of heavy metal levels along its coast through runoffs from remaining ore stockpiles. Marine plants and algae tend to accumulate these heavy metals on their tissues. This study aimed at assessing the concentration of bioaccumulated Ni in the thallus of Sargassum polycystum and Thalassia hemprichii along the coast of Manicani Island, Guiuan, Eastern Samar. S. polycystum and T. hemprichii thalli were collected from three stations. The specimens were prepared by dry ashing method, and their total Ni content was determined using Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry (AES). Distance of sampling stations to the ore stockpiles and loading area had no significant role (p>0.05) on the Ni concentration in the samples. The Ni concentration levels for S. polycystum and T. hemprichii were 5.120 – 10.578 mg/kg dryweight and 6.895 – 39.446 mg/kg dryweight, respectively. These values are above the maximum permissible limit for two Sargassum species and global benchmark for T. hemprichii as set by WHO and EPA.
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Logging, mining and land conversion together threaten Dinagat Island. Diversity and structure of forest habitat types were determined as basis for conservation and management. Identification of forest habitat types was based on habitat's physical characteristics. Six forest habitat types were identified covered by 432 native plant species classified into 87 families and 203 genera, 40 plant species were endemic to Dinagat Island. Of the 432 species, 58% recorded in lowland evergreen forest (LEF), 16% in upper montane, 15% in forest over limestone, 6% in lower montane forest (LMF), 4% in mangrove forest, and 1% in beach forest, with average species diversity of 3.32. Trees in LEF were bigger, taller and larger in basal area as compared with other habitat types. Dominant species was Xanthostemon verdugonianus Náves ex Fern.-Vill with importance value of 9.857%. Native plant species was an asset for the mineral resource industry for site rehabilitation and conservation. © 2018 National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA)
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We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region) appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species) of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion.
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The mangrove forest devastated by typhoon Yolanda in November 2013 was assessed to determine the rate of regeneration of trees and natural regeneration of seedlings in four sites in Eastern Samar. Two sites in the Pacific coast and two sites in the Leyte Gulf coast of Eastern Samar were studied. A 10 X 10 meter plot at 100 meters interval was laid parallel to the coast line at the center of damaged mangrove forest. The dead trees, length and number of regenerated shoots, number and height of seedling were counted and measured inside the plot. The dead trees were identified by formation the basal roots. Result showed that the highest rate of regeneration of mangrove trees differ from the Pacific and Leyte Gulf Coast; Sonneratia (40%) and Avicennia (25%) in Balangkayan, Avicennia (19 %) and Sonneratia (18%) in Hernani, Xylocarpus (88%) and Bruguiera (86%) in Giporlos and Xylocarpus (50% ) and Ceriops (33%) in Lawaan. The natural regeneration of seedlings was highest in Giporlos (875/ha) with Bruguiera as highest percentage (71%), followed by Hernani (375/ha) with Avicennia as highest percentage (73%), and Balangkayan and Lawaan (100/ha) with Rhizophora and Ceriops with highest percentage (42%) respectively. It is recommended that the mangrove species with highest percentage of regeneration in a specific area will be prioritized in planting in mangrove rehabilitation projects.
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The Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) tree is a well-known important agarwood-producing genus, which is endemic to the Indomalesia region. The genus is currently protected under CITES regulation and the IUCN Red List due to its heavy declination in the natural population in various sourcing countries. Derived from its precious non-wood fragrant products, the genus was given different names throughout the history until it was finalized in 1783. To date, there are 21 recognized Aquilaria species recorded, of which 13 are reportedly fragrant resin producers, and the status of the remaining eight Aquilaria species is yet to be investigated. Aquilaria is heavily exploited in the wild due to the destructive agarwood harvesting technique that requires hacking of the wood parts to induce agarwood production. Various conservation efforts have been carried out to avoid further destruction toward its gene pool. This includes introducing the species for cultivation and planting the trees in large plantations or home gardens, which further provide a sustainable agarwood production in the industry and indirectly contribute to the local economy. At present, an accurate classification of Aquilaria species is yet to be achieved; misidentification happens frequently, either genuinely because of lack of information and training or intentionally for business gains. In conclusion, a proper taxonomy and classification system are essential for conserving Aquilaria species genetic diversity and for identifying species origin of agarwood products aimed at international trade control.
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The unusual statistical characteristics of Typhoon Haiyan were investigated using the JTWC best track data from 1945 to 2013, particularly focusing on tropical cyclones making landfall in the Philippines. Haiyan generated the strongest winds among a collection of over 400 past storms, which was 16 % greater than the second strongest typhoon on record (Typhoon Zeb in 1998). The forward speed of Haiyan was nearly twice as fast as the average speed of these weather systems and could be the fastest typhoon on record. Thus, Haiyan can be characterized as both the fastest moving and strongest typhoon measured in the area. The return period for a Haiyan-class typhoon to make landfall was estimated to be 200 years. A statistical analysis also indicated that the number of tropical cyclone making landfall around Leyte Island in the Philippines—the area most severely damaged by Haiyan—has been steadily increasing over the past 7 decades. Analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that both Haiyan and Zeb occurred during seasons that were characterized by remarkably warm SSTs over the seas surrounding the Philippines. Keywords Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) – Tropical cyclone landfalls – Philippines – Return period – Forward speed – Storm surge
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We describe two new species of morphologically cryptic monitor lizards (genus Varanus) from the Philippine Archipelago: Varanus dalubhasa sp. nov. and V. bangonorum sp. nov. These two distinct evolutionary lineages are members of the V. salvator species complex, and historically have been considered conspecific with the widespread, northern Philippine V. marmoratus. However, the new species each share closer phylogenetic affinities with V. nuchalis (and potentially V. palawanensis), than either does to one another or to V. marmoratus. Divergent from other recognized species within the V. salvator Complex of water monitors by as much as 3.5% pairwise genetic distance, these lineages are also distinguished by unique gular coloration, metrics of body size and scalation, their non-monophyly with "true" V. marmoratus, and insular allopatric distributions, suggesting biogeographically distinct and unique evolutionary histories. We compare the new species with the most geographically proximate and phenotypically relevant lineages. Although we show that these new taxa are nearly indistinguishable morphologically from V. marmoratus, both species can be readily distinguished from their closest relatives (each's respective sister taxon, V. palawanensis and V. nuchalis) by traditional morphological characters. Our findings underscore the high herpetological diversity and biogeographical complexity of vertebrates in the Philippines, and further emphasize the need for detailed study of species-level diversity, mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gene flow, and biologically relevant boundaries between taxa within the V. salvator Complex.
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Saleability of tropical ornamental foliage plants and grower’s profit demand both high plant quality and productivity. The aim of this study has been to make observations during two season of the year: winter and summer, on various structural and photosynthetic parameters of five ornamental foliage plants (Aglaonema commutatum, Dieffenbachia maculata, Philodenddron ‘Burgundy’, Philodendron peruvianum and Syngonium podophyllum) grown in a greenhouse at commercial facilities. The results from this study showed that the more a plant invests in leaf area, the higher the total carbon gain and the faster growth will be. Most foliage plants have their origins in the tropics and require relatively high night temperatures to sustain rapid growth; a significant change in growth rates would be associated to environmental seasonal influences. By other hand, estimation of leaf area through linear dimensions such as length and width of the leaf lamina and the close correlations between total leaf area and total dry weight with plant size would be an appropriate method and a useful tool for foliage ornamental productivity crop modelling.
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We review the taxonomic status of Philippine bent-toed geckos previously referred to Cyrtodactylus agusanensis. We delineate four evolutionary lineages within the C. agusanensis complex from the southeastern islands of the archipelago and describe three of these lineages as new species. The new species and true C. agusanensis are identified by numerous, nonoverlapping morphological characters and by allopatric ranges on separate islands. Our morphology-based taxonomic conclusions are bolstered by biogeographic evidence and marked interspecific divergence between monophyletic groups defined by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. To compliment these descriptions and enable future taxonomic work on Philippine Cyrtodactylus, we rediagnose and redescribe C. agusanensis. Because the holotype of C. agusanensis was destroyed in World War II, we designate a neotype for this species and restrict its geographic range to north central Mindanao Island. Our phylogenetic estimate suggests that the C. agusanensis complex originated in Mindanao and spread progressively north, diversifying incrementally with colonization of successive islands in a south-to-north pattern of biogeographic expansion and allopatric speciation.
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Bullimus is 1 of 15 genera of murid rodents endemic to the oceanic portion of the Philippines (i.e., excluding Palawan and other islands on the Sunda Shelf). Two species have been recognized previously: B. bagobus, widespread on Mindanao and on islands that were connected to it during Pleistocene periods of lower sea level and B. luzonicus, occurring only on Luzon. Recent surveys have revealed a 3rd species endemic to the small island of Camiguin, located just north of Mindanao and isolated from that large island by deep water. Multivariate analyses support the recognition of these 3 species. The new species of Bullimus from Camiguin is distinguishable from congeners by its smaller size, soft and uniformly dark pelage, inflated braincase, shorter palate and incisive foramina, more divergent molar toothrows, and other cranial and dental features. The patterns of variation and island distribution in Bullimus are consistent with our understanding of regional geography; the 3 species occur on separate islands or island groups that remained isolated during periods of lower sea level. The discovery of a species endemic to Camiguin reflects the fact that this small island is close enough to Mindanao to have received some nonvolant mammals by overwater dispersal, but its isolation has been sufficient to promote speciation.
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Vascular plants in the northeastern portion of Mount Tabunan, Cebu Island, The Philippines, were inventoried from ten plots. A total of 288 taxa were recorded, 213 have been identified at least to the family level and belong to 133 genera and 68 families.
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Recently, the first part of the morphological revision of the Southeast Asian water monitor lizards of the Varanus salvator (Laurenti, 1768) species group provided a taxonomic overview over the members of this successful and widespread species complex (Koch et al. 2007). There, the Philippine taxa marmoratus, nuchalis and cumingi were reelevated to species status due to diagnostic morphological characteristics, e.g. significantly enlarged scales on the neck region. In this second part of the ongoing revision, these three species are re-investigated using additional voucher specimens and advanced statistical techniques including canonical variates analysis and principal component analysis. Our new investigations indicate that V. marmoratus represents a composite species, comprising at least three distinct taxa. Hence, the populations of the Sulu Archipelago (Tawi–Tawi Island) and those of the Palawan region are described as new species, viz. Varanus rasmusseni sp. nov. and V. palawanensis sp. nov., respectively. The allopatric island populations of V. cumingi inhabiting Samar, Leyte, and Bohol (the East Visayan subregion) show characteristic and geographically correlated colour patterns distinct from the type locality Mindanao (the second subregion of Greater Mindanao), warranting subspecific partition of this species. The new subspecies is named V. cumingi samarensis ssp. nov. In contrast, the taxonomic status of V. nuchalis remained unchanged, although this species shows some considerable variation in colour pattern. The systematic chapters are supplemented with notes about biology and conservation status. The hitherto underestimated diversity and zoogeography of Philippine water monitors is discussed in the light of Pleistocene sea level fluctuations. Finally, we introduce a scenario for the evolution and spread of Southeast Asian water monitor lizards and provide an identification key for the Philippine members of the V. salvator complex.
Lateritic nickel ore stockpiles are still present in Manicani Island after mining activities were suspended in 2001. This study aimed to assess the water quality in the island by measuring the levels of Pb, Ni and Cu in seawater and Sargassum polycystum samples collected quarterly in 2018. The levels of the three heavy metals in seawater samples were 0.388 ± 0.058-1.508 ± 0.120 mg/L Pb, 0.457 ± 0.003-0.531 ± 0.005 mg/L Cu, and 0.122 ± 0.008-0.628 ± 0.281 mg/L Ni. All values are above the permissible limits recommended by DENR and USEPA. Ni (13.630 ± 7.341-160.120 ± 3.375 mg/kg) had the highest concentration in S. polycystum, significantly higher than Pb (<LD-21.579 ± 0.730 mg/kg) and Cu (2.825 ± 0.110-6.302 ± 0.864 mg/kg). Ni levels in S. polycystum near the mining runoff were significantly higher than in samples from other stations. The results of this study show the contribution of the abandoned mine to the heavy metal pollution of the marine waters in Manicani Island.
Samar Island Natural Park (SINP) is the most important biodiversity refuge Samar Island. This assessment characterized floral diversity status in SINP and provided recommendations on how such resources can be better managed and protected against destruction. Five watersheds, namely: Taft, Can-avid, Basey, Suribao and Catubig were sampled. In each watershed, a transect line with 25 plots spaced at 200 m interval was used in the survey. Plot size was 20m x 20m. Trees 10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) and bigger were measured for stem diameter, merchantable height and tree height. This was for computation of timber volume. The species composition in 3 vegetative layers, such as tree layer, undergrowth and ground layer, was determined using the standard Braun-Blanquet methodology. The forest stands in the five watersheds was dominated by dipterocarp species. Of the 212 timber tree species in the tree layer, 35 species had diameter of at least 60 cm. Eighty-six percent of individual trees were dipterocarps, in 14 species. Shorea squamata and Shorea polysperma was the most frequent. Non-dipterocarp species dominated in number at the lower DBH range, particularly in the 10-20 cm and 21-40 cm DBH range. The forest of Samar still has high volume of commercial-size timber. Forests in the 5 watersheds differed in species composition and structure. The absence of access roads to interior barangays contributed to the conservation of forests. The transport system, such as presence of access road and connecting transport facilities to the main roads had influence to the degree of poaching activities. Areas that had access only through motorboats in shallow river had lowest incidence of poaching.
A survey of 114 households residing in Manicani Island on their capital assets and coping strategies as determinants of their resiliency on Typhoon Haiyan was undertaken. KII and FG validated the survey results. Relationship between capital assets and coping strategies was determined using chi-square test and their degree of association was determined using phi coefficient and Cramer’s V. Results showed that (a) the households’ house condition before the typhoon and knowledge of the typhoon were moderately associated (0.22 to 0.23) with securing houses at 0.05 significance level; (b) the educational attainment of household head was moderately associated (0.34) with safekeeping of household assets/personal belongings at 0.01 significance level; (c) the condition of the house after the typhoon, length of time before house reconstruction and person in-charge in reconstruction have moderate to relatively strong association (0.28 to 0.44) with the housing recovery of the households at 0.01 significance level; and (d) livestock ownership after the typhoon and person in charge in house reconstruction were weakly to moderately related (0.17 to 0.26) with the household’s income recovery at 0.10 and 0.05 significance level, respectively. This implies that capital assets are important in coping with disasters. The local government can use these results for planning and improving its disaster risk reduction and management program especially on extreme events similar to Typhoon Yolanda.
Southeast Asia constitutes one of the World's premier carbonate karst landscapes, with a total karst area, including southern China, of about 800,000km2. The IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas has recognised karst landscapes as being critical targets for designation as protected areas, and this study is an initial inventory of the karst conservation situation in Southeast Asia, excluding China. The karstlands exhibit considerable topographic diversity, including "cockpit" and "tower" styles, together with extensive dry valleys, cave systems and springs. The karst has a long and distinguished history of scientific study. The Gunung Sewu of Java, the Chocolate Hills of Bohol, the pinnacles and caves of Gunong Mulu and the karst towers of Vietnam and peninsular Malaysia are "classic" tropical carbonate karst landscapes. The karst also has archaeological, historical, cultural, biological, aesthetic and recreational significance, but human impacts have been considerable. Probably less than 10% of the karst retains its natural vegetation. Regional protected areas and conservation legislation is highly variable in nature and effectiveness. In practice, the protection of designated areas is problematic. Local patterns are highly variable, but about 12% of the regional karst landscape has been afforded nominal protection through designation as a protected area. Levels of protection in different countries are uneven, reflecting population, economic and political variations. There are significant protected karst areas in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Karst conservation in Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia and Papua New Guinea is minimal, but there remains the potential to designated additional protected karst areas here, in Vietnam and in Laos (Lao PDR). Overall, however, the future of the region's karst landscapes remains uncertain.
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With the extra-ordinary intensity of 170 kts, super-typhoon Haiyan devastated the Philippines in November 2013. This intensity is among the highest ever observed for tropical cyclones (TCs) globally, 35 kts well above the threshold of the existing highest category of 5. Though there is speculation to associate global warming with such intensity, existing research indicate that we have been in a warming hiatus period, with the hiatus attributed to the La Niña-like multi-decadal phenomenon. It is thus intriguing to understand why Haiyan can occur during hiatus. It is suggested that as the western Pacific manifestation of the La Niña-like phenomenon is to pile up warm subsurface water to the west, the western North Pacific experienced evident subsurface warming and created a very favorable ocean pre-condition for Haiyan. Together with its fast travelling speed, the air-sea flux supply was 158% as compared to normal for intensification.
TANG JW, LU XT, YIN JX & QI JF. 2011. Diversity, composition and physical structure of tropical forest over limestone in Xishuangbanna, south-west China. This study presents an analysis of floristic composition patterns for limestone tropical forests in Xishuangbanna, which is located in the northern edge of tropical Asia. All trees in four 50 x 50 m plots with diameter at breast height (dbh, 1.3 m) >= 5 cm were measured and identified. A total of 998 individuals belonging to 100 species, 74 genera and 31 families were recorded in these plots. Species richness ranged from 18 to 46 species per plot. The most ecologically significant family as determined by basal area and stem density was Euphorbiaceae. Cleistanthus sumatranus and Lasiococca comberi were the dominant species. Total basal area was 33.5 m(2) in the four plots, ranging from 7.0 to 10.5 m(2) per plot. Comparing tropical forests in this area, this limestone forest showed lower species diversity and higher dominance by Euphorbiaceae. Results from this study will improve our understanding of the community composition of tropical limestone forests in the northern edge of tropical Asia.
Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km², i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24°C, an annual average rainfall of 2300 mm and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich. Higher plants (cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families, 86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known. Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes. There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, T. delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species.
Southeast Asia experiences one of the highest rates of deforestation in the tropics due to agricultural expansion, logging, habitat fragmentation and urbanization, which are expected to result in species declines and extinctions. In particular, growing global demands for food, biofuel and other commodities are driving the rapid expansion of oil palm and paper-and-pulp industries at the expense of lowland dipterocarp forests, further jeopardizing Southeast Asian forest biotas. We synthesize recent findings on the effects of land-use changes on plants, invertebrates, vertebrates and ecosystem functioning/services in Southeast Asia. We find that species richness and abundance/density of forest-dependent taxa generally declined in disturbed compared to mature forests. Species with restricted ranges and those with habitat and foraging specialization were particularly vulnerable. Forest loss also disrupted vital ecosystem services (e.g. crop pollination). Long-term studies are needed to understand biotic sustainability in regenerating and degraded forests, particularly in the context of the synergistic or additive effects of multiple agents of biodiversity loss (e.g. invasive species and climate change). The preservation of large tracts of mature forests should remain the principal conservation strategy in the tropics. In addition, reforestation and reintroductions of native species, as well as improved connectivity among forest patches could enhance the conservation value of forest remnants in human-dominated landscapes.
The study using plot method to determine floristic composition and forest structure of limestone forests at three different altitudes in Bau have been carried out. A total of 1682 trees encompassing an area of 0.75 ha were enumerated. They belong to 129 species in 41 families. Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae, Ebenacaea, Rubiaceae and Violaceae were important families in term of density. Shannon Diversity Index (H’), species richness (R) and species evenness (E) decreases with increasing altitude. The floristic similarity of family composition is higher compare to species composition between altitudes. Moraceae contributed the highest basal area and above ground biomass contribution in all plots at all altitudes; for species Ficus aurata is dominant at 15 m (P<sub>1</sub>) and 30 m (P<sub>3</sub>), whilst Mallotus oblongifolius is dominant at 50 m (P<sub>2</sub>). Analysis on the importance values (I<sub>v</sub>) of all tree species enumerated at all altitudes quantified the dominant and co-dominant species with the highest and second highest I<sub>v</sub>. The dominant and co-dominant species is Arenga borneensis and Ficus aurata 15 m; Mallotus oblogifolius and Artocarpus rigidus at 30 m and Ficus aurata Saraca hullettii in 50. Between 68-77% of all species enumerated have I<sub>v</sub> less than 5% at all altitudes.
Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classi cation for the orders and families of owering plants: APG IV
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Birds of the Philippines: and Sumatra
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An online database of bird distribution and abundance
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