Application of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Methods for Brain Tumor Identification and Classification

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In the area of medical imaging technology, advances in Artificial intelligence (AI) delivers promising solutions with higher accuracy. For healthcare solutions, medical images provides a systematic way for diagnosis the diseases earlier and make treatments more effective. Machine learning and deep learning are rapidly grown fields of AI that may apply to many domains including image processing, speech recognition and text understanding. As MRI image segmentation is a key task for identification of brain anomalies, a fast and reliable technique is essential for increasing the survival ratio of affected patients. Manual segmentation of the brain MRI image involves more time and it may subject to inaccuracies. Hence, AI approaches and algorithms have been developed for tumor segmentation. This paper contains the detailed study of the available methods of machine learning and deep learning for brain tumor identification and classification through MRI image segmentation. It discusses and summarizes the methodologies and its results available for classification of brain tumor.

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... Several techniques [1] were suggested for the prediction of tumors in the brain. Tumors in the brain organ are categorized into three types that are generally recognized as glioma, meningioma, and pituitary tumors [3]. Medical image technology in the e-healthcare domain plays a vital role in today's emerging field. ...
... e Inception-v3 network [3] requires an input image of dimension 299 × 299. Inception-v3 utilizes batch normalization, RMSprop, and image distortion for better performance in computer vision problems. ...
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Brain tumor classification is a very important and the most prominent step for assessing life-threatening abnormal tissues and providing an efficient treatment in patient recovery. To identify pathological conditions in the brain, there exist various medical imaging technologies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is extensively used in medical imaging due to its excellent image quality and independence from ionizing radiations. The significance of deep learning, a subset of artificial intelligence in the area of medical diagnosis applications, has macadamized the path in rapid developments for brain tumor detection from MRI to higher prediction rate. For brain tumor analysis and classification, the convolution neural network (CNN) is the most extensive and widely used deep learning algorithm. In this work, we present a comparative performance analysis of transfer learning-based CNN-pretrained VGG-16, ResNet-50, and Inception-v3 models for automatic prediction of tumor cells in the brain. Pretrained models are demonstrated on the MRI brain tumor images dataset consisting of 233 images. Our paper aims to locate brain tumors with the utilization of the VGG-16 pretrained CNN model. The performance of our model will be evaluated on accuracy. As an outcome, we can estimate that the pretrained model VGG-16 determines highly adequate results with an increase in the accuracy rate of training and validation.
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