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Gross anatomical peculiarities of tongue of Indian Dromedary Camel

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The present study was conducted on tongues obtained from 10 cadavers of adult camels (Camelus dromedarius). Gross anatomical features were studied. The tongue of camel was muscular and spatula shaped, comprised of 3 parts - the apex, body and the root. The mean length of tongue was 41.21 ± 0.527 cm. A median groove was present on the dorsal surface of tongue. The caudo-dorsal part had convexity and formed an elliptical dorsal prominence (torus linguae), and bounded rostrally by the fossa linguae. A median fibrous ridge like structure, “lyssa” was present on the rostral third of its ventral surface. Five types of papillae were identified on the tongue of camel.
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Journal of Camel Practice and Research December 2020 / 323
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The Indian camel breeds have variable
behavioural preferences for diet, feed resources
because the anatomy and physiological function of
the tongue is well adapted to wide range of feed
resources (Serkan et al, 2016) in camels living in
diverse and extreme climate conditions. Although,
previous research studies have been performed on
the tongue has been reported viz. Indian buffalo
(Dhingra and Baranwal, 1979), Bactrian camel (Ye et
al, 2008). The ultrastructural studies using scanning
electron microscopy studies on the papillary body
of dromedary tongue have been conducted by Saber
et al (2011). Gross morphology and morphometry of
tongue of antenatal and adult dromedaries (Saidu et
al, 2015), histology of dromedary tongue (Qayyum et
al, 1991) and morphological study of muscle of camel
tongue (Allouch, 2014) have been studied previously.
The paucity in the literature on the gross structure
of tongue of the Indian dromedary camel evoked
interest to carry out the present study.
Materials and Methods
The tongues were dissected out from 10
cadavers of recently dead adult camels (Camelus
dromedarius) irrespective of age and sex from clinics
of Veterinary Clinical Complex, RAJUVAS, Bikaner.
These were free from any pathological condition of
tongue and mouth.
Each tongue was then used to study the gross
and biometric parameters. The tongue was weighed
DOI : 10.5958/2277-8934.2020.00045.4 Vol 27 No 3, p 323-328
GROSS ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES OF TONGUE
OF INDIAN DROMEDARY CAMEL
Pankaj Kumar Thanvi1, Sanjeev Joshi1 and Sakar Palecha2
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, 2Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, College of Veterinary and
Animal Science, Bikaner Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner, India
ABSTRACT
The present study was conducted on tongues obtained from 10 cadavers of adult camels (Camelus dromedarius).
Gross anatomical features were studied. The tongue of camel was muscular and spatula shaped, comprised of 3 parts
- the apex, body and the root. The mean length of tongue was 41.21 ± 0.527 cm. A median groove was present on
the dorsal surface of tongue. The caudo-dorsal part had convexity and formed an elliptical dorsal prominence (torus
linguae), and bounded rostrally by the fossa linguae. A median brous ridge like structure, “lyssa” was present on the
rostral third of its ventral surface. Five types of papillae were identied on the tongue of camel.
Key words: Dromedary camel, tongue
on a weighing scale. The width and thickness of
each tongue was measured by Vernier caliper. The
maximum length measured from the tip of the tongue
to the median glosso-epiglottic fold was recorded by a
measuring scale. Volume of each tongue was recorded
by water displacement method. The number of
papillae present on the tongue was counted grossly.
The data was analysed using standard statistical
methods as described by Kaps and Lamberson (2004).
Results and Discussion
Shape and Colour
The tongue of camel was muscular and spatula
shaped and comprised of 3 parts - the apex, body and
the root (Fig 1). Similar ndings were reported by
Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987), Kumar et al (1995)
and Ramayya et al (2012) in dromedary camel, Ye et
al (2008) in Bactrian camel, Raghavan (1964) in Ox,
Parvez and Rahaman (2005) in cow and Mahabady
et al (2010) in Iranian buffaloes. The apex was free,
attened, wide and rounded as described previously
(El Sharaby et al, 2012) in camels. It presented dorsal
and ventral surfaces and a median groove was
present on the dorsal surface (Fig 1). Similar ndings
were obeserved by Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian camel.
Although, Ye et al (2008) reported crinkled appearance
of the apex of tongue on dorsal surface, but no such
observations have been recorded in the present
study. The presence of papillated structures on the
ventral margin of the apex of tongue (Fig 2) was
324 / December 2020 Journal of Camel Practice and Research
in congruence with the observations of Harłajczuk
et al (2015) in Alpacas. A median brous ridge like
structure “lyssa” was observed on the rostral third
of the tongue at ventral surface, situated 2 - 3 cm
away from the tip and extended caudally to the level
of frenum linguae (Figs 1 and 2) was in conformity
with the ndings in camels (Shoeib et al, 2014) and in
dogs (Eubanks, 2007). However, Besoluk et al (2006)
reported the helical shaped lyssa in cats and more or
less J-shaped in the dogs. Shoeib et al (2014) reported
the lyssa as rod-shaped in dog and strip-like structure
in cat.
The body of the tongue was wider and thicker
caudally than the apex and narrower rostrally (Fig
1). These ndings were not in conformity with the
Ye et al (2008) who reported long and slender body
of the tongue in camels. It had 4 surfaces viz. dorsal,
2 lateral and ventral surfaces. The rostral part of
the dorsal surface of the tongue was flat and the
caudal part had convexity and formed an elliptical
dorsal prominence - torus linguae, which appeared
to be more, pronounced in the centre than on its
lateral margins (Fig 1). These ndings were in close
agreement with the reports in Indian buffalo (Dhingra
and Barnwal, 1979), cow (Parvez and Rahaman,
2005), Bactrian camel (Ye et al, 2008) and Egyptian
water buffalo (El-Bakary and Abumandour, 2017).
However, Bradley (1971), in ruminants named this
elliptical dorsal prominence as intermolar eminence.
The torus linguae has been found bounded by the fossa
linguae, rostrally which restricted the torus between
2nd and 3rd cheek teeth in the middle of the tongue
(Fig 1). Similar observations were reported by Gupta
et al (1989) in tongue of buffalo. Ramayya et al (2012)
reported the absence of fossa linguae in the tongue
of camel. The fossa linguae was crescent shape (Fig
1) as reported by Dhingra and Barnwal (1979) in
Indian buffalo. The lateral surfaces were nearly at
for the most part, but rostrally became rounded and
narrower. The rostral part of the ventral surface of
the tongue was free and the caudal part was related
to the mylohyoid muscle, which was similar to the
ndings reported in ox (Raghavan, 1964). The root
of the tongue was slightly narrower than body and
sloped caudo-ventrally. The tongue of the camel
had light pink appearance of dorsal surface and
grayish pink ventral surface (Figs 1 and 2). Black
pigmented patches or spots were occasionally found
on the ventral surface of the tip and body (Fig 3).
Whereas pigmented spots on the dorsum of mucous
membrane of tongue of ox were reported by Sisson
and Grossman (1958).
Size and Weight
The morphometric studies demonstrated the
mean length of the tongue from the tip to the root
41.21 ±0.527 cm. Similar ndings were reported by
Kumar et al (1995) and Ramayya et al (2012) in camels.
However, Ye et al (2008) reported the length of tongue
in a range 25-32 cm in Bactrian camels and El-Bakary
and Abumandour (2017) reported 47 ± 1.2 cm in
Egyptian water buffalo. The mean length from root
to lingual fossa and lingual fossa to tip of tongue was
16.83 ±0.202 cm and 24.38 ± 0.462 cm, respectively.
The mean thickness of tongue at torus linguae
was 6.825 ±0.409 cm, at lingual fossa 4.362 ± 0.284 cm
and at tip 1.235 ± 0.108 cm. The mean width of tongue
at root was 8.117 ±0.209 cm, at lingual fossa 3.916 ±
0.191 cm and 5.479 ± 0.117 cm at the tip. Kumar et al
(1995) reported maximum width at root of tongue
7.12 ± 0.94 cm in camel, however, Ramayya et al
(2012) noticed maximum width at the level of torus
linguae in same species. According to El-Bakary and
Abumandour (2017), the tongue of Egyptian water
buffalo was 7 ± 0.51 cm wide at its middle part. The
mean weight of tongue recorded 0.570 ± 0.021 Κg and
mean volume 0.572 ± 0.021 litres.
Topography
The tongue rests on the oor of mouth cavity,
between the two horizontal rami of mandible (Figs.
1 and 3). It was in agreement with Raghavan (1964)
in ox, Gupta et al (1989) in buffalo and Ye et al (2008)
in Bactrian camel. It extended from glosso-epiglotic
fold to the lingual surface of central incisors (Fig 1),
whereas, Gupta et al (1989) found the tongue extended
from the glosso-epiglottic fold to about 1 cm rostral
to the level of sublingual caruncle in buffalo. Kumar
et al (1995) found camel tongue extended from the
rostral part of the oor of mouth cavity to the level of
the oropharynx.
The caudal 3/4th portion of the tongue was
fixed and rostral 1/4th was free which was also
reported by Dhingra and Barnwal (1979) in Indian
buffalo. On the Contrary, Ye et al (2008) reported the
caudal 4/5th of tongue was xed while the rostral
1/5th was free in Bactrian camel. The ventral surface
of xed part was placed on the mylohyoid muscle and
attached to the dorsal surface of basal part of hyoid
bone was in partial accordance with the ndings of
Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian camel. The dorsal surface of
xed part was attached with anterior pillars of the soft
palate, and the glosso-epiglottic fold (Fig 1). Similar
ndings were also reported by Raghavan (1964) in ox.
The ventral surface of the free part of the tongue was
attached to the oor of the oral cavity by a median
Journal of Camel Practice and Research December 2020 / 325
Fig 1. Photograph showing mouth cavity and pharynx of camel.
Al - Aditus laryngis, E - Epiglottis, Gef - Glosso - epiglottic
fold, Tl - Torus linguae, Ct - Cheek tooth, Fl - Fossa linguae,
Dl - Dorsum linguae, Hpc - Horny papillae of cheek, T
- Tip of tongue, Ll - lower lip, Ap - Anterior pillar, Mlg -
Median longitudinal groove, Rt - Root of tongue.
Fig 2. Photograph of ventral surface of tongue of camel showing
papillae. Fi - liform papillae, Fu - Fungiform papilla,
Cp - Conical papilla, L - Lyssa, T - Tip of tongue.
Fig 3. Photograph showing oor of mouth cavity of camel.
Vt - Ventral surface of tongue, Fl - Frenulum linguae,
Hpc - Horny papillae of cheek, Hrm - Horizontal ramus
of mandible, V - Vestibule, Ll - Lower lip.
Fig 4. Photograph of dorsal surface of tongue of camel showing
circumvallate papilla. Cv - Circumvallate papilla, LCp -
Large conical papilla, SCp - Small conical, LLp - Large
lenticular papilla, SLp - Small lenticular papilla.
fold of mucosa, the frenulum linguae which was
extended from caudal end of lyssa to 1 - 2 cm rostrally
to the 1st premolar (Fig 3). It was in congruence with
the observations of Gupta et al (1989) in buffalo,
Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian camel and El-Bakary and
Abumandour (2017) in Egyptian water buffalo.
Papillae
Five types of papillae identied on the tongue of
camel were categorised as mechanical and gustatory
papillae. The liform, conical and lenticular papillae
were categorised as mechanical papillae whereas,
fungiform and circumvallate were categorised as
gustatory papillae. These were in conformity with
the ndings of Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987) in
dromedary camel and Peng et al (2008) in Bactrian
camel. However, it partially cont ra dicted the
statement of Mahabady et al (2010), who found
liform, conical, lenticular and fungiform papillae
as mechanical papillae and circumvallate papillae as
gustatory papillae in Iranian buffaloes.
Mechanical papillae
Filiform Papillae
Filiform papillae were the most numerous
papillae randomly distributed approximately on the
anterior half of the surface of the tongue (Fig 5). It was
326 / December 2020 Journal of Camel Practice and Research
in agreement with Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987)
in dromedary camel and Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian
camel. These were thickly populated on the dorsal
surface, in front of the fossa linguae up to the tip and
moderately populated on the ventral surface of the
tip (Figs 2 and 5), Similar finding were reported
(Parvez and Rahaman, 2005) in cow. No filiform
papillae were found on torus linguae and root (Fig
4). It was also reported by Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian
camel however, contradicted with the ndings of
Mahabady et al (2010), according to which liform
papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal
surface of the tongue, with the liform papillae on
torus linguae shaped as caudally directed pointed
spines or conical shape in Iranian buffaloes. The
height of the papillae located on the tip of the tongue
was low, but increased towards the body of the
tongue, which was in conformity with the ndings
of Ye et al (2008) in Bactrian camel. The papillae were
triangular or leaf-like shape with a sharp tip pointed
backward. It was also reported by Mahabady et al
(2010) in Iranian buffaloes. The degree of inclination
of the liform papillae increased towards fossa linguae.
Conical Papillae
Two types of conical papillae, i.e. large and
small were located only on the torus linguae. The
larger papillae were located mainly on caudal margin
of torus linguae and directed caudally, with at and
blunt free end. The small conical papillae were
located on lateral margins of torus rostrally to the
circumvallate papillae and directed cranially. The
free ends of conical papillae were pointed (Fig 4). Few
horny conical papillae were also found on the ventral
surface of the tip (Fig 2). Parvez and Rahaman (2005)
reported that the large conical papillae were located
in the rostral two-thirds of the dorsum of the tongue
with a higher concentration in the middle portion of
the tongue in cow (Bos indicus).
Lenticular Papillae
Lenticular papillae were largest among the
mechanical papillae, limited on the torus linguae (Fig
4) as described by Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987) in
camel and Mahabady et al (2010) in Iranian buffaloes.
These were of two types, i.e. larger and smaller. The
larger papillae were arranged in two parallel rows
and located in the middle of the anterior two-third of
the torus while the smaller papillae were distributed
laterally in the posterior third of the torus. Their free
surfaces were round or attened (Fig 4).
Gustatory papillae
Fungiform Papillae
The fungiform papillae were small, round and
club shaped (Fig 5) as also reported by Raghavan
(1964) in ox. These were irregularly distributed among
the filiform papillae in the anterior two-thirds of
the dorsal surface and ventro-lateral surface of the
tongue (Fig 5), also reported previously in camels
(Smuts and Bezuidenhout, 1987). These papillae
were maximally distributed on the dorsal and lateral
aspects of the tip of the tongue, with few on the
ventral surface of the tip (Figs 2 and 5) which were
in agreement with Raghavan (1964) in ox and El-
Bakary and Abumandour (2017) in Egyptian water
buffalo. No fungiform papillae were found on torus
linguae and root (Fig 4) whereas, it was contrary to
Fig 5. Photograph of dorsal surface of tongue of camel showing
liform and fungiform papillae. Fi - Filiform papillae, Fu
- Fungiform Papillae, T - Tip, Mlg - Median longitudinal
groove.
Fig 6. Photograph showing single circumvallate papilla on the
tongue of camel. Cv - Circumvallate papillae, F - Furrow,
Af - Annular fold.
Journal of Camel Practice and Research December 2020 / 327
the ndings of Mahmoud et al (2002) in donkeys.
These were slightly elevated from the lingual surface
as described by Mahabady et al (2010) in Iranian
buffaloes. Fungiform papillae decreased in number
but increased in size from the tip to lingual fossa
which, were in the accordance with the ndings of
Gupta et al (1989) in buffalo. The ventral surface was
also papillated. The liform and fungiform papillae
extended for about 5 to 6 mm beyond the tip (Fig 2).
Circumvallate Papillae
Circumvallate papillae were found arranged in
a single row on both rims of the torus linguae. These
were 12-16 in number, with 6-8 distributed on either
side (Figs 1 and 4). These ndings were in partial
disagreement with Smuts and Bezuidenhout (1987),
as the vallate papillae were located on the torus, along
its lateral borders, and consisted of a single row of 3
to 6 prominent papillae in same species. Kobayashi
et al (2005) reported 15 or more vallate papillae at
the posterior area of the lingual prominence in cattle
although, Parvez and Rahaman (2005) reported 12-20
papillae in number on either side in cattle. Further,
El Sharaby et al (2012) also reported 4-6 large vallate
papillae arranged on each side closer to one another
forming two lines almost parallel to the rim of lingual
torus in one-humped camel whereas, Ramayya et al
(2012) reported that circumvallate papillae were 4 on
right side and 5 on left side on caudo-lateral aspect
of the tongue in camel. The papillae were round in
shape with minute elevation from the tongue surface.
Each papilla was separated from the surrounding
thick annular fold by a prominent furrow (Fig 6). The
shape and size of these papillae varied greatly and
these were not identical or symmetrical in the lines
of either side even in the same specimen (Fig 1 and
4) also reported in camels previously (El Sharaby et
al 2012). In some specimens, two papillae were found
surrounded by a common annular pad and primary
grooves (Fig 4).
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... One of these adaptations is that the dromedary camel has very sturdy mouth to maintain the efficient feeding of thorny and rough-stem plants which naturally grow in the arid regions (El Sharaby et al., 2012). In addition, several studies on the mouth of camel have described the anatomical features of camel tongue (Qayyum et al., 1988;Takehana et al., 2001;Peng et al., 2008;Salehi et al., 2010;El Sharaby et al., 2012;Thanvi et al., 2020). With regards to its dorsal surface, similar to ruminants, the tongue of camel is characterized by the presence of fungiform and vallate papillae, and the lack of foliate papillae as well (Thanvi et al., 2020). ...
... In addition, several studies on the mouth of camel have described the anatomical features of camel tongue (Qayyum et al., 1988;Takehana et al., 2001;Peng et al., 2008;Salehi et al., 2010;El Sharaby et al., 2012;Thanvi et al., 2020). With regards to its dorsal surface, similar to ruminants, the tongue of camel is characterized by the presence of fungiform and vallate papillae, and the lack of foliate papillae as well (Thanvi et al., 2020). ...
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The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.
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Gross morphology and morphometry of apparently normal tongues of forty antenatal and ten adult dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) of both sexes, procured from the Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir, were studied. This was with the aim of documenting information on these aspects. The thirteen months dromedary gestation period was divided into four quarters for the purpose of the foetal tongue morphometric study, with ten foetuses per quarter. The prenatal and postnatal tongues were grossly observed to be flat apically and oval basally. They were highly flexible, like other ruminants' tongues, and relatively small to the overall sizes of the study animals. The highest lingual weight percentage of the body weight of 0.39% was attained at the second prenatal growth phase of the dromedary while the least, 0.16%, was attained in the adult. The foetal tongues showed levels of significant increases in sizes and weights throughout the prenatal growth phases. It was concluded that the dromedary tongue is similar to other ruminant tongues and most of the salient gross features, like gustatory and non-gustatory papillae, of the dromedary tongue were already obvious as early as the first prenatal growth phase (2 – 3 months) and the remaining three periods were associated with size increases. In the prenatal dromedary tongues studied, the salient gross features of the tongue were fully evident right from the first quarter of gestation (first three months of prenatal life), but were relatively small in size. Likewise; the mean dimensions and the weights obtained in the present study, showed significant increments across the four-quarters gestation. This is not unrelated with the structural developments of the overall body size and weights.
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The tongue of camel consisted of apex, body and the root. The total length of the tongue was 40 cm and the maximum width was noticed at the level of torus linguae. The fossa linguae was absent. Dorsal surface of the tongue showed filiform, fungiform, lenticular and circumvallate papillae. The number of circumvallate papillae was observed to be 4 on right side and 5 on left side on caudolateral aspect of the tongue. Foliate papillae were absent in the tongue of the camel.
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The tongue's structure of bactrian camel was studied using gross anatomical and morphological methods. The result shows that the tongue consists of root, body and apex, as is likely same with other ruminants in the basic structure. The papillae include filiform (Fl), lenticular (L), conical (Co), fungiform (Fu) and vallate papillae (CV). But the tongue of bactrian camel also forms the special structure due to its peculiar living condition and food habits such as high keratinisation, broad and thick root, and the apex of tongue with well developed median groove and transverse folds, less developed vallate papillae and more developed filiform and conical papillae. The present study concludes that the bactrian camel has evolved a unique morphological structure to adapt to the harsh environment in desert and semi-desert area by long period of evolution. Our research made an academic basis for studying the feeding mode and habits of the camel, and accumulated the data for studying the tongue in ruminant animals.
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The lingual papillae of adult bactrian camel were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Five types of lingual papillae were found on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Two types of filiform papillae could be distinguished. The filiform papillae had a primary papilla and a few slender secondary papillae. Fungiform papillae were round in shape, and more densely distributed on the tip of the lingual apex. Only a few taste pores were recognisable on the free surface of the papillae. Conical papillae have a round base and a blunt tip without any projection. Lenticular papillae were positioned in a round or flat protrusion with the appearance of a papillae groove. Vallate papillae were encircled by a papillary groove and an annular pad of the surrounding lingual mucosa. Many taste buds were found in the papillary groove of the papillae. The taste buds, composed of several layers structure of appearing to be sponge shaped, looked like tree peony in shape. The irregular surface of all types of papillae revealed microplicae in the form of microridges and micropits.
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The tongue specimens were collected from Beni-Adi slaughterhouse, near Assiut. They were fixed by injecting 2.5% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 7.2 phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) through the lingual artery. Pieces of tissue from several areas bearing the lingual papillae were cut and prepared for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Connective Tissue Core (CTC) of the filiform papillae was found to be in three forms, i.e. the filament-shaped, broad and pyramidal type. The surface of the CTC of the conical papillae was studded with secondary process. Their apeces were bifurcated. The CTC of the fungiform papillae was also seen in the tongue-shape. At their base the CTC detached very large secondary papillae which were arranged in a scaly manner. The surface of the CTC of the vallate papillae (6-11 in number) was studded with different types of secondary processes which were completely different in shape, size and length.
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The present study was conducted on the tongue of six apparently healthy indigenous (Bos indicus) cows of different age and sex and they were collected from local market at Dinajpur district and this research work was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Histology, Dinajpur Government Veterinary College, Dinajpur during the research period from the month of July 2003 to April 2004. After proper euthanasia, the animals were killed and then the tongues of these animals were dissected out from the carcasses and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. In the present study it was observed that the tongue of indigenous cow (Bos indicus) of Bangladesh has three parts: the root, body and an apex. The dorsum linguae was specially more pronounced in its centre and was occupied by numerous types of masticatory and gustatory papillae. The fine rasp-like filiform papillae were more numerous and directed caudally throughout the dorsum and packed closely in front of the fossa linguae throughout the tip, whereas, the club shaped fungi form papillae were irregularly distributed all over the dorsum among the filiform papillae. The broad headed lentil shaped lenticular papillae was also found in the rostral two-thirds of the dorsum but better developed along the mid-line of the tongue. The large conical papillae of the tongue of Bos indicus occurred in the rostral two-thirds of the dorsum with a higher concentration in the middle portion of the tongue, however, the small ones occurred through out the torus. The vallate papillae of the tongue of Bos indicus were 12-20 in number on either side and dispersed in two irregular rows (25-40) in total along the caudolateral two-thirds of the dorsum. The mucosa of the root of the tongue of Bos indicus did not show any specific papillae but it was rather smooth due to diffused lymphoid tissue distribution (lingual tonsil).