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Gamification Applications in E-learning: A Literature Review


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In recent years, there has been a lot of attention given to the trend of including game elements into non-gaming facilities. The usage of gamification in education is a massive benefit for motivation, user interaction, and social effects. The gamified elements such as points, badge, feedbacks, level, rewards, challenges, etc. have been used in e-learning. A systematic review of gamification in online education has not been found when the relevant literature examined. Therefore, this study aims to research the current literature using gamification and online education and highlight the reported benefits and challenges of gamification applications in online education. The present research followed the literature review method. The current study employed a qualitative approach for collected data. Thus, the term "gamification" was used as the primary research keyword. The results show that gamification has increasingly been accepted as a useful learning tool to generate more engaging educational environments. Additionally, elements support and motivate students to participate in a gamification system. The study showed that the most common gamification elements used in e-learning and have a powerful effect on the students are points, leaderboards, badge, and level. This study is thought to contribute significantly to studies on the use of gamification applications in online education. It reinforces previous studies and identifies many useful study topics that can be explored to advance the field. From these results, suggestions on gamification applications in e-learning for further research are given.
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Technology, Knowledge and Learning
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Gamication Applications inE‑learning: ALiterature Review
AwazNaamanSaleem1· NarminMohammedNoori1· FezileOzdamli1
Accepted: 23 November 2020
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature 2021
In recent years, there has been a lot of attention given to the trend of including game ele-
ments into non-gaming facilities. The usage of gamification in education is a massive
benefit for motivation, user interaction, and social effects. The gamified elements such as
points, badge, feedbacks, level, rewards, challenges, etc. have been used in e-learning. A
systematic review of gamification in online education has not been found when the rel-
evant literature examined. Therefore, this study aims to research the current literature using
gamification and online education and highlight the reported benefits and challenges of
gamification applications in online education. The present research followed the litera-
ture review method. The current study employed a qualitative approach for collected data.
Thus, the term "gamification" was used as the primary research keyword. The results show
that gamification has increasingly been accepted as a useful learning tool to generate more
engaging educational environments. Additionally, elements support and motivate students
to participate in a gamification system. The study showed that the most common gamifi-
cation elements used in e-learning and have a powerful effect on the students are points,
leaderboards, badge, and level. This study is thought to contribute significantly to studies
on the use of gamification applications in online education. It reinforces previous studies
and identifies many useful study topics that can be explored to advance the field. From
these results, suggestions on gamification applications in e-learning for further research are
Keywords E-learning· Gamification· Gamification elements· Advantages of
gamification· Challenges of gamification
* Fezile Ozdamli
Awaz Naaman Saleem
Narmin Mohammed Noori
1 Department ofComputer Information Systems, Near East University, Mersin10, Turkey
A.N.Saleem et al.
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1 Introduction
The widespread usage of emerging technology, like the web, social media, and mobile
phones, influences university educational processes. Facilitating improved collaboration
and introducing new computer technologies are beneficial for teaching and training (Urh
etal. 2015). Today, teaching in any sector is quite different from 20years ago (Aloia
and Vaporciyan 2019). Internet-based technologies are gaining importance day by day
(Uzunboylu and Karagozlu 2017). The web is also a valuable resource for the comple-
ment or substitution of formal schooling by students and educators; This approach is
e-learning or usage of Web resources to offer a large variety of methods to increase
information and efficiency (Aloia and Vaporciyan 2019). E-learning frameworks and
internet-based applications became common and enabled users directly to access data
on private computers through the internet (Zamfiroiu and Sbora 2014). The e-learning
idea has become more popular as the internet is expanding (Karagozlu 2018). Infra-
structure is accessible, although typically, the schooling phase is done face to face
(Yildirim 2017). Besides, the way professors build and pass on the information, and
vice versa is increasingly evolving in technology. Using e-learning tools is ahead steam
across almost all schooling (Doumanis etal. 2019).
E-learning has been increasingly common in learning such that a vast number of stu-
dents access education at a low rate. The majority of learner experiences are rendered
accessible online by contemplating previous articles’ contents and hence the sharing of
knowledge (Ding 2019). Online learning offers students a cultural and individually ori-
ented learning experience without their physical appearance instead of the conventional
school framework (Hassan etal. 2019). The main goal of learning and schooling is to
enable students to enroll and be energetic in courses (Hanus and Fox 2015). This situ-
ation is an incentive to inspire students extraneously because they are not encouraged
to learn (Hamari 2017). Incentive schemes are often commonly utilized in classrooms.
They intended to promote learning for students (Kyewski and Krämer 2018) as com-
mitment is a term with various meanings clarified by attendance, a desire to take part,
or personal consideration. The outcomes are a variety of encounters (between students,
teachers, and content). Still, several engagement-definition strategies are also possibly
linked to various sides: social, cultural, and not mainly to straight suitable for electronic
learning context (Pankiewicz 2016). To enhance the productivity of blended education
and dynamic learning, gamification as a modern method will aid. The joining of the cur-
riculum will improve educational processes (Yildirim 2017). In recent years, the quan-
tity of these methods has been enhanced due to the acceptance of the word and its posi-
tive outcomes besides an increasing interest in games, particularly in education (Toda
etal. 2019). Also, Robson etal. (2015) reported the rise of using gamify technology in
different life sectors is for three reasons as follows:
The first reason is that computer games’ development and industry have increased
during the past years, which takes an enlarged number of studies on understanding,
managing, and designing games and individuals’ motivations to play. The second reason
is the spread of social media, smartphones, websites, etc. It changed companies’ partici-
pation through engagement, discussion, and re-creation of any experience and expertise.
The third reason is that countries’ and companies’ investigation is exciting new ways to
communicate effectively and learn from behavior and influence the users. So, the trans-
fer of instructional materials from traditional to digital formats may create a problem
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
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of lingering since the content component of learning is interactive. Individual students
may not be confident or e-learning-friendly (Bachtiar etal. 2018).
Therefore, new teaching approaches implemented in numerous teaching systems world-
wide have arisen to address students’ educational wants and provide students in areas with
distinct atmosphere features and living conditions educational opportunities (Dastjerdi
2016). For this reason, the use of gamification in the field of e-learning is growing and
gaining in popularity (Urh etal. 2015). Gamification methods are strategies, procedures,
and mechanisms that help consumers consistently determine how to incorporate game
basics in an exact non-game setting. The number of gamification styles has risen in the
previous years because of the term’s prevalence, positive results, and the increasing interest
in games, especially for educational purposes (Toda etal. 2019). Gamified is another tech-
nique that gains recognition in education (Rodríguez etal. 2018). The possible advantage
of gamified learning and education methods has been recommended for a long time (Ding
et al. 2018). There are a lot of studies devoted to gamification that studied about gami-
fied elements. Therefore, this study aims to research the current literature using gamifica-
tion and online education and highlight the reported benefits and challenges of gamifica-
tion applications in online education. The study designed to find and answer the following
1. What are the purposes of using gamification elements in e-learning?
2. What are the advantages of the gamified education process for students in e-learning?
3. What are the challenges facing the student and instructor in the gamified education in
4. Which gamification elements do increase learner’s motivation and engage them in
1.1 Theoretical Background ofUsing Gamication inE‑Learning
The adoption of innovation through our everyday lives has touched classrooms as
teachers utilize modern technical teaching tools. Students may engage in collaborative
programs, chat through online groups, view videos in course materials, or use various
methods in social media network pages (Sanchez etal. 2020). In recent years, signifi-
cant improvement has been made in information technology (IT), and school struc-
tures cannot overlook such enhancements. IT provides both exposure and flexibility
to giant learning atmospheres, focusing on students’ variability, promoting inclusive,
autonomous, and adaptive learning (Llorens-Largo etal. 2016). But all this transition
in education needs intellectual and technical development (Ge 2018). Theories empha-
size the need to adjust this strategy to increase students’ comprehension. The modern
concept of student-centered learning appears central to active learning, known as an
educational method that includes the learners’ learning cycle (Freeman et al. 2014).
In today’s environment, many ICT materials are available to make and extend aware-
ness materials cover the internet, radio, TV, smartphone, laptop, computer, and tablet
software application and hardware; some ICT devices have educational repercussions
(Agrawal and Mittal 2018). Most of this device can be used by each student and lecturer
(Vezne 2020). Application software is used to inspire individuals and promote differ-
ent personally and mutually helpful practices. Maybe the most common development in
this field has been splitting with technology, which typically uses design characteristics
to encourage motivations in different activities (Hamari etal. 2015; Gokbulut 2020).
A.N.Saleem et al.
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Besides, games are increasingly relevant and fascinating as an education resource in
various educational settings with the growth of smartphones and interactive technology
(Ge 2018). Researchers stated the differences between "gamification" and "game-based
learning" and explained that in "game-based learning," students reach their educational
goals by playing games. In learning by playing, "playing" often plays an essential role
in the learning process. Game-based learning is the use of games to improve the learn-
ing experience. However, gamification takes place entirely outside the game context and
makes learning more active. Gamification is the process of adding game elements to
a non-game situation. Students are rewarded for completing specific tasks (Kim etal.
2009; Al-Azawi etal. 2016; Ceker & Ozdamli 2017). For this reason, the research com-
munity has developed a greater interest over gamification (Nacke and Deterding 2017).
Gamified is recognized and implemented in diverse areas such as marketing, politics,
industry, IT, fitness exercise, and health (Rodríguez et al. 2018). Health researchers
and providers have started using gamification apps to deliver medical education online
and through mobile apps (Garett and Young 2019). In this sense, many people in the
research community have encouraged game-building (Nacke and Deterding 2017).
Gamification is structured to incorporate game features to improve human motivation
and accomplish individual purposes (Lopez and Tucker 2019). In interactive gam-
ing and digital selling, the concept of using game design features in non-game ways
to inspire and improve user activity. And retention quickly; gained in intensity; this is
through Gamify (El-Telbany and Elragal 2017; De-Marcos et al. 2014). Many studies
defined the technical term "gamification". It is characterized as the mechanism by which
game design components are implemented to non-game environments (Bai etal. 2020;
Yildirim 2017; Hassan etal. 2019; Kyewski and Krämer 2018; Zainuddin Shujahat and
Perera 2020a; Ding Er and Orey 2018; Sailer etal. 2017; El-Telbany and Elragal 2017;
De-Marcos etal. 2014).
Moreover, the real world begins to enter game-like and game components to modifying
an activity such as a breadboard, a handwriting recognition system, or gaming-like tools
(Arnold 2014). The origin of the term gamification is back to the digital media industry.
The word is a neologism from the world of new technology. In 2002, it was invented then
in 2008, the first document that used gamification was published (Rodrigues etal. 2019).
And since 2010, it has become widespread in many fields. Gamification becomes widely
accepted in the community of scientific (Bai etal. 2020). Games provide simple goals that
are more separated into temporarily easy targets that offer gamers a smooth sense of suc-
cess by providing incentives that serve as external motivators (De-Marcos etal. 2014). As
a result, gamification techniques are used in educational environments to inspire students
and, generally, to utilize the competitive need that most people have to encourage success-
ful actions (Rizzardini etal. 2016). In different research areas, the extreme standard game
components are points, avatars, challenges, levels, leaderboards/rank, badges (Barata etal.
2017; Hamari and Koivisto 2015; Sailer etal. 2017). Also, feedback, achievements, clear
goals, recitations, and pushing (Hamari and Koivisto 2015). Narrative, teams, and progress
bar (Sailer etal. 2017). Numerous gamification structures are also possible, like unlocking
content, combat, boss fights, gifting, social graph, quests, memes, and certificates (Zainud-
din et al. 2020a). In all fields, gamification may encourage beginning or retaining goal-
oriented behavior, motivational (Sailer etal. 2017). Furthermore, gamification, due to its
impact on student learning, is a growing education phenomenon (da Rocha Seixas etal.
2016; Göksün and Gürsoy 2019). Besides, it is an instructional method to improve teach-
ing, inspire and empower, increase student engagement and interactivity, and encourage
learners to grow their skills (Zainuddin etal. 2020b). In the learning process, Ding (2019)
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
clarified that gamification components encourage learners to gain more goal-orientation
through more remarkable patience, repetitive learning, teamwork, and pleasant rivalry with
Accordingly, the online learning productive environment may promote communication
among faculty members and student, exchange and collaboration between students, time
on task, feedback prompt, learning technics active, communicating strong standards, and
honoring the variety and learning practices of any student (Urh etal. 2015). The gamifica-
tion factor was seen with considerable interest in education and improved student engage-
ment in classrooms (Hanus and Fox 2015). It tries to blend encouragement with outward
inspiration to promote participation and inspiration (Kyewski and Krämer 2018). Then by
encouraging themto take an active part in decision-making, gamification is especially ideal
for active learning because itprovides students with a healthy and enjoyableatmosphere to
explore, create nuanced decisions and think about the consequences oftheirbehavior (Des-
peisse 2018). Equally important, gamified seeks to incorporate more fun and participation
in school, thus offering constructive input that motivates, inspires, and enables students to
become more involved. Because encouragement is not a simple job, the gamification inter-
face’s effective creation and implementation need significant work (Aldemir etal. 2018).
Therefore, the instructional game that is designed well present the continued chance for
improvement players, enormous input challenges too challenging to tackle for any person,
and communities that shift in reaction to learners’ behavior (Urh etal. 2015). However, stu-
dent involvement will be focused on educational purposes irrespective of whether it is pro-
moted. The students’ profile and accessible school facilities must be considered (da Rocha
Seixas etal. 2016). As well, Urh etal. (2015) presented the most significant determinants
in e-learning are pedagogy, technology, design, administration, people, learning mate-
rial, finance. Due to technology patterns that encourage the required behavior to use game
components and improve enterprise education results. This approach is focused on posi-
tive education that exposes the necessity to learn by social contact with the world and col-
leagues (York and Dehaan 2018). The increasing proof that gamified is widely recognized
as a useful teaching tool to construct attractive learning environments (Zainuddin etal.
2020a). The findings of gamified in education focused on observational data from recent
research aims at validating the benefits of splitting in favor of its ability to inspire, par-
ticipate and affect socially while enabling students to immerse themselves in experimental
learning (Lopez and Tucker 2019; Zainuddin etal. 2020a). It is necessary to seek to meas-
ure the impact of gamified on student education to explain the gamified of teaching. While
gamification is common, little consensus exists about enhancing educational outcomes (Bai
etal. 2020). Through the literature review, several studies discussed gamification elements.
Table1 summarizes related researches of gamified components in e-learning.
2 Methodology
The present research followed the literature review method to determine the advantages and
challenges of gamification applications in e-learning. An analysis of scholarly references
on a particular subject is a literature review. It provides an outline of current understanding,
such that relevant study hypotheses, approaches, and holes may be established. A literature
review includes selecting, assessing, and studying publications pertinent to the research
problem like books, articles, and journals (Mccombes 2019). The literature review was a
perfect way to present previous literature. It enabled the compilation of research results
A.N.Saleem et al.
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Table 1 Recent studies on gamification elements in e-learning
Authors Aim of the study Results Gamification elements Prevalent themes
Zainuddin etal. (2020b) Evaluate the effect of gamifica-
tion on students’ success and
involvement in a formative
evaluation context
To evaluate student output of
learning, particularly after com-
pleting each subject, the use of
creative gamified EQ applica-
tions (Quizizz, Socrative, and
Spring Learn LMS) and paper
quizzes was successful
Badges, points, progressions,
memes, certificates, leader-
boards, and competition
Perceived engagement and stu-
dent’s performance
Yildirim (2017) Increasing students’ attention and
motivation and improve student
achievement and attitudes
toward lessons
Practices focused on gamification
have substantial results on the
student’s success and attitudes
towards learning
Leaderboards, points, levels, and
Academical performance
Aldemir etal. (2018) Examine the overall opinions of
students on the different ele-
ments of a game training course
in the instructor education
Positive outcomes of story
creativity are essential in the
positive creation of gamifica-
tion instruction in the classroom
Narrative, challenge, reward,
leaderboards, constrains, teams,
points, win-state, and badge
Engagement and motivation,
socialization and interaction
Bouchrika etal. (2019) How Gamified may specifically
affect student behavior and
e-learning technology interac-
tive content
Gamification may be regarded
as a useful method to enable
instructional programs to be
implemented and improve its
interactivity and involvement
Badges, leader boards, and Scores Interactive and engagement in
da Rocha Seixas etal. (2016)Assess the usefulness of gamifica-
tion tools as a tool for student
engagement in a primary school
in 8th grade
The overall output of students
earning more rewards from the
instructor is significantly better
average fulfilments
Badges Engagement and motivation,
socialization and interaction,
academic performance
de-Marcos etal. (2016) How well-developed education
and social networking strategies
compare with more innovative
methods in terms of learning
success in undergraduate school
All investigational environments
have an essential effect on
learning achievement. Social
gamification has produced more
significant outcomes in terms of
learning output through differ-
ent assessment products
Leaderboards, challenges, nar-
rative, levels, trophies, points,
Academical performance
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
Table 1 (continued)
Authors Aim of the study Results Gamification elements Prevalent themes
Ding etal. (2018) The aim is to investigate the
effect on student participation
in online conversations from the
gamification methodology
They were inspired by the gamifi-
cation method to spend further
resources in online discus-
sions. The four-play elements
contributed to investment in an
additional effort by the students
Experience, badges, points, pro-
gress bar, leaderboards rewards,
and reaction
Engagement and motivation,
socialization and interaction
Ding (2019) Introduces a mixed gamified
approach analysis that encour-
ages the participation of stu-
dents in online conversations
The gamified strategy has an
only beneficial impact on the
sum of learners who had more
experience of the gamification
method, feedback, and partici-
pation in online debates
Leaderboards, levels, points,
experience, and badges
Engagement and motivation,
socialization and interaction
Ge (2018) Exploring the effect of three
award approaches on the suc-
cess of adolescent e-learners in
a gamed education cycle
The findings revealed that the
prize-winning model and the
price-only model would signifi-
cantly affect e-learner education
than the non-winning method
Rewards prize and points Learning (motivation, perfor-
mance, and anxiety)
Göksün and Gürsoy (2019) Inspect gamified behavior’s
effect as an influential evalu-
ation mechanism focused on
universal performance and pupil
involvement in the teaching
Mixed architecture criteria were
implemented for the report. The
findings of the study showed
that academic performance, stu-
dent participation, community
contact model was valuable
Ranking, leaderboards, levels,
and points
Motivation and engagement in
learning, academic performance
Hassan etal. (2019) The aim is to increase pupils’
success, their inspiration, and
their rate of completion using
customized elements focused on
the types of students’ learning
Accordingly, adaptive gamified
components and chosen tasks
may dramatically increase influ-
ences such as encouragement,
end of the course, participation,
and engagement in the elec-
tronic learning program
Feedback, levels, leaderboards,
points, badges, and goals
Completing course motivation and
A.N.Saleem et al.
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Table 1 (continued)
Authors Aim of the study Results Gamification elements Prevalent themes
Kyewski and Krämer (2018) Check that badges awarded in an
e-learning curriculum in higher
education for good work suc-
cess and different tasks affect
the learner’s encouragement
and results
Markers have less effect than is
generally thought on inspiration
and outcomes. Irrespective of
their situation, the morale of
students declined through time
Badges Motivation, academic fulfillment,
and engagement
Lopez and Tucker (2019) Explore the connection between
the group of players and their
game preferences
The category of player is associ-
ated with the interpretation and
success of person viewpoints in
the gamified program
Unlocking content, avatar, and
Social cooperation, player type,
motivation, and performance
Toda etal. (2019) Recommend a method to sup-
port teachers and educators in
preparing and applying social
media gamification principles in
educational contexts
Teachers should use the concept
of principles for gamifica-
tion inside social networks
to enhance students’ learning
Leaderboard, points, levels,
badges, achievement progress
Social interaction and connection
engagement and motivation
Hamari (2017) Outcomes of Gamified badge on
in a social economy business
app operation
Users in the gamified condition
were significantly more likely
to post trade proposals, carry
out transactions, comment on
projects, and generally use
the service in a new effective
Badges User engagement
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
that dealt with the researcher’s topic and uncovering the gaps that have not been addressed
and making them among the researcher’s priorities for future studies. The current research
employed a qualitative approach for collected data. Thus, the term "gamification" was used
as the primary research keyword. The present study is limited to review between 2015
and 2020. The research was conducted using the following preferred electronic sources to
obtain a global perspective: Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore, Web of Science, Science
Direct, and Springer. To find related distributed paper in all databases, the data and infor-
mation are collected by using the following keywords: Gamification, gamified, gamifica-
tion element, gamification components, distance learning, distance education, e-learning,
online learning. The following Boolean sentence is used in databases and google scholar to
find similar studies about the current study subject. (("gamification" OR "gamified") AND
("gamification elements" OR "gamification components") AND ("distance learning" OR
"distance education" OR " e-learning" OR "online learning")). Figure1 illustrated the cri-
teria that have been considered for selecting related articles.
3 Result
This literature review research aimed to find the effects of gamification in e-learning; the
following subsection gives details information on review results.
3.1 The Purposes ofUsing Gamication Elements inE‑learning
Integrated e-learning as a new learning form is structured to give students customized
opportunities focused on their interests, existing abilities, and styles (Jianu and Vasilateanu
2017). Besides, Hubalovsky, Hubalovska, and Musilek (2019) clarified to motivate the stu-
dent and supporting them, the online learning elements should respond with the following:
E-learning content should promote full-time education, and e-learning content will be
created to improve the curriculum.
Online learning activities should stay entertaining, interactive, and should combine
images, etc.
* Years between 2015 and 2020.
* The paper wrien in English.
* The arcle argues about
gamificaon in e-learning.
* Papers available in full text
and open access.
* The language is not English.
* The complete text is not
available and payment
* Arcles not relevant to the
* Remove duplicated arcles
Inclusion Criteria
Exclusion Criteria
Fig. 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria
A.N.Saleem et al.
1 3
The activities for e-learning need not be boring but partially steps.
The gamification components should be used in e-learning activities.
The complexity of the e-learning activities should be in line with the updated Bloom’s
taxonomy should be increased from the easiest to the most challenging events.
On the other hand, Jianu and Vasilateanu (2017) reported various possible models for
an integrated learning environment domain, group, and adaptive model. Plus, several spe-
cific guidelines apply in an adaptive system like receive attention from the user, set goals,
remembrance of knowledge, Present learning material, guide the cycle of learning, elicit
achievement, supply feedback, evaluate user performance, and improve transfer and reten-
tion. Similarly, da Rocha Seixas etal. (2016) noted that student participation in learning
practices is attributed to improvements in the implemented framework. The encouragement
of teachers, the interactions with peers, the school’s arrangement, the fostering of flexibil-
ity, and the activities’ features all relate to the communication between teachers and the
actions proposed. Yet, education technologies will be adjusted and developed to deal faith-
fully with the growing environment of education and students’ next generation (Sanmugam
etal., 2016b). As a consequence of the interactive, gamification education framework, as
Jianu and Vasilateanu (2017) said that utilizes the latest technology, which allows learning
more productive, fun, and engaging.
Furthermore, e-learning has employed the games’ mechanisms and features to engage
and entertain e-learning (Hassan et al. 2019). Instant input utilizing elements including
grades, certificates, ratings, and gamification awards contributes to student dedication to
the research process. It enhances their actions towards meeting goals and offers them the
ability to chart learning successes and review such accomplishments transparently (Ding
2019). Furthermore, through an instructional environment, the aim of a gamification pro-
gram may be to enhance awareness by growing students’ incentive to engage and revisit
class content (Lopez and Tucker 2019; Hassan etal. 2019). Accordingly, in the educational
environment, however, gamification is not a commodity in the form of a serious game but
rather a mechanism through which game features are used to encourage learner behavior
(Bai etal. 2020). Therefore, gamification critics powerfully claimed that the usage of game
elements in classrooms or interactive e-learning experiences could improve learning out-
comes by inspiring and engaging students (Bouchrika etal. 2019).
Well-designed gamification structures may give learners continuous incentives for ran-
dom feedback to develop their skills as teaching activities are taught during play. However,
a variety of recent research has shown that gamification is not always useful for e-learning
(De-Marcos etal. 2014). Its purpose is to improve individuals’ participation and encourage
other behavior (Urh etal. 2015). Similarly, Pankiewicz (2016) reported putting gamifica-
tion elements in the e-learning program and examine the impact on student interaction of
this implementation. Consequently, the course layout has been revised. The scoring scheme
is modified so that points can be obtained every period. Likewise, in educational condi-
tions, gamification enables students to provide instant input and appreciation for their class-
room success. It also provides incentives for enhanced student participation and inspiration
(Kusuma et al. 2018; Tenório et al. 2016; da Rocha Seixas et al. 2016). An interactive
tutorial framework was used to combine the gamification method with a college course.
Simultaneously, the authors observed a significant influence on the students’ approach’s
efficiency, encouragement, and information transfer (Ding 2019). Hanus and Fox (2015)
discovered that learners in the gamification program showed less satisfaction, motivation,
and empowerment than a non-gamified community. Sanchez etal. (2020) proposed using
technologies by quizzes in an online learning program offered to students. Learners will
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
check their awareness of the respective learning module in such self-paced quizzes and
provide input on their performances. Besides, Tenório etal. (2016), in the instructional
framework of the MeuTutor, a smart tutoring program, has been implemented the gamified
peer evaluation model introduced to track student learning in person, ensure consistency of
teaching, and enhance their members’ results. They were using MeuTutor knowledge from
the gamification platform for online learning. Used provisional course details to include
customized student assistance. MeuTutor utilizes artificially intelligent technologies to
define the students’ speed, enabling them to resolve and involve teaching and learning dif-
ficulties (Paiva etal. 2016).
3.2 The Advantages oftheGamied Education Process forStudent andInstructor
Education is one field in which gamification interest is gaining thrust (Sánchez-Mena etal.
2016). The challenge of getting learners inspired to learn is now more challenging (Smid-
erle etal. 2020). Ribeiro et al. (2018) believe gamification is a good strategy due to stu-
dents’ relaxed atmosphere engrossed in electronic technology and apparatuses.
3.3 Advantages forStudents
The researchers stated that integrating the game components into the online learning
environment provides easier achievement of the determined goals, and encourages stu-
dents and increases their motivation (Jayalath and Esichaikul 2020). Most teachers hope
that employing gamification motivates students to learn and makes school participation
more successful and positive (de-Marcos etal. 2017). Indeed, the instructor is the learn-
ing center, and students are expected to read the text, response questions, and do content
assessments (Papp and Theresa 2017). Azmi etal. (2015) state that game elements in edu-
cation improved student engagement in the conventional classroom and online learning.
Incorporating games into the classes emerges from the belief that the games’ essence and
what allows them enjoyable increases the students’ internal enthusiasm to be involved in
learning activities. The international study findings on creative teaching and learning con-
firm that innovative education thrives in educational environments where there is a sup-
portive and positive overall culture (Hamari and Nousiainen 2015). It also assumed that
games’ intrinsic engagement would increase student participation in the learning process,
thus promoting constructive learning, problem-based learning, and experiential learning
(Smiderle etal. 2020). The key objectives of gamification are to improve specific skills,
set goals that give learning a reason, involve students, maximize learning, promote change
in attitude and interact (Krause etal. 2015; Dichev and Dicheva 2017). Popular concepts
for gameplay design include dynamic mode, social participation, freedom of choice, lib-
erty to fail, and quick reactions (Dicheva etal. 2015). Thus, gamification is about much
more than merely surface-level profits provided by points, badges, level of credibility as it
can catalyze behavioral alteration, particularly when combined with the scientific concepts
of cyclical learning and guaranteeing to retain (Furdu etal. 2017; Strmečki etal. 2015).
Also, it increases the chances of group learning, as it informs the learner about his per-
formance during a challenge or an end state that grows his social involvement. As well as
allowing freedom of choice to fail is an incentive for students to re-submit assignments and
revisit their homework without penalty; quick notes denote the context that helps students
get feedback on their educational performance (Smiderle etal. 2020). Besides, increasing
users’ self-esteem and inspiration (Urh etal. 2015). According to the researchers’ study,
A.N.Saleem et al.
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gamification has been recognized as an effective way to improve student learning through
several learning approaches (Ge and Ifenthaler 2018; Sánchez-Mena et al. 2016). For
instance, Su (2017) used a gamification approach in a geometric arithmetic curriculum and
noticed that the students’ learning output was boosted. As well as, Ding etal. (2018) sug-
gested that good-designed gamification has significant potential to inspire students to take
part in online debate activities. Therefore, the online discussion provides more flexibil-
ity for learners and gives them more time to think and reflect to provide accurate content
(Huang etal. 2019).
3.4 Advantages forTeachers
Gamification can be a valuable tool to gain knowledge and improve essential capabilities
such as decision-making, cooperation, and communication (Dicheva et al. 2015). Also,
learn the 21st-century skills and provide an effective and appropriate setting for evaluation,
communicating, and engaging in the classroom with their colleagues. Gamification in an
education environment improves the relationship between students and the instructor and
increases their feeling of inventiveness (Briffa etal. 2020).
Thus, gamification in teaching is considered a thoughtful method to speed up learning,
teaching intricate subjects, and systems thinking (Ding etal. 2018). However, gamification
is flexible because using it will meet most learning needs, including product sales, client
service, soft skills, awareness-building, etc., Which leads to performance gains for institu-
tions (Furdu etal. 2017).
3.5 The Challenges Facing theStudent andInstructor intheGamied Education
Despite numerous studies conducted, gamification in education remains a subject of wide-
spread controversy (Smiderle etal. 2020). After integrating gamification into the classroom
to improve the results of teaching at various levels, there is still a different indication of
the concept of gamification. This is perhaps because of the word (gamification), that is an
equivalent game to play, entertaining, unproductive, and fun that is not usually associated
with learning. On the other hand, it is wrong to consider gamification as an ideal solution
for learners and educators (Papp and Theresa 2017).
3.6 The Challenges Facing theStudents
Other studies have shown that employing the gamification elements has failed to improve
students’ sense of group and have not substantially enhanced students’ talents, desire
for achievement, and inner inspiration (Mekler et al. 2017; Kyewski and Krämer 2018).
Besides, innovative learning through games requires a lot of effort from teachers and stu-
dents as well. Digital learning in today’s knowledge society is characterized by characteris-
tics that are not controlled through time and place (Al-Azawi etal. 2016).
Therefore, it must be considered to find a way to meet each player’s needs to ensure
a particular game (Briffa et al. 2020). According to Gartner (2015), about 80 percent of
all gaming applications will not succeed due to inappropriate design (Urh etal. 2015). In
critics’ opinion, gamification hinders education by distracting it, the pressure it imposes
through unnecessary competition, and possibly a lack of educational needs for some
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
students (Sánchez-Mena and Martí-Parreño 2017). On the other hand, gamification in the
education process does not always mean that students receive sponsorship or participate
more than just external motivation, such as virtual rewards or achievement points (Zainud-
din etal. 2020).
3.7 The Challenges Facing theTeachers
According to Zainuddin etal. (2020), the leading cause of why learning by the gamified
application has been unsuccessful is the use of elements of the game, instructional design,
and technical problems. Barriers such as classroom issues and technological infrastruc-
ture (for example, non-working computers or power outages and, most importantly, the
internet). The faculty hesitated to adopt the gamification elements in their teaching plans
because they were not convinced of the concept itself and its capabilities in improving the
student’s understanding. (Jong et al., 2015). Furthermore, educational designers need to
gain an empirical understanding of each of the following: outcomes, learning goals, and
content; when assessing individual play selection (Derfler-Rozin and Pitesa 2020).
3.8 Gamication Elements used inE‑learning
The gamification principle is based on a self-determination theory that assumes three
emotional human desires for social connection, autonomy, and competence (Hassan et al.
2019). These requirements give the learners an essential motivation to improve their capac-
ity; these skills help them maintain further and increase their dedication to educational
activities (Hanus and Fox 2015). Accordingly, gamification principles will be based pri-
marily on generating intrinsic incentives in achieving these three criteria (Hassan et al.
2019). Efficient entertainment dynamics and competition features are more likely to bring
in gamified as these factors may affect increasing psychological requirements (Aldemir
etal. 2018). Years of motivating recreation studies demonstrate that managing individuals
as a diverse collective is not ideal for design because tastes and expectations change at the
individual (Lopez and Tucker 2019). Gamification game elements can be described as the
application of digital game components to user actions in non-game environments; game
features are the essential elements of gamification (Sailer etal. (2017). Accordingly, gami-
fication components enhance learners’ encouragement by fulfilling their social self-deter-
mination and competitiveness needs (Hassan etal. 2019). Besides, Kyewski and Krämer
(2018) explain the most significant factors in learning that imaginable is motivation. Moti-
vation is a deciding factor in students’ learning that defines how much time and interest
they have placed into studying a specific subject (Hassan et al. 2019). However, Denny
(2014) proposed that intrinsic and extrinsic are two forms of motivation to humans. With
the external motive of a person makes her or his act because of the attraction of a prize or
rewards; besides intrinsic motivation, a person tends and prefers to do it for pleasure (Has-
san etal. 2019). So, gaming technics are created using resources, strategies, and widgets
to gamify an internet platform or device by the person or collaborative usage; motivating
users’ qualities may be promoted (da Rocha Seixas etal. 2016).
An enjoyable gaming experience involves a modern design for each game (Ding
2019). The idea of gamification allows preparation and studying more engaging and
stimulates students to perform more effectively using interactive revenue like badges
and achieve a leading location on the boarding (Barata etal. 2017). Additionally, the
gamification element is considered to improve inspiration and teaching experience,
A.N.Saleem et al.
1 3
interaction, and efficiency among students; the addition of entertainment technicians
(for example, leaderboards, levels, and badges) has a positive impact on the involvement
of learners (Zainuddin et al. 2020a). Also, Buckley (2017) stated that gamified might
be a good motivator. Still, only if employed as a reliable communication technique, the
usage of game values as social benefits or bonuses challenges pupils’ global encour-
agement effectively. Ding et al. (2017) determined that the gamification principle has
effectively given students significant outward motivation but not internal motivation.
All components play a role lead to students’ engagement in learning, particularly lead-
erboard and badge. Several features were also described as desirable online and offline
(Sanmugam etal. 2016b).
The concept elements help one discriminate between gamified and challenging games
(Sailer etal. 2017). The following are the most common elements used in learning:
Points Designed to award users across multiple measurements and divisions, they may
be found within the platform or program to handle specific conducts. If aspects pro-
mote a competition, they should not be viewed as outcomes; on the other side, if the
goal is to give feedback to a user, each achievement should not be demonstrated to
other persons (da Rocha Seixas etal. 2016). Besides, Pankiewicz (2016) states that
points allow us to award and punish the unwanted (negative and positive) acts. Points
could be increased for individuals who owned points if they complete exercises in the
e-learning that developed in gamification (Bachtiar etal. 2018).
Badge Badges are the visual representation of individuals’ improvement, e.g., show the
degree of competence reached, immediate reviews, and represent one kind of extrin-
sic award Symbols of development may significantly affect an individual (Kyewski
and Krämer 2018). Also, badges as the most frequent game component of the gami-
fication strategy may not help student learning; skillfulness badge based on learners’
knowledge of the skill was positively linked to the intrinsic motivation in education.
Still, the involved symbol designed to complete the task has a small effect on learn-
ers’ motivation (Ding 2019). The badges have been used as accomplishment identifiers
(Hassan etal. 2019). Above and beyond, markers were identified as cultural symbols to
provide social effectiveness in which the performance activities are essential (Hamari
2017). Badges are little signs or symbols given to students for their particular posi-
tive works, participation, skill, and achievement (Roosta etal. 2016). Besides, Aldemir
etal. (2018), in his study, found that some students liked badge while some said they
were not conscious of or interested in symbols. The badge has five codes confidence-
booster, fun, self-estimate, feedback, systematic and continuous.
Leaderboard The leaderboard could mention the best students with their prizes, such
that their contributions are seen, measured, and recognized (Bouchrika et al. 2019).
according to Aldemir et al. (2018). the elements used to show the students ranking
and their score is a leaderboard, and it is valuable tools to create competition feeling
between students (Roosta etal. 2016). A leaderboard is one of the most commonly used
gamified elements; it is securely to say that the usage of leaderboards is a positive move
in a gamified teaching setting. The related issues to the leaderboard shown below four
symbols teams, competition, participant, and reputation. The leaderboard encouraged
social contrast among members more than modularity comparison; the leaderboard
may have an opposite effect on the students (Sanmugam etal. 2016b).
Level Show the user performed an aim; levels are commonly known as threshold stages
in a manner in which consumer members will automatically level up according to their
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
sharing (Kyewski and Krämer 2018). At the end of the school year, the next stage of the
game is for all who played well (Pankiewicz 2016).
Rewards After an activity, the award is given to replicate this activity; in gamified, the
principle of the reward tool is a points system or related ideas (Kyewski and Krämer
2018). When students achieve something and get rewards, the student’s motiva-
tion increases, and they will repeat the same thing to stay in the current situation and
advance into a more suitable condition (Kusuma etal. 2018).
Feedback Feedback as gamified components have different implementations; it may be
used to encourage or prevent specific activities, such as CV upload, homework comple-
tion on schedule, and forum involvement (Roosta etal. 2016). Also, continuous feed-
back helps students offer insight into their objectives and follow their success (Hassan
etal. 2019).
Challenges Challenges reflect tasks for people to take out and then offer awards for
completion, awards, medals/badges, and achievements. The secret to successful respon-
sibilities and expectations is to provide users with a position to show their successes
(Kyewski and Krämer 2018). In the gamification, the challenge is essential. Aldemir
etal. (2018) stated that symbols are challenging engagement, emotion-arousal, distrac-
tion, competitive collaboration, team skills, feedback, reinforcement, self-assessment,
collective intelligence, timing, challenge type repetitiveness, and frequency.
As a result, gamified as an essential developmental technique helps teachers get fundamen-
tal knowledge of individuals’ learning processes (Göksün and Gürsoy 2019). Moreover,
utilizing of gamified for evaluation shows the benefits and weaknesses of game design.
Gamification applications can be an alternative tool in the assessment process of students
(Zainuddin etal. 2020b). As a result, components will support and encourage students who
engage in a gamification learning context (Paiva etal. 2016). On the other hand, gamified
has been recognized progressively, like an efficient educational procedure utilized to pro-
duce attractive learning understandings (Zainuddin etal. 2020a).
4 Discussion
in our future
The results indicate that gamification has positive effects on e-learning processes. The
study showed the most-used items in e-learning are points, pages, leaderboard, reward,
level, feedback, and challenge, and the finding supports each of the studies (Bachtiar etal.
2018; Ding 2019; Sanmugam etal. 2016b). As well, the study demonstrates the purpose of
using gamification in e-learning was to enhance awareness by increasing student motivation
to participate and review classroom content (Hassan etal. 2019; Lopez and Tucker 2019)
Likewise, to advance learning outcomes by inspiring and engaging students (Bouchrika
etal. 2019). The results might suggest that the advantages of gamification in e-learning
were to increase communication and give a fun spirit to academic activities (Dicheva etal.
2015). The gamification technique includes challenges and difficulties for both instructors
and students. The instructor faces multiple problems when introducing gamified applica-
tions in their curriculum, such as classroom issues, infrastructure in the educational pro-
cess (Jong etal., 2015).
However, based on similar studies’ findings, a more reasonable explanation of the
elements adopted in e-learning is leaderboard, points, levels, badges, and achievement
A.N.Saleem et al.
1 3
progress (Toda etal. 2019). While previous studies focused on the badge feature (Kyewski
& Krämer 2018; da Rocha Seixas etal. 2016; Hamari 2017), the study results showed that
the purpose of using gamification in e-learning is to include interactive game elements in
the learning process (Bouchrika etal. 2019). Simultaneously, Hanus and Fox (2015) dis-
covered that learners in the gamification program showed less satisfaction, motivation, and
empowerment than a non-gamified community. In contrast, with provides incentives for
enhanced student participation and inspiration in the school. (Kusuma etal. 2018; da Rocha
Seixas etal. 2016; Tenório etal. 2016). The researcher mentioned that the advantages of
gamification were also improved student engagement and participation in the learning pro-
cess (Azmi etal. 2015). The researcher explained that the challenge in implementing gami-
fication in the electronic learning environment is.
5 Conclusion andRecommendation
The development of technology and the spread of the internet and smart devices have
positively reflected all areas. Especially in education, in this context, many modern tech-
nology tools, platforms, and advanced concepts have been harnessed in the curriculum to
give education value across the web (distance, synchronize, blended, electronic, or online
learning) is a unified concept for web-based learning. As studies have shown, e-learning
platforms are advancing actively in almost all stages of the research. Several educational
curricula appeared to accompany the technological development. They thus were imple-
mented in many teaching systems to meet students’ educational needs and make educa-
tion available to all. Result of developing computer devices and the web; the principle of
gamification has been formed to improve the transforming information and teachers’ ideas
to the educational curriculum, instead of traditional programming in the classroom. The
gameplay elements used to teach learning are points, levels, stages, badges, leaderboards,
awards, rewards, progress bars, stories, and comments. Recently, because of its popularity
and encouraging outcomes, including growth in media participation, gamification has been
embraced. According to studies, gamification can be a valuable tool for gaining knowledge
and can improve necessary capabilities such as decision-making, cooperation, and com-
munication. Besides, gamification in education is an additional technique to keep learning
entertaining, interactive, and useful. Also, learning the skills of the twenty-first century
provides an effective and appropriate environment for assessment. Through the review of
studies, gamification’s primary goals are indicated in improving specific skills, identify-
ing objectives that motivate learning, engaging students, maximizing learning, and promot-
ing change in attitudes. There is still a different indication of the concept of gamification.
According to the studies, gamification in educational activities faces multiple difficulties
such as technological infrastructure, Internet service provision, and the intention of both
students and teachers to use this tool.
Instructive designers need to develop an innovative idea for each of the educational con-
tent, the different student requirements, and the use of appropriate gamification elements.
Through the studies that were addressed, the purpose of using gamification in the field
of e-learning was to encourage teachers and introduce the playing environment, interact
with colleagues, enhance flexibility, and inspire students. Using gamification in the field
of e-learning also improves the educational process as well as meet the requirements of
the current generation. Consequently, many platforms have been used to carry out gami-
fication activities for students and teachers, such as (Socrative, Edmodo, Kahoot Quizizz,
Gamification Applications inE-learning: ALiterature Review
1 3
Mentimeter, Padlet, Flubaroo, Google forms, Edpuzzle). The current study recommends
that designers should pay more attention to the scientific content and caution in using the
elements of play in the educational process to give the desired result. Also, they should
make sure that students understand the rules of the game, the game should be reasonably
familiar to most learners, the short duration and simplicity of the game, and the clarity of
its laws. As well, encouraging both students and teachers in different levels of education to
be familiar with the concept of gamification.
The limitations of this study were to review the literature conducted between 2014 and
2020. Therefore, this study recommended further research to establish an empirical inves-
tigation of the most useful elements that are used in gamified online learning. Then the
results can be more easily compared and strengthened. In other words; Further research is
needed to establish. We also notice that the number of papers published about gamification
is somehow focused on explanation and theoretical information. This study is thought to
contribute significantly to studies on the use of gamification applications in online edu-
cation. It reinforces previous studies and identifies many useful study topics that can be
explored to advance the field. Also, it contributes to future directions on strategies for gam-
ification in online education for researchers and practitioners.
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... In addition, gamification can be a valuable tool for knowledge acquisition and improve decision making as well as collaboration and communication. Learning can thus be made entertaining, useful and interactive [68]. The most commonly used gamification elements in online education include points, leaderboards, badges and levels [68] and feedbacks [70]. ...
... Learning can thus be made entertaining, useful and interactive [68]. The most commonly used gamification elements in online education include points, leaderboards, badges and levels [68] and feedbacks [70]. According to Rohan (2020), badges, leaderboards (ranking), progress, and points (success levels) are most commonly used in MOOCS, followed by levels, avatars, challenges, and storylines [65]. ...
... Such tools offer authentic experiences, allowing students to apply theoretical knowledge practically and develop critical thinking. They support remote learning, enabling access from anywhere, anytime, and foster collaboration through virtual teamwork spaces and discussion forums (Saleem et al., 2022). Additionally, innovative platforms provide valuable data and analytics, helping instructors track progress, adapt strategies, and offer personalized feedback, ultimately enhancing the overall learning experience. ...
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Practical courses in higher education bridge the gap between theory and real-world application, enhancing critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and professional competencies. They foster student engagement, motivation, and employability by providing hands-on experiences and collaborative learning environments. This chapter focuses on implementing and delivering practical courses online, considering instructional methods, technology tools, and interactive activities. It explores the unique challenges and opportunities of online practical learning, addressing course objectives, accessibility, and flexibility. The chapter delves into leveraging technology for virtual resources, simulations, and teamwork. Strategies for learner engagement, assessments, personalized support, and peer interaction are provided. Quality assurance, addressing technical challenges, monitoring effectiveness, and continuous improvement are discussed. The chapter includes case studies and best practices to guide successful implementations of practical online courses in higher education.
... For example, gamification interconnects with social media platforms through game affordances. Past work reveals that many game users appreciate rewards, ratings, social interactions and rankings (Saleem et al., 2022), and gamification claims to foster brand loyalty, brand engagement and positive word of mouth (Abou-Shouk and Soliman, 2021; Hollebeek et al., 2021a). Because no studies have explored the use of gamification affordances to boost backers' intentions to participate in BCF, this study posits that gamification affects the relationship between SMBE and BCF. ...
Purpose Brand crowdfunding, launched through brands’ social media platforms, can provide a myriad of crowdfunding and branding benefits, such as strengthening brands’ social networks, validating product launches, generating mass exposure and enabling cocreation. Gamification positions brand crowdfunding as an exciting and joyful activity that more deeply engages prosumers. Anchored on resource-based theory, theory of planned behavior and service-dominant logic, this paper aims to develop a brand crowdfunding framework for established brands with insights from two emerging markets: China and India. Design/methodology/approach A deductive cross-sectional design is used to gather data from an established brand’s (e.g. Xiaomi) social media followers in China ( n = 826) and India ( n = 358), which is analyzed through PLSc-SEM. Findings The results reveal that social media brand engagement is an antecedent of brand crowdfunding participation, brand crowdfunding intention is a predictor of brand loyalty and gamification is a significant moderator in technology-oriented societies. Originality/value The paper develops a brand crowdfunding framework that provides insights on how established brands can leverage crowdfunding to enhance their new product development process. The results contribute to the social media brand engagement, crowdfunding, gamification and emerging markets literature.
... Universities are advised to invest in innovative online and offline platforms to create unique student experiences, which subsequently establish strong experiential ties with their students. For instance, through the utilization of contemporary techniques such as the flipped classroom, immersive virtual reality applications, and gamification, etc., more engaging educational environments can be created (Radianti et al., 2020;Saleem et al., 2021). In this way, students can be converted into brand evangelists who wholeheartedly spread positive information and defend the university brand in a time of crisis (Alves et al., 2023). ...
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Chinese universities were the first to experience the massive shock waves of the COVID-19 pandemic that disrupted higher education globally. Despite extensive research on higher education in the 'new normal', empirical evidence on the potential role of online experiential marketing and university brand evangelism is still little to none. To address this critical research gap, the present study is the first to explore university brand evangelism in China and how it is influenced by online experiential marketing. In addition, the moderating effects of perceived harm and social distancing concern on the relationship between online experiential marketing and university brand evangelism were also tested. Based on a sample of university students in China (N = 242) and covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM), the findings revealed that online experiential marketing (including sense, feel, think, act, and relate dimensions) significantly magnifies university brand evangelism in China. Interestingly, this relationship becomes more strengthened when the Chinese students have a high intensity of perceived harm of COVID-19 and social distancing concerns. These novel findings provide new insights to both policymakers and marketers globally about the powerful medium of online experiential marketing to successfully promote university brands (during and after the global pandemic) using university brand evangelism more strategically.
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This work explores the incursions of education in the metaverse and conceptually defines metaverses and their types. It also examines the opportunities of educational methodologies in this phenomenon, such as gamification, blended learning, and game-based learning. A bibliographic review was conducted through searches in different databases and open scientific articles, using keyword criteria and the snowball technique for the sample selection of 166 publications, many of which belong to databases such as ACM, Elsevier, Taylor & Francis, IEEE/IEEE Xplorer, FLACSO Andes, among others. It is concluded that metaverses can improve the teaching-learning process in formal education by combining their technological and virtual capabilities with promising pedagogical options such as game-based learning and blended learning.
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In recent years, interest in the application of gamification in education has increased. Gamification is intended to stimulate students' thinking through game techniques, involving them in problem solving. The main aim of this study is to implement a thematic analysis on the use of gamification in early childhood and primary students. To this end, a systematic review was conducted using the PRISMA model in the Web of Science database, following inclusion and exclusion criteria on quantitative and qualitative experimental and quasi-experimental studies that explore gamification in early childhood education and primary school. 24 studies were analyzed. The results show that the investigations are aimed at improving academic and collaborative skills and increasing motivation with positive results. Furthermore, most of the studies involve students between 10 and 12 years of age and are developed in science subjects supported by technological applications and gamified elements. In conclusion, it has been found that gamification has been applied in early childhood and primary education for many areas and objectives. Likewise, as a didactic strategy, it has brought significant improvements in academic performance, motivation and autonomy, which makes it advisable to continue deepening its application.
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Delivery of blended-mode eLearning programs is challenging due to a range of factors, including motivational and engagement issues. This is more challenging in the context of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), which aims to develop competencies to empower learner to find gainful employment. This study proposes an operational model and gamification design to develop blended eLearning programs, which embed motivational and engagement designs as an effective means of achieving learner success in the TVET context. The motivational design uses a motivational framework with the factors of attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. The engagement design includes behavioural, emotional, and cognitive aspects for enhancing learning. Accordingly, appropriate game dynamics, mechanics, and components are used to gamify a blended eLearning course. This gamification design and operational model could be used as a tool to gamify and deliver the competency-based educational programs, using the blended eLearning approach. The study proposes fifteen game dynamics, relevant mechanics, and appropriate game components. The design utilises structural and content gamification in a sample online course, deploying an open-source learning management system. Furthermore, the study suggests embedding game components at the implementation stage of providing learning opportunities, to motivate and engage learners, thereby achieving the acquisition of expected competencies. The gamified course will be delivered to a selected group of learners in the TVET context to assess the feasibility and viability of this approach in anticipation of the future work.
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Adult education, especially teacher education, is one of the most important issues in Turkey in order to increase the quality of education and to keep up with the countries which aim to become one of the most competitive and knowledge-based economy in the world. Therefore, most of the universities started to improve their distance learning provisions by using massive open online courses (MOOCs). The purpose of this study is to understand teacher candidates’ opinions on MOOCs and their satisfaction with MOOCs. A mixed method including qualitative and quantitative approaches was used in this study. Results show that the MOOCs have a positive effect on teacher candidates’ personal development and learning life; therefore, they are satisfied with the MOOCs. Only the satisfaction level in learner–instructor interaction is lower in asynchronous courses. As adult learners, they wanted to be more active in MOOCs. These findings improve the understanding of MOOC’s learning satisfaction and contribute to design and develop better MOOCs according to learners’ needs and demands. Keywords: adult education, teacher education, distance education;
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In the digital age, where technology is developing rapidly, there is a need for technology and game-based e-learning environments that students appreciate instead of traditional instruction. Interactive Web 2.0 tools can be utilised to develop e-learning environments. In this study, Kahoot and Mentimeter applications, interactive and game-based Web 2.0 tools, were used. The effect of Kahoot and Mentimeter applications on e-learning was investigated. This study was carried out at a state university in the Western Black Sea Region. It was carried out with prospective teachers studying in the Department of Primary School Education. This experimental study was conducted with 29 prospective teachers in the experimental group and 27 in the control group. Attitude Scale Against e-Learning was applied to prospective teachers before and after the application. Traditional methods were applied to the control group. Kahoot's evaluation feature and the word cloud feature of the Mentimeter program were used in the experimental group.
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Gamification is defined as the use of game-design elements in non-game contexts. This study aims to investigate the effect of gamification in education. A meta-analysis study was used and articles (21) published between 2012 and 2018 were analysed in several databases and digital libraries. Most of the selected articles were journal manuscripts (81%), including undergraduate students (57.1%), predominantly using the web-based technologies (33.3%), digital game-based learning (28.6%) and learning management system (28.6%) as a game delivery platform. The most gamified subjects were Languages (19%) and Information Technology (IT) (14.3%). It was observed that students at the post-secondary level (SMD=0.809, p=0.004) seem to benefit more from gamification than those from the postgraduate level (SMD=-0.930, p=0.000). Most of the subjects gamified showed positive effects, some of them statistically significant (Language, Maths and Science). In conclusion, the meta-analysis showed that students' performance can improve by 50% when the subject is gamified. Web-based technologies were the most widely used platform for gamification.
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The gamification of education can enhance levels of students’ engagement similar to what games can do, to improve their particular skills and optimize their learning. On the other hand, scientific studies have shown adverse outcomes based on the user’s preferences. The link among the user’s characteristics, executed actions, and the game elements is still an open question. Aiming to find some insights for this issue, we have investigated the effects of gamification on students’ learning, behavior, and engagement based on their personality traits in a web-based programming learning environment. We have conducted an experiment for four months with 40 undergraduate students of first-year courses on programming. Students were randomly assigned to one of the two versions of the programming learning environment: a gamified version composed of ranking, points, and badges and the original non-gamified version. We have found evidence that gamification affected users in distinct ways based on their personality traits. Our results indicate that the effect of gamification depends on the specific characteristics of users. First part title: Studying the impact of gamification on learning and engagement based on the personality traits of students
The adoption of gamification in learning and instruction is perceived to have mass appeal among the learners in stimulating motivation, learner engagement and social influence. This study is an attempt to present a summary of the empirical findings of state-of-the-art literature in the emerging field of gamification within the educational domain of learning and instruction. It reveals the latest scientific research evidence on the emerging trends of learning technologies and gamification plugins along with extending the possibilities for future research directions in revolutionizing learning and instruction through gamification. A systematic literature review examined the thematic and content analysis of 46 empirical research papers published in the Web of Science database between 2016 and 2019. The review critically appraised and evaluated the various contradictions found in the literature along with setting the stage for the significance of future research studies to re-examine the theoretical foundations of gamification, its methodological approaches, theoretical models, gaming platforms and apps, game mechanics and learning outcomes. This study not only attempts to shed light on the novelty of gamified learning perceived as a game-changer and key enabler of motivation, engagement, and user experience but also sought to outline the key challenges and barriers of gamification.
Despite the buzz around gamification as an exciting new method to engage students, evidence of its ability to enhance learning is mixed. In fact, gamification has attracted considerable controversy (“gamification is bullshit”) and some derogatory labels such as “exploitationware.” Therefore, in order to make the case for or against gamification in education, it is important to examine the effects (if any) of gamification on student learning achievements. This study is a meta-analysis of 30 independent interventions (3,202 participants) drawn from 24 quantitative studies that have examined the effects of gamification on student academic performance in various educational settings. The results show an overall significant medium effect size in favor of gamification over learning without gamification (Hedges' g = 0.504, 95% CI [0.284–0.723], p < 0.001). No publication bias is detected. An analysis of 32 qualitative studies reveals four reasons for learners' enjoyment of gamification: (a) gamification can foster enthusiasm; (b) gamification can provide feedback on performance; (c) gamification can fulfill learners’ needs for recognition; and (d) gamification can promote goal setting, and two reasons for their dislike of gamification: (a) gamification does not bring additional utility and (b) gamification can cause anxiety or jealousy. We conclude by highlighting two unresolved questions, and suggesting several future research directions concerning gamification in educational contexts.