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CHECKLIST ON FAUNA DIVERSITY GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK NATIONAL PARK: Cikaniki-Citalahab (DAFTAR KEANEKARAGAMAN FAUNA TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK: Cikaniki-Citalahab)

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ABSTRACT The Cikaniki resort is one of the most accessible research stations located in the Gunung Halimun Salak National Park (GHSNP). It is in adjacent with Citalahab village. The Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences and other institutions have conducted intensive research on the fauna diversity of GHSNP from this station. Here we formulate a checklist on fauna diversity surrounding the Cikaniki Research Station and Citalahab, GHNSP from various sources, i.e. field work, museum collections (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense), scientific publications, and technical report. The study was conducted from October 2019 until October 2020. The latest field work was conducted from 8-10 October 2019 under the framework of the Jungle Survival and Biological Collection Management 2019 program. In total, 821 fauna species were recorded in Cikaniki-Citalahab areas which comprises of 48 species of Mollusca, five species of Malacostraca, 523 species of Insects, 22 species of Actinopterygii, 63 species of Amphibia and Reptiles, 115 species of Aves and 45 species of Mammals. The diversity contributes 62.1% of the total 1,323 known fauna species in GHSNP. Five number of species were assigned as endangered and three species critical endangered by IUCN. In addition, 123 species were endemic to Java and 34 species protected by Regulation of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry Republic of Indonesia Number P.106/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2018. The areas of Cikaniki and Citalahab are rich in biodiversity. Although both areas are in close intact with human activity, research and ecotourism, the need of continuously spreading awareness and enforce species and area conservation is inevitable. ABSTRAK Resor Cikaniki merupakan salah satu stasiun penelitian yang mudah dijangkau di kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak (TNGHS). Lokasi resor ini berdampingan dengan kampung Citalahab. Pusat Penelitian Biologi, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia dan beberapa institusi lainnya telah melakukan penelitian secara intensif mengenai keanekaragaman fauna TNGHS dari stasiun ini. Studi ini memformulasi daftar keanekaragaman fauna di sekitar stasiun penelitian Cikaniki dan Citalahab, TNGHS dari berbagai sumber, seperti survei lapangan, koleksi museum (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense), publikasi ilmiah, dan laporan. Studi dilakukan dari bulan Oktober 2019 hingga Oktober 2020. Survei lapangan terkini dilakukan pada 8-10 Oktober 2019 di bawah skema program Jungle Survival dan Manajemen Koleksi Biologi 2019. Secara keseluruhan, terdapat 821 spesies fauna tercatat di kawasan Cikaniki-Citalahab, yang terdiri dari 48 spesies moluska, lima spesies Malacostraca, 523 spesies serangga, 22 spesies Actinopterygii, 63 spesies amfibi dan reptil, 115 spesies Aves, dan 45 spesies mamalia. Keanekaragaman tersebut menyumbang 62,1% dari total 1,323 spesies fauna yang diketahui di TNGHS. Lima spesies termasuk ke dalam kategori genting dan tiga spesies kritis. Selain itu, tercatat 123 spesies endemik Jawa dan 34 spesies termasuk ke dalam daftar jenis hewan lindungan sesuai Peraturan Menteri LHK Republik Indonesia P.106/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2018. Area Cikaniki dan Citalahab kaya akan keanekaragaman hayati. Walaupun kedua area berada dekat dengan aktivitas manusia dan sering digunakan sebagai lokasi riset dan ekoturisme, upaya penyadartahuan dan penegakan konservasi baik terhadap spesies maupun habitat di wilayah ini sangat penting.
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103
CHECKLIST ON FAUNA DIVERSITY GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK
NATIONAL PARK: Cikaniki-Citalahab
DAFTAR KEANEKARAGAMAN FAUNA TAMAN NASIONAL
GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK: Cikaniki-Citalahab
Agmal Qodri*, Ilham Vemandra Utama, Pamungkas Rizki Ferdian, Endah Dwijayanti,
Rusdianto, Yohanna, Mulyadi, Nanang Supriatna, Rena Tri Hernawati, Fajrin Shidiq,
Encilia, Gloria Animalesto, Pangda Sopha Sushadi, Anang Setyo Budi, Syaiful Rizal,
Ujang Nurhaman, Alamsyah Elang Nusa Herlambang, Ayu Savitri Nurinsiyah
Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Gedung Widyasatwaloka, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian
Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, West Java, Indonesia 16911
*Corresponding author e-mail: agmalqodri89@gmail.com
(received November 2020, revised December 2020, accepted December 2020)
ABSTRAK
Resor Cikaniki merupakan salah satu stasiun penelitian yang mudah dijangkau di kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung
Halimun Salak (TNGHS). Lokasi resor ini berdampingan dengan kampung Citalahab. Pusat Penelitian Biologi, Lembaga
Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia dan beberapa institusi lainnya telah melakukan penelitian secara intensif mengenai
keanekaragaman fauna TNGHS dari stasiun ini. Studi ini memformulasi daftar keanekaragaman fauna di sekitar stasiun
penelitian Cikaniki dan Citalahab, TNGHS dari berbagai sumber, seperti survei lapangan, koleksi museum (Museum
Zoologicum Bogoriense), publikasi ilmiah, dan laporan. Studi dilakukan dari bulan Oktober 2019 hingga Oktober 2020.
Survei lapangan terkini dilakukan pada 8-10 Oktober 2019 di bawah skema program Jungle Survival dan Manajemen
Koleksi Biologi 2019. Secara keseluruhan, terdapat 821 spesies fauna tercatat di kawasan Cikaniki-Citalahab, yang terdiri
dari 48 spesies moluska, lima spesies Malacostraca, 523 spesies serangga, 22 spesies Actinopterygii, 63 spesies amfibi
dan reptil, 115 spesies Aves, dan 45 spesies mamalia. Keanekaragaman tersebut menyumbang 62,1% dari total 1,323
spesies fauna yang diketahui di TNGHS. Lima spesies termasuk ke dalam kategori genting dan tiga spesies kritis. Selain
itu, tercatat 123 spesies endemik Jawa dan 34 spesies termasuk ke dalam daftar jenis hewan lindungan sesuai Peraturan
Menteri LHK Republik Indonesia P.106/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2018. Area Cikaniki dan Citalahab kaya akan
keanekaragaman hayati. Walaupun kedua area berada dekat dengan aktivitas manusia dan sering digunakan sebagai
lokasi riset dan ekoturisme, upaya penyadartahuan dan penegakan konservasi baik terhadap spesies maupun habitat di
wilayah ini sangat penting.
Kata kunci: hutan pegunungan tropis, keanekaragaman hayati, Cikaniki, Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak, fauna
ABSTRACT
The Cikaniki resort is one of the most accessible research stations located in the Gunung Halimun Salak National Park
(GHSNP). It is in adjacent with Citalahab village. The Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences and
other institutions have conducted intensive research on the fauna diversity of GHSNP from this station. Here we
formulate a checklist on fauna diversity surrounding the Cikaniki Research Station and Citalahab, GHNSP from various
sources, i.e. field work, museum collections (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense), scientific publications, and technical
report. The study was conducted from October 2019 until October 2020. The latest field work was conducted from 8-10
October 2019 under the framework of the Jungle Survival and Biological Collection Management 2019 program. In total,
821 fauna species were recorded in Cikaniki-Citalahab areas which comprises of 48 species of Mollusca, five species of
Malacostraca, 523 species of Insects, 22 species of Actinopterygii, 63 species of Amphibia and Reptiles, 115 species of
Aves and 45 species of Mammals. The diversity contributes 62.1% of the total 1,323 known fauna species in GHSNP.
Five number of species were assigned as endangered and three species critical endangered by IUCN. In addition, 123
species were endemic to Java and 34 species protected by Regulation of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry
Republic of Indonesia Number P.106/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2018. The areas of Cikaniki and Citalahab are rich
in biodiversity. Although both areas are in close intact with human activity, research and ecotourism, the need of
continuously spreading awareness and enforce species and area conservation is inevitable.
Keywords: tropical mountain forest, biodiversity, Cikaniki research station, Gunung Halimun Salak National Park, fauna
INTRODUCTION
Gunung Halimun Salak National Park
(GHSNP) is the largest mountainous tropical
rain forest in Java. This conservation area
belongs to three regencies (Bogor and
Sukabumi Regencies in West Java, and Lebak
in Banten Province) and three mountains
(Gunung Endut, Halimun, and Gunung Salak
complexes) (GHSNPMP 2007). Based on
geographical position, GHSNP is located
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between 6o36’–6o52’S and 106o16’–106o38’E
according to Decree of the Minister of
Forestry number 282/Kpts-II/1992. There are
three vegetation zones in this national park,
i.e. the lowland forest colline zone, altitude
between 900-1,150 m asl; the submontane
forest zone, altitude between 1,050-1,400 m
asl; and the montane forest zone, altitude
above 1,500 m (Simbolon et al. 1998).
The national park plays an important
and strategic role in biodiversity conservation.
Various conservation projects have been
conducted in GHSNP. Collaboration project
between Japan International Cooperation
Agency (JICA), the Research Center for
Biology - LIPI, and the Directorate General
for Natural Resources and Ecosystem
Conservation (KSDAE) was carried out from
1999 to 2002 in the national park to reveal the
diversity of fauna species, such as fish,
herpetofauna, birds, mammals, and in-
vertebrates (Kahono et al. 2002a, 2002b;
Mumpuni 2002; Noerdjito et al. 2002;
Prawiradilaga et al. 2002a, 2002c; Rach-
matika 2003; Suhardjono 2002; Suyanto
2003). The Indobiosys Project in 2015-2017
(cooperation between Research Center for
Biology-LIPI and Museum für Naturkunde
Berlin, Germany) also conducted research on
invertebrate biodiversity of GHSNP (Cancian
de Araujo et al. 2017, 2018; Hilgert et al.
2019: Nurinsiyah et al. 2019b). Although
research on biodiversity in the national park
have been conducted for consecutive years,
researchers still reveal interesting findings for
instance new records and new species
(Kamitani et al. 2011; Kamitani et al. 2012;
Ng & Wowor 2018; Nurinsiyah & Hausdorf
2017; Suwito & Watabe 2010; Suwito et al.
2013; Toda et al. 2020; Wowor & Ng 2019;
Yang et al. 2017).
Like many forests in tropical areas,
GHSNP though is a conservation area, still
suffers from various threats. Forest
degradation is one of the major threats to
GHSNP (Sahab et al. 2015). Logging and
agricultural expansion by local and industrial
plantation were suspected to have cause
annual deforestration rate being around 1.2-
2.3% from 1989 to 2003 (Kubo & Supriyanto
2010). Based on landsat satellite image, forest
coverage of GHSNP had degraded about
5,005.71 ha from 2003 to 2007 (Carolyn et al.
2013). The presence of exotic and invasive
species, human disturbance from
infrastructure (road paths and human
settlements), the increase of human
population, and distance to villages are among
the threats faced by biodiversity inhabiting
this conservation area (Carolyn et al. 2013;
Endangered Species Team GHSNPMP-JICA
2005; Prabowo et al. 2010). Compiling a list
of biodiversity in GHSNP is one of important
efforts to record, monitor, and conserve
biodiversity and its habitat in this
conservation area.
Cikaniki research station is one of the
most accessible stations in GHSNP. The
station is located about 73-75 km from the
Research Center for Biology, Cibinong, or
approximately 142 km from Jakarta, and can
be reached by car. Citalahab village is located
only two km away from Cikaniki research
station (DESPA-KLHK 2017). It is the
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105
nearest village located from the research
station. The village is often use for ecoturism,
providing accommodation for visiting
researcher, students, and ecoturist who
conduct activity in the Gunung Halimun Salak
National Park.
Based on intensive research conducted
by various institutions in Cikaniki-Citalahab,
we aim to formulate a checklist of fauna
covering Mollusca, Malacostraca, Insecta,
Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and
Mammalia. The list in Cikaniki-Citalahab
derived from various methods. The main
objective of this study is to provide updated
list on fauna diversity surrounding the
Cikaniki-Cilatahab of GHSNP.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Area
The study area is located between
06°44’21”S 106°31’53”E and 06°44’47”S
106°32’1”E and altitude range from 973 to
1,129 m asl or in the colline zone of lowland
forest according to Simbolon et al. (1998).
The vegetation community in this area was
dominated by kareumbi (Homalantus popul-
neus), cangcaratan (Nauclea lanceolata) and
mara manggong (Macaranga sp.) (Sadili
2011). There were four dominant trees which
were recorded along the Cikaniki-Citalahab
loop trail during the field work,
i.e. Lithocarpus javensis, Altingia excelsa
(Rasamala), Litsea sp., and Elaeocarpus sp.
Based on the measurement, the results of
environmental factors in the Cikaniki-
Citalahab trail are pH (6-8.8), soil moisture
(40-100%), light intensity (330-4,530), tempe-
rature (21-25 oC), humidity (72-89%). Mean
annual rainfall in Halimun area ranges from
3,200 to 6,000 mm and annual temperature
ranges from 16 °C to 30 °C (DPJLHK 2016).
Methods
The list of fauna from Cikaniki and
Citalahab, GHSNP were collected from a)
field work, b) museum collections, and c)
literatures study.
a. Field work
The field work was carried out from 8
to 10 October 2019. The loop trail between
Citalahab to Cikaniki research station of
Gunung Halimun Salak National Park were
surveyed (Fig. 1). The collection activities
were performed during the day with the
exception of herpetofauna survey which
conducted mainly at night. Afterwards, the
collected samples were determined into
species level when possible. Nine classes of
fauna groups were sampled in this research,
i.e. Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Malacostraca,
Insecta, Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Reptilia,
Aves, and Mammalia. All collected
specimens were deposited in Museum
Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB), Research
Center for Biology, Cibinong Science Center
(CSC), Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI).
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Figure 1. Observation point at Cikaniki-Citalahab track.
1) Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia)
Fauna from two classes within phylum
Mollusca, namely Gastropoda and Bivalvia
were collected. Gastropoda from both
terrestrial and freshwater were searched, and
hand collected along the trail and at several
random points. Live specimens and dead
shells were collected and stored in collection
bottles. Live specimens were stored in the
collection bottle or vial with 70% alcohol. In
addition, 5 L of soil and leaf litter from each
point were sampled. Later, the litter was
sieved and sorted in the Cikaniki Research
Station to collect microsnails. All specimens
were determined into species level referring to
Heryanto et al. (2003), Nurinsiyah &
Hausdorf (2017, 2019), Nurinsiyah et al.
(2019a), and van Benthem Jutting (1948,
1950, 1952, 1956).
2) Crustacea (Malacostraca)
Malacostraca was collected by hand
collection and tray net. For each sampling
location, the photo of habitat was taken.
Collected specimen was photographed, label-
ed, and stored in 96% alcohol. Identification
based on Wowor & Ng (2019).
3) Insecta
Insect samples were collected by
several methods, using pitfall trap and sweep
net. Pitfall trap was used to collect insects on
the ground surface. Each trap consisted of
plastic cup (diameter 6.5 cm x depth 9.5 cm)
contained 90% alcohol and was placed for a
day in each location. Trapped insects were
collected and preserved into 70% alcohol and
remained for 24 hours. This type of trap is
commonly used for soil surface arthropods
(Buchholz et al. 2010; Tamaddoni-Nezhad et
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al. 2013; Ubaidillah 1999). The sweep net
technique was used to collect flying insects
such as Odonata and Lepidoptera. Samples of
sweep net were taken at each location from 7
AM to 3 PM. Collected insects were placed in
glassine paper envelopes (papilot paper).
Every specimen was identified up to genus,
species, and morphospecies level by a number
of references (Beaver et al. 2019; Cameron
1931, 1932; Campbell 1982; Damaska &
Aston 2019; Endrodi 1985; Jung 2013;
Kondorosy 2008; Löbl & Ogawa 2016;
Mawdsley 1996; Oosterbroek 1998; Pace
1999, 2014; Peggie & Noerdhito 2011;
Schawaller 1989, 2016; Schilthuizen et al.
2019; Seevers 1978; Shanbhag & Sundararaj
2011; Sornnuwat et al. 2004; Strohecker
1968; Wang et al. 2013; Yamane 2009). For
specimen verification, we involve reputable
entomologists from various institutions.
4) Fishes (Actinopterygii)
Fish samples were collected from
several water stream points at different habitat
types from Citalahab to Cikaniki research
station of GHSNP. Habitat characteristics at
the sampling location were shallow riverbanks
with relatively slow currents with rock, litter
and mud substrates and in the center of the
river which is relatively deep with sand and
mud substrates. Some of the fishing gears
used included hand net, tray net, and seine
net. Collected fish specimens were preserved
in 70% ethanol for further analyses and
labeled containing field data. Every specimen
was counted and identified using several key
identification books such as Allen &
Swainston (1988), Kottelat et al. (1993), and
Weber & Beaufort (1922).
5) Herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia)
Herpetofauna data collection was
conducted through an opportunistic search
and visual encounter survey (Heyer et al.
1994; Kusrini 2019). Herpetofauna collection
was carried out by tracing along the rivers and
riverbanks, as well as on land routes. Potential
habitat such as deadwood, every corner of the
buttress roots, in litter were searched for
herpetofauna species. Specimens were
manually collected by hand, then put into
cotton bags. Captured specimens were
recorded (species name, sampling location,
date of sampling, sample code, and name of
collector), photographed, euthanized,
measured, injected with formaldehyde in the
stomaches, and the bodies were shaped like
while still alive, then preserved with formalin.
After the specimens arrived at the laboratory,
they were washed under running water for one
to two hours, then the specimens were sorted
by species and put into collection jars
containing 70% alcohol. Identifications for
Amphibian referred to Frost et al. (2006),
Inger (1966), Manthey & Grossmann (1997),
Iskandar (1998), and van Kampen (1923);
while the reptile group referred to Das (2004),
de Rooij (1915), Manthey & Grossmann
(1997), and Mausfeld et al. (2002).
6) Birds (Aves)
Bird survey was conducted by capture
and release method using mist-nets.
Approximately 36 m long mist-nets (three 12
m mist-nets) were set up in the observation
area opened from dawn through late afternoon
(between 06.00 a.m. and 06.00 p.m.) and
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checked continously. Recorded birds were
identified using field guide (MacKinnon et al.
1998; Prawiradilaga et al. 2002b; Prawira-
dilaga et al. 2003).
7) Mammalia
Mammal collection methods were
conducted by applying direct observation and
trap method. In addition to visual encounter,
records of pellet and feces were also
accounted as direct observation. Trap methods
were conducted using mist net and harp net
for bats. Capturing flying bats especially for
Megachiropthera using mist net was
commonly applied because it is inexpensive,
lightweight, compact, and easy to install.
Meanwhile, harp net commonly used for
Microchiroptera because the principle of this
trap is the wires hard to detect by
echolocation, and that the bank of wires is
sufficient to stop the flight momentum of bats
(Kunz & Kurta, 1988). Kasmin cage trap and
snap trap were utilized for rats and small
terrestrial mammals. All specimens were
determined into species level referring to
Corbet & Hill (1992), Payne et al. (2000),
Suyanto (2001), and Suyanto et al. (2002).
b. Museum Collections
Scientific collections preserved in the
Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB), the
largest zoology museum in Southeast Asia,
become one of the data sources in this study.
The museum is located in the Cibinong
Science Center, Bogor Regency. Specimens
from previous expeditions or collection
activities in Indonesia, including Gunung
Halimun Salak National Park were preserved
in this museum. Here we recorded specimens
from various taxa, i.e. Mollusca, Malaco-
straca, Insecta, Actinopterygii, Amphibia,
Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia with locality
“Cikaniki” and “Citalahab” or locations which
include these words.
c. Literatures Study
Secondary data from scientific
publications and technical reports were
collected to complement the checklist
(Adhikerana et al. 1998; Assing 2016, 2017,
(2018a,b), 2019; Aswari 2004; Aswari &
Cholik 2002; Atmowidi & Prawasti 2013;
Atmowidi et al. 2007; Bordoni 2009; Chan &
Setiawan 2019; Demos et al. 2017; den Boer
1965; Erawati & Kahono 2010; Erniwati &
Ubaidillah 2011; Esselstyn et al. 2013; Farida
et al. 2006; Hájek & Brancucci 2015; Hamid
et al. 2003; Hamidy et al. 2018; Harahap &
Sakaguchi 2002; Heryanto et al. 2003;
Hosoishi & Ogata 2015; Ito et al. 2018;
Kahono (2002a,b); Kamitani et al. 2004,
2005, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2012; Katakura et al.
2001; Katoh et al. 2018; Kimsey 2012;
Kobayashi 2003; Kojima & Ubaidillah 2003;
Kurniati 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2010;
Kusrini et al. 2017; Maharadatunkamsi 2001;
Makihara et al. 2002; Marwoto 1998;
Matsubayashi et al. 2015; Morgan et al. 2008;
Mumpuni 2001; Murwitaningsih & Dharma
2014; Nguyen et al. 2006; Noerdjito 2016;
Noske et al. 2011; Nugroho et al. 2016;
Nurinsiyah et al. 2019b; Ohta-Matsubayashi
et al. 2017; Peggie 2019; Peggie & Harmonis
2014; Prawiradilaga 2002; Prawiradilaga
2016; Prawiradilaga et al. (2002a,b,c);
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109
Prawiradilaga et al. 2003; Prawiradilaga et al.
2004; Purnamasari & Ubaidillah 2007; Putra
et al. 2019; Putri 2015; Rachmatika 2003;
Rachmatika & Wahyudewantoro 2006;
Rachmatika et al. 2001; Rachmatika et al.
(2002a,b); Rachmatika et al. 2004; Ridho et
al. 2003; Sanborn 2014; Schmidt et al. 2019;
Sidik 1998; Somadikarta et al. 1970; Subekti
et al. 2008; Sulandari et al. 2001; Sutrisno
2008, 2009; Sutrisno & Darmawan 2012;
Sutrisno et al. 2015; Suwito 2007; Suwito &
Watabe 2010; Suwito et al. 2013; Suyanto
2003; Suyanto & Sinaga 1998; Toda et al.
2020; Ubaidillah et al. 1998; Yahya &
Yamane 2006; Yahya et al. 2009, Yang et al.
2017; Yoneda et al. 1998; Yoshitake &
Noerdjito 2004). We also added data from
GBIF and Indobiosys (accessed on 14-20 Oct 2020).
Validation of Scientific Name and Species
Status
We validated the scientific names of all
taxa according to several comprehensive
database sources, i.e. Amphibian Species of
the World, AntWeb, AntWiki, Avibase, Birds
of the World Cornell Lab of Ornithology,
Bio-Nica.info: Lucanidae of the World,
Cassidae.uni.wroc.pl, Catalogue of Life,
Coreoidea Species File, FishBase, GBIF,
Lamiines of World, Lepidoptera nic.funet.fi,
Lygaeoidea Species File, Molluscabase,
Orthoptera Species File, Startseite Plazi, the
Biodiversity of Singapore, the Moths of
Borneo, the Reptile Database, Tree of Life
Web Project, and Wikispecies.
The status of threatened and protected
species was validated through IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species and Regulation
of the Ministry of Environment and
Forestry Republic of Indonesia Number
P.106/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2018
about protected plant and animal species.
Meanwhile, the status of introduced species
was validated through Balon (1974), CABI,
FishBase, Nurinsiyah & Hausdorf (2019),
Rachmatika (2003), and Rachmatika &
Wahyudewantoro (2006).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results
According to the recent field work,
there were 98 species (Table 1; App.1)
recorded from Cikaniki-Citalahab, GHSNP.
The most abundant group was Insecta
(62.9%). The rest of the percentage comprises
of Actinopterygii (11.4%), Gastropoda
(9.65%), Amphibia (6.4%), Malacostraca and
Mammalia each 3.2%, Reptilia (2.5%), Aves
(0.5%), and lastly Bivalvia (0.25%).
Based on all three sources, i.e. recent
field work, museum collections, and
literatures, there were 821 fauna species were
recorded in Cikaniki-Citalahab (Table 1;
App.2). The fauna diversity comprises of
63.7% of Insecta, 14% of Aves, 5.7% of
Gastropoda, 5.5% of Mammals, 4.4% of
Reptilia, 3.3% of Amphibia, 2.7% of
Actinopterygii, 0.6% of Malacostraca, and
0.1% of Bivalvia. There are 123 endemic
species to Java inhabit the area (Table 1; App.
3). Among the fauna diversity, 34 species
(4.1%) were assigned as protected Indonesian
fauna under the decree P.106/MENLHK/SET-
JEN/KUM.1/12/2018, whereas five species
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110
(0.6%) were categorized as endangered and
three species (0.4%) were categorized as
critically endangered by IUCN. In addition,
there are eleven introduced species
recorded in the area, i.e. four
Actinopterygii and seven Mollusca
(Table 2).
The proportion of our species
compilation data compared to the fauna
species data recorded in Indonesia includes
2.32% for non-marine (terrestrial and
freshwater) Gastropoda, 8.98% for Insecta,
6.57% for Aves, 5.86% for Amphibia, 5.82%
for Mammalia, 7.14% for non-marine
(freshwater) Bivalvia, 4.51% for Reptilia,
0.42% for non-marine (fresh-water)
Malacostraca, and 1.77% for non-marine
(freshwater) Actinopterygii (Table 3). We
believe the fauna diversity particularly the
invertebrate species recorded in Indonesia
were still underestimate from the actual
number in nature.
Tabel 1. Species comparison between field work and compilation data (*protected by P.106/2018;
**IUCN Red List status).
No.
Class
Field Work
Compilation
Data (species)
Status (species)
Abundance
(individual)
Endemic
Protected*
EN**
CR**
1
Mammalia
13
45
4
11
3
1
2
Aves
2
115
18
21
2
1
3
Reptilia
10
36
1
0
0
0
4
Amphibia
26
27
10
1
0
1
5
Actinopterygii
46
22
3
0
0
0
6
Insecta
254
523
77
1
0
0
7
Malacostraca
13
5
2
0
0
0
8
Gastropoda
39
47
8
0
0
0
9
Bivalvia
1
1
0
0
0
0
Total
404
821
123
34
5
3
Table 2. Introduced species recorded in Cikaniki-Citalahab.
No.
Scientific Name
Local Name
Native Range
Mollusca: Gastropoda
1
Allopeas clavulinum (Potiez & Michaud,
1838)
Keong sumpil
Africa
2
Allopeas gracile (Hutton, 1834)
Keong sumpil
Neotropics, Old World
3
Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1822)
Keong semak
Probably China
4
Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805)
-
North America
5
Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822)
Keong mas
South America
6
Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1789)
Keong sumpil
Neotropics
Mollusca: Bivalvia
7
Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834)
Kijing Taiwan
Eastern Asia
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Chordata: Actinopterygii
8
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758
Ikan mas
Japan, China, Central Asia
9
Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur, 1821)
Bungkreung, Ikan seribu
Mexico, Southeasthern
USA
10
Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859
Bungkreung
North & South America*
11
Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel, 1848
Cingir putri, Paris
Belize, Guatemala,
Honduras, Mexico
*North America: Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago
*South America: Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela
Table 3. Comparison of fauna diversity in Cikaniki-Citalahab, GHSNP, and Indonesia.
No.
Class
Cikaniki-Citalahab*
(species)
Gunung Halimun Salak National Park*
(species)
Indonesia**
(species)
1
Mammalia
45
83
773
2
Aves
115
271
1,751
3
Reptilia
36
61
798
4
Amphibia
27
32
461
5
Non-marine
Actinopterygii
22
69
1,243
6
Insecta
523
713
5,825
7
Non-marine
Malacostraca
5
7
1,200
8
Non-marine
Gastropoda
47
84
2,025
9
Non-marine
Bivalvia
1
3
14
Total
821
1,323
14,090
*Based on field work, literatures, and museum collections
**Based on Amphibian Species of the World, Avibase, BOLD Systems, FishBase, Marwoto et al. (2020),
Maryanto et al. (2019), the Reptile Database, Widjaja et al. (2014)
a. Mollusca (Gastropoda & Bivalvia)
Based on the recent field work, in total
of 40 specimens of molluscs belonging to 14
Gastropoda (snails) and one Bivalvia
(mussels) species were collected (Table. 1).
Although more specimens were collected
from the freshwater (57.5%) compare to the
terrestrial (42.5%), they belonged to only five
species (from 15 species) of freshwater
molluscs. The number of species collected
from the terrestrial (land snails) were ten
species. The most species-rich family was
Cyclophoridae (20%), while the most
abundant family was Physidae (30%)
(App. 1). Using the same method,
Heryanto (2001) reported that land snail
species (26 species from 11 families)
were collected more than freshwater snail
species (10 species from 5 families). All
terrestrial gastropod species that were
recorded in the recent field work were not
new records and included in the list of
land snails of GHSNP (Nurinsiyah et al.,
2019b).
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Compilation data from field work,
MZB collections, and literatures resulted 48
species of Mollusca consists of 47 Gastropoda
and one Bivalvia. In Java, there were at least
242 species of land snails (Nurinsiyah 2018),
67 species of freshwater snails and 14 species
of freshwater bivalves (Marwoto et al. 2020).
Molluscs in Cikaniki-Citalahab contributed
14.9% to the total non-marine molluscs in
Java, 25% if the total mollusca in GHSNP are
included. The molluscs diversity in
GHSNP are expected to be higher than
the current record since the estimated
species richness of terrestrial gastropod
alone might reach 93 species (Nurinsiyah
et al. 2019).
Figure 3. Geosesarma cikaniki at Cikaniki-Citalahab track.
Figure 2. Left: Geotrochus conus (Pfeiffer, 1841). Right: Japonia ciliocincta (Martens, 1865).
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Eight species endemic to Java were
recorded in the area and all of them are
terrestrial gastropoda (land snails), i.e.
Diplommatina halimunensis Nurinsiyah &
Hausdorf 2017, Pupina junghuhni Martens
1867, Microcystina subglobosa (Möllendorff
1897), Chloritis fruhstorferi Möllendorff
1897, Amphidromus alticola Fulton 1896,
Oospira salacana (Böttger 1890),
Elaphroconcha patens (Martens 1898), and
Geotrochus conus (Pfeiffer 1841) (Fig. 2).
There were seven introduced species recorded
in Cikaniki-Citalahab which consists of four
land snails and three freshwater species (Table
2). There were no molluscs in Cikaniki-
Citalahab or GHSNP in general that are
protected by Permen LHK P.106/2018.
However, they are protected by its locality
(inhabit inside a conservation area).
b. Crustacea (Malacostraca)
Previous surveys and studies recorded
seven crustaceans from GHSNP, namely
Geosesarma cikaniki, Malayopotamon sp.,
Macrobrachium pilimanus, Macrobrachium
empulipke, Occulthusa halimun, Parathel-
phusa bogorensis, and Parathelphusa convexa
(Hernawati unpublished; Ng & Wowor 2018;
Wowor 2010; Wowor & Ng 2019). The
species were recorded in Cikaniki-Citalahab
area, except M. empulipke and P. bogorensis.
From the current study, one crustacean was
collected by hand at elevation 1,066-1,155 m
asl, i.e. Geosesarma cikaniki (Fig. 3). Thirteen
collected G. cikaniki specimens consist of
seven males, four females, and two juveniles.
Based on the recent field work, tubercle on
the dactylus is only present on adult male
specimen around 15-19 teeth. The fact
corresponds to Wowor & Ng (2019).
However, young male with mature pleopod,
width length (WL) 7.32-7.62 mm and
carapace length (CL) 6.9-7.17 mm, has only
seven tubercles on the proximal dactylus. G.
cikaniki and O. halimun are endemic to
GHSNP. M. empulipke can be found in Java
and Sumatra (Wowor 2010), P. bogorensis
and convexa occurred in Java (Esser &
Cumberlidge 2008), and M. pilimanus is
distributed from Sumatra, Java, and
Kalimantan (Cai et al. 2004; Chace & Bruce
1993).
c. Insecta
Study on insects in the Halimun Salak
National Park in 2015 to 2017 under the
IndoBioSys project revealed the diversity of
insect species from four orders (Coleoptera,
Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Trichoptera)
reaching around 3,500 species (Cancian de
Araujo et al. 2017). Our recent field work
collected 254 insect specimens consisted of
nine orders, 23 families, and 51 species (Table
1; App. 1). The family Formicidae represented
the order Hymenoptera had the highest
abundance with 98 specimens (from nine
species). This result was in accordance with
the research of Haneda et al. (2019), but
Kahono & Noerdjito (2002) reported that the
order Homoptera was the most abundant
during October 2000 or even from March
2000 until February 2001 by applying the
same method. Suhardjono (2002) reported that
Formicidae and Staphylinidae were two of the
most abundant insect families in Cikaniki,
GHSNP. Meanwhile based on the compilation
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data from recent field work, museum
collections, and literatures, in total of 523
species of Insecta were recorded in Cikaniki-
Citalahab (Table 4). Ordo Coleoptera and
Lepidoptera had greater members than other
orders. The species was dominated by family
Cerambycidae (20.07%), followed by family
Nymphalidae (15.67%) and family Geo-
metridae (7.45%). The three families have
been recorded in Cikaniki-Citalahab and its
surroundings respectively by Makihara et al.
(2002), Peggie & Harmonis (2004) and
Ubaidillah et al. (1998), and Sutrisno et al.
(2015).
Table 4. Insect diversity from Cikaniki-
Citalahab based on field work, MZB
collections, and literatures
No.
Taxa
No. of
Species
Percentage
(%)
Blattodea
5
0.96
1
Blaberidae
2
2
Blattidae
1
3
Termitidae
2
Coleoptera
162
30.98
4
Cerambycidae
105
5
Chrysomelidae
10
6
Cleridae
2
7
Curculionidae
2
8
Discolomatidae
1
9
Endomychidae
1
10
Hydrophilidae
1
11
Lucanidae
17
12
Passalidae
3
13
Scarabaeidae
7
14
Staphylinidae
12
15
Tenebrionidae
1
Dermaptera
1
0.2
16
Anisolabididae
1
Diptera
13
2.49
17
Culicidae
3
18
Drosophilidae
9
19
Phoridae
1
Hemiptera
31
5.93
No.
Taxa
No. of
Species
Percentage
(%)
21
Cercopidae
6
22
Cicadellidae
9
23
Cicadidae
6
24
Gerridae
1
25
Lygaeidae
1
26
Pentatomidae
1
27
Pyrrhocoridae
1
28
Reduviidae
2
29
Rhyparochromidae
1
30
Tessaratomidae
1
Hymenoptera
32
6.1
31
Apidae
8
32
Chrysididae
2
33
Eulophidae
2
34
Eumenidae
1
35
Formicidae
12
36
Scoliidae
5
37
Vespidae
2
Lepidoptera
238
45.89
38
Bombycidae
1
39
Crambidae
20
40
Drepanidae
11
41
Geometridae
39
42
Hesperiidae
15
43
Lycaenidae
20
44
Noctuidae
6
45
Nymphalidae
82
46
Papilionidae
15
47
Pieridae
23
48
Pyralidae
1
49
Riodinidae
2
50
Saturniidae
1
51
Sphingidae
1
52
Thyrididae
2
53
Uraniidae
1
Mantodea
2
0.38
54
Mantidae
2
Odonata
15
2.87
55
Calopterygidae
2
56
Chlorocyphidae
1
57
Coenagrionidae
3
58
Euphaeidae
1
59
Libellulidae
8
Orthoptera
22
4.2
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No.
Taxa
No. of
Species
Percentage
(%)
60
Chorotypidae
1
61
Gryllidae
3
62
Gryllotalpidae
1
63
Tetrigidae
1
64
Tettigoniidae
16
Total
523
100
The recent field work revealed
Odontoponera and Pheidole were more
abundant genera than the others in Formicidae
(App. 1). Odontoponera that we collected in
altitude 1,060-1,076 m asl near Cikaniki
research station (Fig. 4) are either
Odontoponera denticulata or O. transversa.
Based on two characters (relative length of
antennal scape and development of raised area
on vertex), our specimens are expected to be
Odontoponera transversa which is mostly
known to be found in natural habitat, while O.
denticulata is contrary (Yamane 2009) at least
when both species are overlapping in
distribution. Yamane’s specimens (four
workers) from around Cikaniki are O.
transversa that are rather dark-colored.
Nevertheless, Yamane commented to our
specimens that they are probably O.
denticulata. There is a strong possibility that
O. transversa and O. denticulata have related
cryptic species. Moreover, there is a
possibility that mountain populations are
specifically different from lowland
populations (S. Yamane 2020, pers. comm.).
Meanwhile, the beetles (Coleoptera)
had the highest species richness with 21
recorded species, and the member of rove
beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was the
largest (10 species) of all insect families
(App.1). The greatest abundance in rove
beetles was represented by tribe Athetini
(subfamily Aleocharinae; fig. 5a). This result
corresponded to Qodri et al. (2016) by the
same method (pitfall trap). Seevers (1978)
declared that the athetine beetles could adapt
in various microhabitat, so they become the
most successful small beetles. In comparison
to other trap, Yamamoto et al. (2013) denoted
the tribe Athetini occupied the second
place to Oxytelini (Staphylinidae: Oxytelinae)
in abundance by the dung trap method. We
also collected one individual which was
expected a member of genus Stilicoderus
(Staphylinidae: Paederinae; fig. 5b) based on
Cameron (1931). In Mount Halimun,
Assing (2017) reported his finding of
Stilicoderus parvus on August 2009.
Another Stilicoderus was known to be
distributed in Java, i.e. S. bacchusi
(Rougemont, 1986), S. brunneipennis
Cameron, 1936, and S. drescheri
Cameron, 1936 (Assing 2016). The other
staphylinid beetles were from subfamily
Staphylininae, i.e. Philonthus sp. (Fig. 5c)
and Thoracostrongylus sp. (Fig. 5d).
Cameron (1937) has described a number
of species from these two genera that
were collected by Mr. F. C. Drescher in
Java, one of which is from Mount
Slamet.
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Figure 4. Odontoponera transversa from Cikaniki. Left: front side, Right: lateral side. White arrow
shows development of raised area on vertex (triangular bump form). The rest of the
antennal scape that exceeds the head is 1.7-2.6 times longer than the first funicular
segment.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Figure 5. Rove beetles from Cikaniki. a) An athetine member (BL = ±1.5 mm), b) Stilicoderus sp.
(BL = ±4.2 mm), c) Philonthus sp. (BL = ±5 mm), d) Thoracostrongylus sp. (BL =
±8mm), e) Ystrixoxygymna sp. (BL = ±1.6 mm). Annotation: BL = Body Length.
When viewed per species,
Odontotermes sp. (termite colony; Fig. 6a-c)
of the order Blattodea which was collected at
Curug Macan (973 m asl) near Cikaniki
research station had the highest number of
collected specimens (63 individuals; App.1)
consists of 52 workers and eleven soldiers.
These termites were obtained through hand
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collections from the decayed wood which has
been crushed together with the soil.
Interestingly, we found a beetle from the
Tachyporine group, i.e. Ystrixoxygymna sp.
(Fig. 5e), which was strongly suspected of
being associated with termites. Based on
morphological characters, it was similar
to termitophilous Staphylinidae, e.g.
Coptotermocola clavicornis (Kanao et al.
2012), Discoxenus katayamai (Kanao et
al. 2010), and Termitodiscus sp. (Yamamoto
et al. 2016). C. clavicornis was collected in
nest of Coptotermes gestroi, while D.
katayamai and Termitodiscus sp. were
found to be symbiotic with genus
Odontotermes.
Based on the sweep netting method, we
collected five individual odonates and 13
individual lepidopterans (App. 1). The two
dragonfly species were identified as Vestalis
luctuosa (male and female; fig. 7a,b) and
Zygonyx ida (Fig. 7c). They were previously
recorded in Cikaniki and more frequently
found near stream (Aswari 2004; Aswari &
Cholik 2002). In line with the data
compilation result, Nymphalidae is the most
abundant and diverse butterfly family in
recent field work.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 6. Odontotermes sp. from Cikaniki. (a) Pronotum shaddle shaped, b) Head: left mandible with
small tooth, c) Lateral view (scale = 1 mm).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 7. Dragonflies from Cikaniki-Citalahab loop trail. (a) Vestalis luctuosa , (b) V. luctuosa
, (c) Zygonix ida.
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Neptis clinia (Fig. 8a,b), Cupha
erymanthis (Fig. 8c), and Tanaecia
iapis (Fig. 8d) are representatives of
Nymphalidae in our recent field work.
The first species was collected near
Cikaniki research station, and the last
two were found at Cikaniki-Citalahab
loop trail. Neptis clinia was never
reported its presence in Halimun-Salak.
However, Eliot (1969) described new
subspesies (N. c. phrasylas) of N. clinia
which was collected by Fruhstorfer one
of which in Lawang, East Java in 1897.
From GBIF occurence datasets, only N. c.
phrasylas which occurred in Java and all
recorded specimens were deposited in
Museum Leiden. Especially for West
Java, the specimens were known to be
distributed in Mega Mendung, Raja
Mandala, and Sukabumi (de Vos &
Creuwels 2020). On the other hand,
Cupha erymanthis and Tanaecia iapis
were also recorded in the western part of
Java (Banten and West Java) (Bahar et
al. 2016; Dendang 2009; Lestari et al.
2018; Murwitaningsih & Dharma 2014;
Mustari & Gunadharma 2016; Peggie
2012; Peggie & Amir 2006; Peggie
& Harmonis 2014; Septianella et al.
2015).
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 8. Brush-footed butterflies from Cikaniki-Citalahab. (a) Neptis clinia (upper-side; W = ±4.3
cm), (b) N. clinia (down-side), (c) Cupha erymanthis (W = ±4.5 cm), (d) Tanaecia iapis
. Annotation: W = Wingspan.
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Highlighting the beetles, we did not
collect longicorns due to the different method
applied. However, two coleopterans were
identified to species level, i.e. Eumorphus
columbinus (Endomychidae) and Omadius
indicus (Cleridae). We collected a handsome
fungus beetle E. columbinus (Fig. 9a) at
Curug Macan, while two checkered beetles O.
indicus (Fig 9b) was found in groups together
with Stigmatium sp. (Fig. 9c) in fallen rotten
wood on the Cikaniki-Citalahab loop trail
(1,124 m asl). Strohecker (1968) described E.
columbinus originating from Banten and
presumed to be confined to Java. In 1986,
Mawdsley (1996) examined Omadius indicus
collected by P. M. Hammond from the Bogani
Nani Wartabone National Park, North
Sulawesi. Omadius indicus recorded in Java is
known to be deposited in the collection of
British Museum (Gray 1849). In the
meantime, Stigmatium badly needs revision
(Gerstmeier 2020, pers.comm.).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 9. Endomychidae and Cleridae from Cikaniki-Citalahab. (a) Eumorphus columbinus (BL =
±9.7 mm), (b) Omadius indicus (BL = ±8.7 mm), (c) Stigmatium sp. (BL = ±6 mm).
Annotation: BL = Body Length.
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According to the compilation data, we
also calculated 77 species among the insects
were endemic to Java. A single species
(Troides helena) was reported to be protected
by government (Permen LHK P.106/2018). In
the meantime, several species of longhorn
(Cerambycidae) and stag beetles (Lucanidae),
namely Bandar pascoei, Batocera parryi,
Hexarthrius rhinoceros, Odontolabis dalmani
bellicosa, Prosopocoilus astacoides,
Prosopocoilus zebra, and Serrognathus taurus
were registered in the list of Non-Appendix
CITES based on Decree of the Directorate
General of Natural Resources and
Ecosystem Conservation No. SK.1/KS-
DAE/KKH/KSA.2/1/2020 concerning
quotas for harvesting natural plants and
capturing wild animals for the period 2020.
d) Fishes (Actinopterygii)
There were 46 fish specimens that we
collected covering three species from three
different families, i.e. Rasbora lateristriata
(33 specimens) and Poecilia reticulata (11
specimens) were collected at Cikaniki-
Citalahab, and Channa gachua (two
specimens) only found from Citalahab. We
collected them in shallow river with gravel
sand substrate and the flow is relatively swift.
Those three species were also recorded by
Rachmatika (2003). Based on the compilation
data from various methods, there were 22
species of Actinopterygii from five orders and
eight families that recorded in Cikaniki-
Citalahab (App. 2), and four species of which
are introduced species (Table 2). Due to
sampling duration, the number of species
found in recent field work is relatively less
than previous study by Rachmatika et al.
(2002b) which reported seven species of
fishes from Cikaniki. At least, Rachmatika
(2003) collected five species near our study
site, i.e. Glyptothorax platypogon, Rasbora
aprotaenia, Channa gachua, Monopterus
albus, and Cyprinus carpio.
Rasbora lateristriata (Fig. 10) was found
abundant during the recent field work. Rachmatika
(2003) previously reported that the distribution of
this freshwater fish included Sundaland, Bali,
Lombok, and Sumbawa. However, the latest
records state that this species is endemic to the
western part of Java and adapted in the upstream
and downstream rivers, with clear water condition,
moderate current, and rock and gravel
substrates (Kusuma et al. 2016; Lumban-
tobing 2019). In GHSNP, this species has
been found at the upstream of Cisadane and
Cikaniki river, also in Kampung Central,
Citalahab (Lumbantobing 2014) and inhabited
rocky and gravel waters with moderate flow
in Cisadane river (Rachmatika 2003). The
conservation status in IUCN Red List is
vulnerable (VU) and not protected by the
Ministry of Environment and Forestry
regulation number P.106/2018.
Poecilia reticulata is originated from part of
South America (Farr 1975) and had been
introduced widely around the world (CABI
[accessed on 19 Nov 2020]). This species can be
found in various types of freshwater and tend to be
more abundant in smaller rivers or ponds than in
large, deep, or fast-flowing rivers (Magurran &
Philip 2001). This species is not evaluated (NE) in
IUCN Red List and not protected by the
government regulation.
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Figure 10. Rasbora lateristriata from Curug Macan, Cikaniki.
Channa gachua is widespread in Asia
region, including Indonesia (FishBase
[accessed on 19 Nov 2020]). Adults inhabit
medium to large rivers, brooks, rapid-running
mountain streams, and stagnant water bodies
including sluggish flowing canals (Taki,
1978) as well tributary in Halimun-Salak
Mountain (Rachmatika 2003). The conser-
vation status in IUCN Red List is least
concern (LC) and also not protected by the
government regulation.
e) Herpetofauna (Amphibia & Reptilia)
The recent field work recorded nine
species of amphibian and four species of
reptiles. The species include five families of
amphibians (Ranidae, Dicroglossidae,
Bufonidae, Rhacophoridae, and
Megophryidae) and three families of reptiles
(Scincidae, Agamidae, and Colubridae). A
total of 10 species (76.92%) were listed in
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as least
concern (LC). Two species of reptiles, i.e.
Gonocephalus kuhlii (Fig. 11) and
Sphenomorphus sanctus listed as not
evaluated (NE). Among the 13 recorded
species, five are endemic to Java, they are
Huia masonii, Leptophryne borbonica (Fig.
12), Limnonectes microdiscus, Philautus
pallidipes, and Rhacophorus margaritifer.
According to the previous records, eight
endemic herpetofauna species were recorded
in GHSNP, namely Rhacophorus
margaritifer, Philautus pallidipes,
Leptophryne cruentata, Microhyla achatina,
Huia masonii, Philautus vittiger, and
Spenomorphus puncticentralis (Kurniati 2005;
Mumpuni 2001). In October 2008, Riyanto
(2011) reported four Javan endemic anurans
(Huia masonii, Megophrys montana,
Microhyla achatina, and Rhacophorus
margaritifer) were found in Gunung Ciremai
National Park. Eight herpetofauna
species were recorded in lowland
forest, seven of which were
Chalcorana chalconota, Limnonectes
kuhlii, Gonocephalus chamaeleontinus,
Cyrtodactylus fumosus, Hemidactylus
frenatus, Sphenomorphus sanctus, and
Sphenomorphus temminckii. Meanwhile,
Gonocephalus kuhlii was collected in the
shrub-old pine forest (1500-1600 m asl),
secondary forest (1600-1700 m asl), and
primary forest (1700-2000 m asl) of
Gunung Ciremai National Park.
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Figure 11. Gonocephalus kuhlii at Cikaniki research station.
Figure 12. Amphibian species from Cikaniki-Citalahab. (a-b-c-f) Chalcorana chalconota, (d)
Limnonectes kuhlii, (e) Leptophryne borbonica, (g) Odorrana hosii. Remarks: all
specimens were collected at Citalahab, except for L. borbonica in Cikaniki.
Based on data compilation from recent
field work, MZB collections, and literatures,
there were 63 species recorded from Cikaniki-
Citalahab (Table 1). The highest number of
species came from family Rhacophoridae and
Colubridae, each with seven species (App. 2).
Two species of snakes, namely Naja sputatrix
and Malayopython reticulatus were assigned
in the list of Appendix CITES for trade quota,
in which regulated globally. Among the
recorded species, eleven species are endemic
to Java and one species, Leptophryne
cruentata, listed as critically endangered
(CR).
f) Birds (Aves)
From the mist net method, two bird
species were recorded, i.e. Alcedo meninting
(Blue-eared Kingfisher) and Zoothera
andromedae (Sunda Thrush) (Fig. 13). The
small number of species obtained was
supposed to be the result of short period of
mist-netting activity and insufficient
availability of bird catching nets. The
presence of the blue-banded kingfisher
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(Alcedo euryzona) on the forest floor of
Gunung Kendeng, GHSNP was previously
reported in May and October 2001, while
Sunda Thrush (Zoothera andromedae) was
reported from August to November 2001
(Prawiradilaga et al. 2002). In Cikaniki, we
recorded A. meninting near the stream. A.
meninting was reportedly suitable to inhabit
not far from river shingles (Noske et al. 2011)
and stream (Chan & Setiawan 2019). The
natural habitat of A. meninting was
streams, creeks, channels and estuaries in
evergreen and wet deciduous forest,
bamboo-forest and dense mangroves,
regenerating and tall secondary forest,
forest edge, and occasionally found at
streams through tree plantations (Woodal
2020). Meanwhile, Z. andromedae can be
found in understorey of dense primary mossy
hill forest and montane forest (Collar 2020).
Since 2016, the conservation status
of Alcedo meninting and Z. andromedae
was reportedly included in the least concern
(LC) category (Prawiradilaga 2016).
Figure 13. Alcedo meninting (left) and Zoothera andromedae (right) in Cikaniki.
Based on the compilation data from
field work, MZB collections, and literatures,
there were 115 species of birds recorded in
Cikaniki-Citalahab (Table 1) consist of 12
orders and 42 families (App. 2). Ordo
Passeriformes (77 species) contributed as the
most diverse species than others, in which,
family Muscicapidae (19 species) had the
largest members. The two bird species
(Nisaetus bartelsi & Chloropsis
cochinchinensis) were categorized as
endangered and one species (Alcedo
euryzona) as critically endangered according
to the IUCN Red List. They were also
assigned in the list of protected species based
on Permen LHK No. P.106/2018, except C.
cochinchinensis. Five species were registered
in the list of Non-Appendix CITES for trade
quota regulated by the government, i.e.
Alophoixus bres, Erythrura prasina,
Pomatorhinus montanus, Prinia familiaris,
and Zosterops palpebrosus. For the migratory
birds, one species (Cyornis brunneatus) was
recorded before in Cikaniki-Citalahab (Noske
et al. 2011). Mahood et al. (2013) confirmed
that C. brunneatus as a migratory bird and its
status in the IUCN Red List was globally
vulnerable. We also recorded 16 species of
Javan endemic birds from Cikaniki-Citalahab
and surroundings. Prawiradilaga (2016)
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revealed that GHSNP is very important for the
survival of 43 endemic bird species (17 are
endemic to Indonesia, 26 are endemic to Java
and Bali), in which 32 of the total endemic
species in the national park are birds with
restricted distribution.
g) Mammalia
Three bats were collected during the
recent field work. They consist of
two common species, i.e. Chironax
melanocephalus and Cynopterus brachyotis
(Fig. 14) which were both trapped in mist net.
In addition, ten mammal species were
encountered by direct observation. Cuon
alpinus was not encountered by visual
observation but recorded by its sound. Based
on previous studies, ten species were reported
in Cikaniki Research Station (Tobing 2002,
Mustari et al. 2015). Chiroptera was captured
on this site in 2002 (Mustari et al. 2015),
however identification did not carry
out up to species level. One of interesting
findings was Sunda Stink-badger (Mydaus
javanensis) which visually encountered in the
observation track (Fig. 13). Sunda Stink-
badger was reported to have nocturnal
activity (Higashide et al. 2018, Vickers et al.
2017). Nevertheless, Mydaus javanensis at
Halimun was active during the day (Suyanto
2003). At the Gunung Botol resort, also
belongs to GHSNP, M. javanensis was
reportedly caught by camera trap between
October and November 2012 (Mustari et
al. 2015).
Figure 14. Cynopterus brachyotis (left) from Cikaniki and Mydaus javanensis (right) at Cikaniki-
Citalahab loop trail.
Based on the recent field work, MZB
collections, and literatures there were 45
species of Mammalia in Cikaniki-Citalahab
(Table 1). The family Pteropodidae and
Muridae had the most species (each 11.11%),
followed by Vespertilionidae and Viverridae
(each 8.89%). Another family member ranged
between 2.22%6.67% (App. 2). However,
several species were not found in this recent
field work such as Panthera pardus,
Prionailurus bengalensis, Prionodon linsang,
Amblonyx cinereus, Muntiacus muntjak, and
Muridae species. It might be caused by short
collecting time and inappropriate tools. Some
mammals required different methods and
efforts. The two species of mammals were
only identified to genus level. According to
the IUCN Red List, one mammal species was
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assigned as Critically Endangered (CR), i.e.
Manis javanica. A single species (Viverricula
indica) recorded from Cikaniki-Citalahab was
registered in the list of Appendix CITES and
eleven species were listed in protected
species.
Discussion
There are 552 conservation areas in
Indonesia which covers 27.4 million ha
comprises of 22.1 milion ha or terrestrial
conservation area and 5.3 milion ha of marine
conservation area (KLHK, 2018).
Approximately 59.79% from the total
conservation area assigned as national parks.
These areas are the center for Indonesian
biodiversity (DESPA-KLHK 2017). In
Indonesia, there are 54 national parks which
covers 16.52 milion ha. Among twelve
national parks in Java, Gunung Halimun Salak
National Park is the largest tropical mountain
rain forest remaining in Java with total area of
113,357 ha (DESPA-KLHK 2017). Based on
compilation data from field work, literatures,
and museum collections, at least 1,323 fauna
species (Table 3) inhabit the national park.
This number might underestimate the actual
number of fauna diversity in GHSNP. The
Indobiosys project estimated around 3,500
insect species of specimen collection from
2015 to 2017 in GHSNP (Cancian de Araujo
et al. 2017). Prawiradilaga et al. (2016)
emphasized that GHSNP is one of the
National Parks which has the highest bird
species richness in Java and Bali.
In the last decade alone, at least 13 new
species were described from GHSNP. Most of
the newly described species were insects,
namely Cardiodactylus erniae Robillard &
Gorochov 2014, Drosophila sungaicola
Suwito & Watabe 2010, Drosophila hitam
Suwito & Watabe 2010, Drosophila
barobusta Suwito & Watabe 2010,
Drosophila sundaensis Suwito & Watabe
2010, Drosophila albipalpis Katoh, Toda &
Gao 2018, Dichaetophora javaensis Yang &
Gao 2017, Halimunella tadauchii Kamitani
2012, Hishimonus bilobatus Kamitani 2011,
Phortica halimunensis Toda 2020. There were
two Malacostraca described from GHSNP in
the past decade, i.e. Occulthusa halimun Ng &
Wowor 2018 and Geosesarma cikaniki Ng &
Wowor 2019. In addition, one terrestrial
Gastropoda was described from the national
park which was Diplommatina halimunensis
Nurinsiyah & Hausdorf 2017.
The fauna diversity in GHSNP also
higher compare to most of national parks in
Java. Compare to Gunung Ciremai National
Park (GCNP), GHSNP inhabits 2.65 times
more species of Cerambycidae (106 species)
in Cikaniki-Citalahab alone. Noerdjito (2011),
Aswari (2011), and Peggie & Noerdjito
(2011) reported 40 species of Cerambycidae,
20 species of dragonflies, and 109 species of
butterflies from 2006 to 2008 at Mount
Ciremai. The number of terrestrial gastropods
also higher in GHSNP compare to GCNP
which recorded 48 species (Heryanto 2012).
The total vertebrate species recorded in
Cikaniki-Citalahab were 245 species. The
number is higher compare to vertebrate
diversity reported from GCNP which was
165 species (Gunawan et al. 2008;
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Maharadatun & Maryati 2008; Rachmatika
& Wahyudewantoro 2009; Riyanto 2011;
Surahman 2010).
Compare to the neighbouring montane
forest, Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park
(GGPNP), species richness of vertebrates
recorded in GHSNP was 1.4 times greater
than the species found in GGPNP. Birds in
GGPNP consist of 48 families and 262
species (Ario 2010), while in GHSNP at least
53 families and 271 species were reported
(Prawiradilaga 2016). Mammals in GGPNP
consist of seven orders, 20 families, and 50
species (Ario 2010). A total of 39 mammal
species in GHSNP based on our compilation
data were also recorded in GGPNP. From the
seven species of fishes reported in GGPNP
(Ario 2010), all were recorded in GHSNP and
six species among them occurred in Cikaniki-
Citalahab.
The number of species richness in
GHSNP is slightly higher compare to Alas
Purwo National Park (APNP) which located
in the most eastern part of Java. Nugraha et al.
(2012) revealed 46 species of mammals, 283
species of birds, 49 species of reptiles, 15
species of amphibians, and 10 species of fish
in APNP. The species composition between
the two national parks is somewhat different.
Based on the 13 species recorded by Ainullah
et al. (2015), only one species was recorded
both in GHSNP and APNP namely Caranx
sexfasciatus. Broto & Subeno (2012) recorded
18 species of reptiles and 13 species of
amphibians in 2008-2009 and eight species
among them were not recorded in GHSNP.
The different species composition might be
caused by different climatic conditions.
Annual temperature and soil pH in Java
increased and the annual precipitation
decreased toward the eastern part of Java
(Whitten et al. 1997; Wikramanayake 2002).
Among other stations in GHSNP, fauna
diversity in Cikaniki-Citalahab is quite high
which supported about 62.1% of fauna
diversity in GHSNP (Table 3). However,
increasing human activity might lead to the
disruption on the fauna habitat and diversity.
GHSNP, especially Cikaniki research station
and its surroundings, is an important
conservation area which inhabits high number
of endemic species. Some species among
them are currently under critical or critically
endangered status. This shows that
information on biodiversity needs to be
continuously disclosed because of the role of
national park as conservation area.
Furthermore, periodic research needs to be
carried out with the aim of uncovering
population trends of each species group,
conservation management, and uncovering
new species discoveries.
CONCLUSION
Gunung Halimun Salak National Park
is the largest tropical mountain rainforest in
Java. Cikaniki and Citalahab area of GHSNP,
although located near human settlement, the
number of species inhabited the area was still
high. 821 species were recorded based on
recent field work, MZB collection, and
literatures study. 123 endemic species to Java
inhabit the area. Furthermore, five species
were assigned as endangered, three species as
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127
critically endangered by IUCN, and 34
species were included in the list of
protected species based on P.106/MEN-
LHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/12/2018. Further and
comprehensive research on the fauna
biodiversity in the Gunung Halimun Salak
National Park are still needed. Species
inventory and monitoring are compulsory as
part of biodiversity conservation in particular
and area conservation in general. Moreover,
raising awareness and enforcing conservation
effort in these areas are very important to
protect both the species and the habitat.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This study was a part of “Jungle
Survival and Collection Management”
program funded by Budget Implementation
List Year 2019 of Research Center for
Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. We
would like to thank Head of Research Center
for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences,
Dr. Atit Kanti, M.Sc. and Head Division of
Zoology, Research Center for Biology,
Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Dr. Cahyo
Rahmadi for all supports. Authors also
thanked Gunung Halimun Salak National Park
for supporting us to conduct activities inside
the forest, and to Muhammad Rasyidi for his
help to sort the museum's collection database.
We are very grateful to Adam J. Brunke
(Canadian National Collection of Insects,
Arachnids and Nematodes), Ai-Ping Liang
(Chinese Academy of Sciences), Albert
František Damaška (Prague), Andrea
Salimbeni (RE-CORD, Italy), David
Emmanuel M. General (UPLB Museum of
Natural History), Előd Kondorosy (Szent
István University), Emmanuel Arriaga-Varela
(University of Guadalajara), Floyd Shockley
(Smithsonian National Museum of Natural
History), Lorenzo Pancini (Italy), Harald
Schillhammer (Naturhistorisches Museum
Wien), Hideto Hoshina (University of Fukui),
Hiroyuki Yoshitomi (Ehime University), Ivan
Löbl (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de
Genève), James C. Trager (Shaw Nature
Reserve), Michael Geiser (Natural History
Museum, London), Menno Schiltuizen
(Naturalis, Leiden), Munetoshi Maruyama
(The Kyushu University Museum), Roland
Gerstmeier (München), Roger A. Beaver
(Thailand), Sarah M. Smith (Michigan State
University), Seiki Yamane (Kagoshima
University Museum), Shuhei Yamamoto (The
Hokkaido University Museum), Wolfgang
Schawaller (Staatliches Museum für
Naturkunde Stuttgart), Volker Assing
(Hannover), Wara Asfiya (Government of
West Java), Awit Suwito, Djunijanti Peggie,
Erniwati, Pungki Lupiyaningdyah (Museum
Zoologicum Bogoriense) for the help in
identification and verification for insects;
Amir Hamidy and Awal Riyanto (Museum
Zoologicum Bogoriense) for the help in
identification and verification for
herpetofauna; Mohammad Irham (Museum
Zoologicum Bogoriense) for the help in
identification and verification for Aves;
Sunardi and his botanical team in providing
information on the vegetation community of
Cikaniki-Citalahab; and reviewers for their
comments and suggestions to improve our
manuscript. Special thanks to the Jungle
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Survival 2019 team for the participation and
assistance.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
The principal contributors were Agmal
Qodri, Alamsyah Elang Nusa Herlambang,
Anang Setyo Budi, Ayu Savitri Nurinsiyah,
Encilia, Endah Dwijayanti, Ilham Vemandra
Utama, Rena Tri Hernawati, Rusdianto, and
Yohanna.
And the second contributors were
Fajrin Shidiq, Gloria Animalesto, Mulyadi,
Nanang Supriatna, Pamungkas Rizki Ferdian,
Pangda Sopha Sushadi, Syaiful Rizal, and
Ujang Nurhaman.
None of authors has a conflict of
interest. The details of our contribution are as
follows: AQ, ASN, E, IVU, M, NS, PRF,
PSS, RTH, SR, and UN conducted sampling
at the study sites. ED is in charge for
mammalian taxa, Y for birds and mapping,
AENH for herpetofauna, IVU and R for
fishes, RTH for crustaceans, ASN for
mollusks, and finally AQ, ASB, and E are
responsible for insect taxa. FS and GA
assisted in the manuscript work and data
checking. ASN reviewed the manuscript
before submission. AQ coordinated and
ensured the entire process in the manuscript
processing.
SUPPLEMENTARY DOCUMENTS
Appendix 1. Field Work Specimens from
Cikaniki-Citalahab
(https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12690/RIN/KN
T3WX)
Appendix 2. Fauna Diversity at Cikaniki-
Citalahab Resort, GHNSP
(https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12690/RIN/KN
T3WX)
Appendix 3. Endemic Fauna at Cikaniki-
Citalahab Resort, GHSNP
(https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12690/RIN/KN
T3WX)
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