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p>Esta investigación tuvo como objetivos identificar la especie(s) de Fusarium asociada(s) a hijuelos comerciales de Agave tequilana y desarrollar una metodología para cuantificar la carga de inóculo en hijuelos provenientes de plantaciones madre de Jalisco con inductividad epidémica diferencial al síndrome marchitez y pudrición seca del cogollo (SMAP). La finalidad fue proporcionar criterios para la certificación de plantaciones madre. La fase de campo se realizó entre marzo-mayo 2018 y 2019 en 21 plantaciones comerciales en 14 municipios de Los Altos, Sur y Valles de Jalisco. Se estimó el número de plantas enfermas (PE) y severidad SMAP (S) en 63 y 200 plantas/plantación mediante App-SIVEA para 2018 y 2019 respectivamente. Se desarrolló y aplicó el método CIFUSAG en 7055 hijuelos y 46 656 colonias fungosas obtenidas de 2364 siembras de lavado basal de la ‘piña’, secciones de tejido interno y macerado total de hijuelo. Unidades formadoras de colonia de Fusarium spp. (Fsp) y hongos totales (HT), purificación, monospóricos, caracterización morfológica y cultural se realizó con los medios Komada, agua-agar, Sabouraud, SNA y Sabouraud, respectivamente, diferenciando 557 aislados. La mayor inductividad epidémica en Los Altos significó moderado Índice de Fusarium [(IF) = (?Fsp) / (?HT)] (0.30 y 0.40) y Fsp (20 y 72UFC) respecto al Sur que tuvo valores más altos (0.69, 0.50; 23, 84UFC, respectivamente) (Tukey p=0.05). Calibre de hijuelo no tuvo influencia en IF y Fsp (p=0.183). IF y Fsp de lavado basal no estuvieron correlacionadas con S de plantas madres (r2 = 0.036 y 0.13), mientras que PE únicamente se correlacionó con Fsp (r2 =0.94). La carga de inóculo obtenida por lavado fue superior al de tejido interno con un total de 17,828 UFC (93%) e IF=0.42. Análisis molecular con el gen EF-1a evidenció asociación de 23 cepas con cuatro complejos filogenéticos: Fusarium oxysporum , F. fujikuro i, F. solani y F. incarnatum-equiseti con identidad superior al 98%. El hijuelo comercial de Agave tequilana constituye un factor de dipersión de al menos cuatro especies de Fusarium spp. en el rango de 3.3±3 y 6.83±4.2 UFC/hijuelo.</p
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2021
DOI:https://doi.org/10.18781/R.MEX.FIT.2006-8


     
   Fusarium    
    Agave tequilana

 


Resumen. 
Fusarium
   Agave tequilana  -
      
    -
    
Fusarium spp. and inoculum load estimation associated to
commercial Agave tequilana 
regional epidemic inductivity levels
Fusarium spp. y estimación de carga de inóculo asociados a hijuelos de
Agave tequilana en diferentes niveles de inductividad epidémica regional
Coral Mendoza-Ramos, Gustavo Mora-Aguilera*1Juan José Coria-
Contreras, Baldemar Santana-Peñaloza, Gerardo Acevedo-Sánchez, Verónica Martínez-Bustamante
2   María Alejandra Gutié-
rrez-Espinosa3
 Ramón Rubio-Cortés
-

RecibidoAceptado
Abstract.     
  Fusarium   
   Agave tequilana  
      
      
      
    
       
     
        



      
   
    
      
      

2021 95




      -
      
    
      -

 



-


      
Fusarium-
-

  -
     
-
Fusarium


p-
p

2   
    2


    
       
Fusarium oxyspo-
rumF. fujikuroi, F. solani F. incarnatum-equiseti
.
Agave tequilana-
Fusarium.

Palabras clave:  

    Fusarium  
     
    

    
     

Fusarium


p
p
       
2
   2 

    
      

  Fusarium oxysporum
F. fujikuroi F. solani  F. incarnatum-equiseti
       Agave
tequilana   
Fusarium

Key words:      

Agave tequilana



     
      Agave
tequilana       

et
al.,et al.,
      
2021 96



 Agave tequilana    
-
  
   



Agave tequilana-


et al.,et al.,

-

-1
-


 
       
  Fusarium     


A. tequilana  -
Fusarium  
    
     

-

et al     -
-
-

 
   
-

-
      

     
      
    -1  



 Fusarium
   
    
 A. tequilana
     Fusarium  
       



        
  et al   


  
        
    
      
     
       


    

  Fusarium  
et al        
       
   Fusarium  
    
     
       
     
Fusarium oxysporum  F. solani 
F. fujikuroi   F. incarnatum-equiseti
2021 97




  -

Fusarium
 et al     
-

    Fusarium 
      
-
-
Fusarium
oxysporumF. solaniF. fujikuroi
F. incarnatum-equiseti-

F. oxysporum F. solani-
et alet al


     
      
   
   Fusarium   
  Agave tequilana 
et al
      
    Fusarium 


-
-
-


     
 Fusarium     A. tequilana 




    
  F. oxysporum  F. solani
et alet al


 
 
   
     Fusarium
     
Agave tequilana et
al
       
    Fusarium 
       




        

  Fusarium   A. tequilana

      
      

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Establishment of the experimental site in the
      

A. tequilana
   
     
 
      

      
2021 98



MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS
Establecimiento del sitio experimental en cam-
po.

A. tequilana-
-
   

-



-
  


Características de plantaciones madre.-
    

-
     -
 -
    -




Diseño experimental. -

 
-
    
     

-

     
      
      

     

Mother plantation characteristics. 
     
    
     
     
    
     




Experiment design.   
      
      
  
       
      





    
       



  


       
 
-1
2021 99



Cuadro 1.Localización y caracterización tecnológica de 21 plantaciones comerciales de Agave tequilana seleccionadas en
2018 y 2019 para estudios etiológicos y carga de inóculo de hijuelos asociado con el síndrome de marchitez y pu-
drición seca del cogollo de planta madre en Jalisco.
Table 1. Location and technological characterization of 21 commercial plantations of Agave tequilana with agave wilt and
dry bud rot syndrome (SMAP) selected in 2018 and 2019 to study the etiology and inoculum load in commercial

  
    
(msnm)

  
2018

   -102.6127  Medio  
Moderada    2180   
  20.76863  2279 Medio  
 
 20.08979     
   1199   
      
 Moderada   -103.66876  Medio  
  -103.71006 1387 Medio  
  20.87292  1229 Medio  
2019

   -102.891988    
  -102.273707 2078   
    1979 Medio  
   2186   
       
 21.1631611  1829   

    707 Medio  
    Medio  
    1190 Medio  
   681 Medio  
    1177 Medio  
   927   

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       
      -

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      
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     
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      
        
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        

2021 100
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

      -1 
-


 -
 
   


-
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-
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

Método CIFUSAG para obtención de lavados
basales.       
-
    -


 
    
        -
      
     
-

   



 
      
-


-



CIFUSAG method to obtain basal washings.

       

  

         
      


       
         
       
        





      
       

      
     
       
     
       





        in
vitro




2021 101



A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
B1
B2
B4
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
C2
Hoja
Cogollo
Piña
Cuello
C1
Frontal
Reverso
E1
E2
E5
Figura 1. Método CIFUSAG para el procesamiento de toma de muestras de hijuelos de plantas madre de Agave tequilana
para tejido externo basal (lavado) (A), tejido interno (B y C), tejido macerado (B y D) y metodología de laboratorio
(E). La explicación de literales y numerales (A1-E5) se indica en la sección Método CIFUSAG para obtención de
lavados basales (Páginas 7 y 9).
Figure 1. CIFUSAG method to collect samples of Agave tequilana mother plants for basal external tissue (A), internal tissue
(B and C), macerated tissue (B and D) and laboratory methodology (E). Letters and numerals explanation can be
found in CIFUSAG method to obtain basal washings (Pages 7 and 9).
ñ
2021 102




 
     
  -

      
-




      
     
     
  -


      -






Selección de hijuelos para estudios de internali-
zación y carga de inóculo interno (CII)-
    


-
    -



 -
 
      
       


      
     
     


inoculum load studies (IIL)    




     

 

       



       



Mother plants evaluation.   
   
      


 et. al.     

in situ
et al.,




     

2021 103



    



Evaluación de plantas madre.   

       -
    

    


in situ
et al.,-
  
-
      



     -
    

-



Procesamiento en Laboratorio. Secado de mues-
tras de tejido externo.
     
       

-

-
-
 
®
 
        
       
mx  
      

Laboratory Processing: Drying of external
tissue samples.     







®


External tissue cultivation.   


      

          
         
      
        

      
   
      Fusarium

Isolation of internal and macerated tissue for
IIL.



2021 104



   

Siembra de tejido externo. 

     
-
         
        
1x10

      
-


Fusa-
rium
Aislamiento de tejido interno y macerado para
CII.
       
       

 



 

   
 
       

     -
     
    


-





 
      

 
     
   
     
        
         

      
      
     


®      

     
  


   

tests.
       

    


      

       
,
      

   Fusarium   
et al
2021 105



-
®-





     
-
-



   -
       

 -
-


-
, 


-
Fusarium et al

      -
Fusarium
   et al
et al   
       
 -

      
-1

          
2     
DNA extraction, PCR, and phylogenetic analysis.


 Fusarium   
et al
 et al     
     
 
      

  -1

          
2
 

®
Taq       
   -1    
     
        

       
   
      
        

     

         
      


      
     
     
     
      
      
     
maximum likelihood
2021 106



       

-
®Taq
-1


-


-



       
        






       -
      



   máxima vesosimilitud  General
Time Reversible ModelGama Distributed
With Invariant-
trap.
RESULTADOS
Validación del método de muestreo. 


-
-


RESULTS
Validation of the sampling method. 
     



    Fusarium 




        


        
          

 
Fusarium

       

      

        
         
     Fusarium 
   



Colony forming units by region in external
tissue       
      
p
2021 107




  Fusarium  

     
      -


-
       
-

Figura 2 Esquematización del método CIFUSAG desarrollado para estimar carga de inóculo de Fusarium spp. a partir
de hijuelos de A. tequilana con fases de campo y laboratorio. Las muestras incluyeron lavado basal, secciones de
tejido interno y macerado total del hijuelo.
Figure 2. Scheme of the CIFUSAG method developed to estimate the Fusarium spp. inoculum load using A. tequilana


Selección de la
parcela comercial
Área del parcela a
muestrear
Definir tamaño de
muestra y calibre
Selección de
muestras en el predio
Lavado del
cuello y base de
las hojas del
hijuelo
Agitación de la
muestra para
desprendimiento
del suelo
adherido a
restos de tejido
Filtrado para
eliminación de
restos de tejido
Precipitación del
material sólido
(10-15 min)
Eliminación del
excedente de
agua
Recuperación
del material
sólido
-1L de agua estéril
-Recipiente de 15 L
-Cepillo plástico
-Taladro modificado con
un batidor de pintura
-Malla plástica
abertura 5x5 mm
-Recipiente 2 L
-Tubo
Falcon
de 50 mL
Etiquetado
de la
muestra
C a m p o
Secado del suelo
en campana de
flujo (4-6 h)
L a b o r a t o r i o
Tejido externoTejido externoTejido interno y Macerado
-Caja Petri
-Sanitas estériles
Dilución madre
1g suelo en 9ml
agua estéril (1:9)
Dilución madre
(1:9)
Siembra en
medio de cultivo,
100 uL
-1 g suelo
-9 mL agua estéril
Crecimiento de
colonias 5-7 días
-Medio Komada
Desinfestación
de los hijuelos
-Alcohol 70%
-Cloro al 3%
-agua estéril
Eliminación
de tejido
verde
Corte del
hijuelo por
tipo de tejido
-Hacha
-Cutter
-Tabla
plástica
Corte de
tejido a
sembrar
(5x5mm)
Desinfestación
y secado
Siembra en
medio de
cultivo
-Medio Komada
-Caja Petri
-Sanitas estériles
Tejido
sobrante
(Macerado)
Desinfestación
Maceración -Licuadora
Blendtec
Eliminación
gabazo
-Malla
2x2 mm
Toma de
muestra
homogénea
-Tubo
Falcon
50 mL
Siembra de
sobrenadante
Fusarium

        
       



p
    Fusarium  
  p inter 

2021 108






 Fusarium  

  
       

-

-

      Fusarium 
-


  

Comportamiento de unidades formadoras de
colonias por región en tejido externo  -

  
p
      Fusarium
       
     

-
    
p
  Fusarium  -
  p inter 
 -
 -
 
      



       
        
       
      
      


      p



 
     
Fusarium
index p
   p

      


        

   
Fusarium


Colony forming units per region in internal and
macerated tissue.    
      


Fusarium
       
     
       
(min máx  std    
minmáxstd


2021 109



     
   p
-

      
      
Fusarium (p-
         
p

-

Figura 3.Carga de inóculo de Fusarium spp. en tejido externo (lavado) de hijuelos, número de plantas enfermas y severidad
de planta madre con síndrome de marchitez y pudrición seca del cogollo en Los Altos (A), Sur (S) y Valles (V) de
Jalisco en 2018 y 2019. A) índice de Fusarium spp., B) Unidades formadoras de colonias de Fusarium spp. C) Plan-
tas enfermas, D) Porcentaje de severidad en planta. Al menos una letra en común por año son estadísticamente
iguales (Tukey p<0.05).
Figure 3. Fusarium
plants with wilt and dry bud rot syndrome in Los Altos (A), South (S) and Vally regions (V) of Jalisco in 2018 and
2019. A) Fusarium spp. Index; B) Fusarium spp. colony forming units; C) Infected plants; D) Percent of disease
severity in plants. At least one letter in common per year is statistically equal (Tukey p<0.05).
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
A S V
Indice de Fusarium
a
b
b
c
a
A
0
20
40
60
80
100
A S V
UFC Fusarium
a
b
a
c
a
B
0
5
10
15
20
A S V
No. Plantas enfermas
2018 2019
a
a
a
b
b
C
0
10
20
30
40
ASV
Severidad en planta (%)
2018 2019
b
a
a
a
b
D
Fusarium
   Fusarium   
minmáxstd
      
      
Fusarium
      




Fusarium
    
2021 110



0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Lima Naranja Toronja
UFC Otros hongos
2018 2019
a
a
ab
a
b
aA
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Lima Naranja Toronja
UFC Fusarium
2018 2019
a
a
a
a
aa
B
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Lima Naranja Toronja
Indice de Fusarium
2018 2019
a
aa
a
aa
Caaa
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Lima Naranja Toronja
UFC Fusarium / hijuelo
Externa Interna
D
-
Fusarium
-
-

Unidades formadoras de colonias por región en
tejido interno y macerado. 
     -

-
Figura 4. Carga de inóculo por calibre Lima, Naranja y Toronja de hijuelos de agave en experimentos 2018 y 2019. A) Uni-
dades formadoras de colonia (UFC) de otros hongos, B) UFC Fusarium spp., C) Índice de Fusarium spp. y D) UFC
de Fusarium/hijuelo por tipo de tejido externo o interno y calibre de hijuelos. Lima y Toronja sin datos. Al menos
una letra en común por año (A-C) o entre tejido externo (D) son estadísticamente iguales (Tukey p<0.05).
Figure 4. 
2019. A) Colony forming units (CFU) of other fungi; B) Fusarium spp. CFU; C) Fusarium spp. index; and D)
Fusarium/  -
out data. At least one letter in common per year (A-C) or among externalt issue (D) are statistically equal (Tukey
p<0.05).

       

     
   Fusarium  

 


   Fusarium   
     
2021 111



Fusarium
       


minmáxstd-
     min máx 
std-

Fusariummin
máxstd

Fusarium
 -




   



-
-
Fusarium
    -
      

-

Fusarium
    
-
  
-


    
et al. -
Fusarium
      


        
    Fusarium  

 et al.    Fusarium
       
        
      



Fusarium
       
    
        
     
       
Fusarium

F. oxysporumF. verticillioides,F.
solani


 Fusarium  
et al.
 Fusarium    


       
   
F. verticillioides , F. oxysporum  
F. solani     F. oxysporum 
F. solani   
F. oxysporum

    Fusarium

Fusarium 
2021 112



-
  

      
Fusarium

Ti-


      
    -
Fusarium
F. oxysporumF. verticillioides
F. solani-

Fusarium
et al.
Fusarium


Ti
F. verticillioides
, F. oxysporum  F. solani  
   F. oxysporum  
F. solani
 F. oxysporum      
-
     Fusarium

Fusarium 
A. tequilanaF.
verticillioides  F. oxysporum   -


-


Fusarium-

A. tequilanaF. verticillioides
F. oxysporum     



      
    Fusarium 


DISCUSSION
       
 A. tequilana     


Fusarium
     
       
   
et al   et al 
et al  


      
   

    1  
    
Carga de Inóculo
Fusarium en AgaveFusarium

2     
      3
   
    Fusarium  

     
         
2021 113



Cuadro 2.Fusarium obtenidos de 30 hijuelos en 2018 por fuente
de aislamiento utilizando el gen EF-1a.
Table 2. Fusarium-
ing the EF-1a gene.

    


F. verticillioides
 100 
 99.70 
  
  
 100 
F. oxysporum  99.23 
 99.39 
F. solani   
 99.86 
 F. oxysporum
 99.23 
 100 
  
 F. oxysporum   
F. solani  99.86 
 Fusarium PF23d - -
Fusarium  - -

F. verticillioides PF17s  
PF19s 100 
F. oxysporum   
PF20s  
Fusarium
 97.92 
 - -
 97.73 
DISCUSION
-
   A. tequilana   



Fusarium-
-

   et al  -
et alet al

       
      
    
    
  Fusarium    
      
     
       

et al
   
    

2021 114



Figura 5.Filogenia de 23 cepas de Fusarium spp. asociadas a tejido externo (lavado) e interno de hijuelos de Agave tequilana
basada en el gen EF-1a, máxima verosimilitud y general time reversible model (GTR) + gama distributed with inva-
riant (G+I), con 1000 repeticiones bootstrap. Viñeta negra indica cepas de suelo, viñeta blanca cepas de tejido in-
A. tequilana reportada por López-Bautista
et al., 2020. El resto, sin marcas, son secuencia de referencia del GenBank.
Figure 5. Phylogeny of 23 Fusarium spp. isolates associated with external (washing) and internal tissue of Agave tequilana
-
ed with invariant (G+I), with 1000 bootstrap replications. The black bullet indicates isolates from external tissue;

of A. tequilana adult plants (López-Bautista et al., 2020). The rest, non-marked, are reference sequences from the
GenBank.
Reducida 3
F. oxysporum
(FOSC)
F. fujikuroi
(FFSC)
F. incarnatum-
equiseti
(FIESC)
F. solani
(FSSC)
Caracterización biológica
2021 115



-
-


-
1
-
Carga de Inóculo
Fusarium en Agave-
Fusarium   
 2      
3
    
       Fusa-
rium-

-


 
       -
  -
 Fusarium

-
 
-
et al-
-
   


Fusarium-


     
Fusa-
rium Musa
paradisiaca , Tulipa 
 Aloe veraet al.
 
Fusarium

      
     
      
Fusarium       
 Musa paradisiaca  , Tulipa
      Aloe vera
 et al.     
   Fusarium  
      
    
     
 

A. tequilana
      
     
Fusarium
       
    
     
in vitro

    


Fusarium


F. oxysporum
cubence
      

    
 Fusarium
    
A. tequilanaet
2021 116



       
Fusarium-
 -

     -
 

A. tequi-
lana-
-
Fusarium

      -
in vitro-
  


-
    -
Fusarium 
     
    
-
 F. oxysporum   cubence   -
   -
   


Fusarium
  A. tequilana  
et alet al
-
      
Fusarium    
      -
      


Fusa-
rium    
alet al

   Fusarium
    
    
      

Fusarium
       
     


 

     
       
 

Fusarium
  et al  
et alet al


      
       
 


    

et alet
al      
       
Fusarium

  et al   

        

        
2021 117
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

    -

 
 -
-

      
-


  Fusarium      


et al-
et alet al

     

    -
-


et alet al
     
Fusarium

et al

-






Fusarium-
   



      
         


      
   Fusarium, 
       


 


     

      
      


 Fusarium     
      
    


     



     

   
    
     
Agave tequilana      
 
       
    Establish phytosanitary
requirements for the production and mobilization
of propagative material ofAgave tequilanaWeber

and prevent the spread of economically important
2021 118



-
-
-

-

 
-
-
Fusarium

-






    


      -

Agave tequilana


    
para la producción y movilización de material pro-
pagativo de Agave tequilana Weber variedad Azul,
-
taria y evitar la dispersión de plagas de importan-
cia económica que lo afectan   
 -
Cercospora agavicolaFusarium 
 Scyphophorus acupunctatus  -
     
      

Agave tequilana
-
        
      Cercospora
agavicola Fusarium   Scyphophorus
acupunctatus   
 

Agave
tequilana

        
in vitro
       
     
     

    
    
     

      



 
     
 et al   et
al
 Fusarium     

     
    
 

CONCLUSIONS
       
Fusarium
 Agave tequilana   
2021 119



End of the English version
  
   -




      


-


 




 et al   et
alFusa-
rium




 -

CONCLUSIONES
-
 Fusa-
riumAgave tequi-
lana 

   -
-
Fusarium-
-



      
    
  Fusarium
        

Fusarium
 
       
     
       
     
Fusarium
      
     
     
     
     
     

   Fusarium   
A. tequilana    
    

       
region.





         
      
        

2021 120



      Fusarium

-
    

-

 Fusarium    -
      -
     
      
    
   


Fusarium
A. tequilana
-

-



  -
  
   

-

LITERATURA CITADA

Fusarium
Aloe vera
   -

-
      Fusarium oxysporum.
      

      
    Fusarium oxysporum
 cubense  Musa    
 

     
    -
     
  
     
      Cercospora agavi-
cola       -
 

    
  


Fusarium 
-


-
    
     -

    -

-
  

178.

 Fusarium solani  
      -
   -
tion/233391880

 Fusarium   

  




-

        

177.
Fusarium-



        

Fusarium 

2021 121



   


    
    
     
Fusarium
Agave tequilana
     

     
   -
       
  Agave tequilana   
http://187.191.71.192/expedientes/1901

Fusarium
      


    -
Fusarium
Agave tequilana 

      

 -
 -
 
-

       

2020).
      
      Fusarium
oxysporum     Agave te-
quilana     

... Eventualmente, el acopio estructurado de datos articulados a una plataforma web ad hoc genera grandes volúmenes de datos los cuales son intervenidos mediante algoritmos dinámicos para generar insumos gráficos descriptivos, análisis automatizados y desarrollo de criterios de accionabilidad para toma de decisiones inherentes al objetivo(s) de un SVE. Una aplicación móvil diseñada con un enfoque epidemiológico permite también su implementación en investigación de soporte (Mendoza-Ramos et al., 2021;López-Bautista et al., 2020;Coria-Contreras et al., 2019), y en comunicación de riesgos mediante la recepción de alertas para toma de decisiones. App Alerta Café v. 2.0, disponible en Play Store, se implementó por tres años con este propósito (CP-LANREF, 2017. ...
... The algorithms that enable this are predominantly relational and are conditioned to the proper and planned selection of variables, frequency, and spatial distribution of measurements. ESS support research provides this kind of information (Mendoza-Ramos et al., 2021;López-Bautista et al., 2020;Acevedo-Sánchez and Mora-Aguilera, 2016;Mora-Aguilera et al., 2016b;Mendoza-Ramos et al., 2015a, b). Logically, a numerical algorithm must also be programmed to automate decision rules. ...
... For example, the algorithm for calculating the number of hours favorable for H. vastatrix infection was based on specific temperature (20-22 °C) and relative humidity Fully Bilingual Revista Mexicana de FITOPATOLOGÍA Mexican Journal of Phytopathology a la pertinente y planeada selección de variables, frecuencia y distribución espacial de mediciones. Líneas de investigación de soporte SVE proporcionan esta de información (Mendoza-Ramos et al., 2021;López-Bautista et al., 2020;Acevedo-Sánchez and Mora-Aguilera. 2016;Mora-Aguilera et al., 2016b;Mendoza-Ramos et al., 2015a, b). ...
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The advancement of digital technology has made it possible to conceive automated Epidemiological Surveillance Systems (ESS) with a holistic-systemic approach allowing effective operation, management, and processing of phytosanitary data for fast decision making applied to regional prevention and pest management. This surveillance type focuses on plant health, overcoming the reductionist pest vision of the conventional normative surveillance. An ESS implies the precise definition of the regional framework, objectives, pest(s) in a wide sense, human/financial resources, regulatory context, support research planning, operational structure, and innovation models. These elements determine the precision, frequency, and type of sampling and monitoring and the selection of variables related to a novel epidemiological system. In contrast to the normative surveillance, a systemic ESS has descriptive and risk forecasting capabilities, including early warnings, based on spatial and temporal analyses. A web-based ESS assures a flexible-dynamic generation of reports and automated analysis. An ESS operated on web platforms, emphasizing open source software and tools, can be hosted on generic or dedicated servers for metadata storage configured with Linux / Apache technologies with 24/7 (h day-1) functional capabilities. Open source tools include MySQL / MariaDB and other systems as database managers; PHP / Node.js, and JavaScript, Ajax, HTML5 and CSS as web design base ‘back-end’ and ‘front-end’ programs, respectively. This review focuses on principles, conceptual attributes, general methodological approaches, and objectives of web-based ESS. An overview is presented with an ESS developed in Mexico for coffee plantations (Coffea spp.), which allowed the surveillance of 19 pests, nine under quarantine status, through the generation, management, and analysis of 87.4 million climatic data and 15.7 million epidemiological records over 2013-2019.
... (https://elpais. Mendoza-Ramos et al., 2021;López-Bautista et al., 2020;Coria-Contreras et al., 2019;Flores-Sánchez et al., 2017). ...
... Special Issue: Covid-19 and Plant Health, November, 2021 Mexican Journal of PHYTOPATHOLOGY Revista Mexicana de FITOPATOLOGÍA developed in Mexico, with different application and consolidation levels, in coffee (Coffea spp.), blue agave (Agave tequilana) and citrus (Citrus spp.) by DGSV (SENASICA) responsible for national Plant Health (Moral-Aguilera et al., 2021a;Mendoza- Ramos et al., 2021;López-Bautista et al., 2020;Coria-Contreras et al., 2019;Flores-Sánchez et al., 2017). ...
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Global retrospective human/plant epidemiology analysis exhibits a reactive cognitive development influenced by casuistic phenomena. Epidemic outbreaks of XXI century evidenced regression of the population-based approach to risk prevention and erosion of Public Health model, successful between 1950-1970. After 19 pandemics and 200 historical outbreaks, neither WHO nor public or private institutions, have not consolidated sustainable preventive models. Urban expansion and agricultural colonialism during the Industrial Revolution accelerated pandemic processes such as Black Death (Yersinia pestis), Cholera (Vibrio cholerae), Potato Blight (Phythopthora infestans) or Coffee Rust (Hemileia vastatrix). These factors contributed to the conception and application of the contagion and prevention principles by Snow/1854 or de Bary/1857, in the hygienism of Proust/1873, and the sanitation of Marshall/1882, before the etiological principle developed by Pasteur/1862 and Koch/1882. The contemporary scientific revolutions strengthened the reductionist hospital vision, with emphasis on cure as a principle, and on health privatization as a business strategy. The central epidemiology paradigm’s population is limited to the individual-patient or plant-damage. The COVID-19 cases curve (‘epidemic wave’) is not inherent to preventive epidemiology, ‘flattening’ lacks infectious basis, ‘healthy distance’ or ‘confinement’ are not sustainable mitigation strategies. The immunological emphasis did not generate the expected individual protection and ‘herd immunity’. Instead, it exacerbated the pharmaceutical-mercantilized vaccine ‘race’ to new variants; geopolitical protectionism; and unequal distribution of immunologicals. The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic evidenced the rational epidemiological framework deterioration; the absence of Surveillance Systems that articulate clinical detection and viral variants with community risks follow-up, enhanced with genomic and digital technology; the systematic failure of Public Health Systems; and the absence of a pansystemic model to integrate regional preventive models. Maximum case-fatality reduction from 15.2% in 2020 to 2.5 world average 2021, suggests an endemic transitional process. Worldwide reproduction rates Rt > 1 are consistent with more transmissible variants, such as Delta and Omicron, as sublethal survival ability of the virus. The pandemic has not been successfully intervened and its momentum is determined by biological attributes inherent to SARS-CoV-2.
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Wilt and dry bud rot of the agave (Agave tequilana var. azul) are diseases of high economic impact for this crop. The implication of Fusarium spp. in both diseases at a regional context was determined in this research. Root and soil samples were collected from 40 commercial plantations located in 13 counties at Los Altos, Jalisco an important cultivation region of agave azul in Mexico; Inoculum charge, as a Fusarium Index was obtained base on colony units (Fusarium vs total fungi) and its relationship with pH and organic matter were estimated from each sampling plantation. A total of 109 isolates were morphologically characterized as Fusarium spp. of which 25 were selected for molecular identification with ITS and EF-1a. The selection considered symptomatology, macro and microscopic characters and prevalence of colony types observed in vitro in Komada, Sabouraud, SNA and CLA media. The cultural and morphological characters evaluated were mycelial coloration, size, shape and septation of macro and microconidia, and length and number of phialides. Five species were associated with wilt and/or dry bud rot within three phylogenetic complexes: F. oxysporum of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) with 56% (46.2 % soil y 66.7 % root) regional representation; F. solani, F. falciforme and Fusarium sp. of Fusarium solani complex (FSSC) (40%); and Fusarium sp. of Fusarium fujikuroi complex (FFSC) (4%). MO and pH correlated inversely with Fusarium Index (r 2=0.68-0.70). It is postulated that wilt and dry bud rot of blue agave constitute a syndrome in which several Fusarium species are associated and parasitically specialized. A single isolate per each species complex was found associated specifically to each or both symptoms. Most isolates were associated to wilting with prevalence of F.oxysporum.
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Cercospora agavicola, causal agent of the gray spot of blue agave (Agave tequilana), is a regulated fungus under official control in states under the Denomination of Origin of Tequila (DOT). This work was carried out in Jalisco, Mexico, the main DOT region, to determine the spatial-temporal epidemic inductivity of the fungus and to develop stochastic models to forecast the gray spot in order to support regional preventive programs. Monthly, from October 2016 to December 2017 the severity, incidence and number of diseased plants were evaluated in 41 plots established in commercial agave plantations of 3-4 years of age selected with weighted risk criteria in Los Altos (20), Valleys (11) and South (10). The regional epidemic inductivity of C. agavicola was heterogeneous with a greater risk for at least nine counties of Los Altos. However, low epidemic rates (0.0008-0.006 units week-1), strong restriction spread (1-4 plants), reduced annual increment of incidence (0-32 plants / 0.5 ha) and no spore capture evidenced the low parasitic fitness and reduced fungus epidemic potential. Consequently, limited predictive capacity was found even with the best goodness of fit models (R2adj 0.51-0.60). The favorable hours (HFav) of January-April, with respect to infection, was consistent among models, so it can be used as preventive algorithm in SIVEA (www.sivea.org.mx). The regional losses were estimated between 237 thousand US dollars and 98.01 MDD. Cercosporin, a toxin associated with Cercospora genus, may be involved in atypical linear temporal progress and should be integrated in future research.
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