Article

Measurement of the Maximum Occlusal Bite Force and its Relation to the Caries Spectrum of First Permanent Molars in Early Permanent Dentition

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Abstract

Objective: To determine the maximum occlusal bite force (MOBF) of the complete spectrum of dental caries in first permanent molars (FPMs) in children aged 7-9 years. Study design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 123 children. The evaluation of the caries spectrum of FPMs was carried out using the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment index (CAST). The MOBF was measured in the FPM region using the portable occlusal force gauze. Independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance test were performed to compare MOBF with CAST scores of FPMs. Based on the CAST scores, FPMs were categorized into three groups, group 1: healthy (score 0, 1, 2), group 2: premorbid (score 3), group 3: morbid (score 4, 5). Results: A significantly lower MOBF was observed (167.56 N ± 49.77) in the morbid stage (group 3) than in the premorbid stage (group 2: 291.57 N ± 56.64), and healthy (group 1; 320.93 N ± 54.23). Intergroup comparison also revealed that FPMs in the healthy stage was associated with a higher bite force compared to those in the premorbid and morbid stages (p<0.001). Conclusions: The mean MOBF decreased with the progression of the caries spectrum of FPMs in early permanent dentition.

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... In recent times, sensitive electronic devices are used in most of the bite force devices which are both accurate and precise 12 but there were no specialized devices available for children thus a specifically designed and standardized device with the bite fork harmonious with deciduous second molars was used in this study. 14 Gudipaneni et al., 15 have advocated that maximum bite force decreases with progression of dental caries in first permanent molars. ...
Article
Objetive: The aim of the study was to evaluate the maximum molar bite force in children aged 4 to 6 years with and without dental caries. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out from May 2018 to December 2018. A total of 288 children aged between 4 to 6 years were randomly selected from six different primary schools in Chennai city, India and divided into two groups of 144 children each, based on the presence and absence of caries: Group A children with non-carious dentition and Group B children with carious dentition. Bite force measurement was performed using standardized custom made occlusal force gauge. Statistical analysis used: Data were expressed as the mean ± SD. Student’s t‑test (two tailed, independent) and ANOVA were used to find the significance of study parameters between the groups. Results: Occlusal bite force of non-carious dentition (367.94 ±33.71N) was higher than the carious dentition (326.73±27.83N) and it was statistically significant (p≤0.01). Overall occlusal bite force of boys (350.44±35.84N) was significantly higher than that of girls (344.22±38.25N). Flush terminal plane molar relationship showed higher occlusal bite force (380.54±27.36N) followed by mesial step (350.82±22.25N) and distal step (310.63±20.82N) molar relationship. Conclusion: Non-carious dentition showed significantly higher bite force than carious dentition in children 4 to 6 years of age. Boys had higher bite force than the girls and flush terminal plane molar relationship showed higher bite force than mesial and distal step molar relationship.
... [9,16] Our team has an opulence of research expertise, which has yielded high-standard publications. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] The purpose of this study is to examine dentists' knowledge and awareness of biological waste segregation in dental offices. ...
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Biomedical waste (BMW) is any sort of litter generated in the course of human or animal research operations, such as diagnosis, treatment, or immunization, or during the development or trial of pharmaceutical products or in health camps. In dental sectors, BMW, if not adequately handled, can provide a number of health risks to dental practitioners, patients, and other dental healthcare service providers who operate in dental offices. The aim of the study is to examine the knowledge, awareness, and practice of BMW segregation among dental offices. A well-framed questionnaire containing 10 self-structured questions was formed and distributed among 100 students of dentistry through an online Google Forms link. The results were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using the Software SPSS. Chi-square test was performed to assess the P value. Biological waste segregation was known to 98% of the participants, in which most of them had more than 10 years of expertise in dentistry. It is evident that dentists with a lot of experience over the years in the field of dentistry possess considerably increased awareness regarding the segregation of BMWs in their dental offices. Chi-square test done between the years of experience in dentistry and the knowledge on BMW segregation reveals that 0.031 < 0.05 is the P value, which is statistically significant. Most dentists having experience of above 10 years in the field of dentistry have excellent knowledge and practice of segregating BMWs in their dental offices.
... Our staff has a wealth of knowledge and research expertise, which has resulted in publications of the highest caliber. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] The aim of the study was to assess the satisfaction level with online teaching methods among undergraduate dental students. ...
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Taking an online course requires more motivation and self-discipline than taking a classroom-based course. One or more teachers and peers may keep a student responsible for their course work in a classroom. Online classes, on the other hand, enable us to set our own targets, chart our success, and follow deadlines. An awareness-based, self-administered questionnaire was created. The target audience for the study received a link to the questionnaire through Google Docs. The participants were given a thorough explanation of the survey's objectives. Pie charts with a frequency table were created after the survey findings were known. A Chi-square test was used to examine for associations in the statistics, and a P = 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The overall satisfaction level with online classes among students was, 57% were not satisfied with online classes, 31% were satisfied, and 12% were extremely satisfied. Most commonly students were not satisfied with both genders. However, majority of the females were not satisfied. This difference was statistically significant (Pearson's Chi-square value: 1.999, df = 2, P = 0.368 (>0.05) - significant). Eighty percent of the students have faced difficulties while attending online classes. However, 92% of the students have agreed that the technology helped them to attend their online classes.
... Our scientist experts with their encompassing information, research experience, and data have transformed into several publications globally in well-reputed indexed journals. [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] The purpose of the investigation is to analyze the oculomotor triangle in dry processed skull of the south Indian population and its clinical significance. ...
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The oculomotor triangle is denoted as the "Triangle of Hakuba" or the "Hakuba's Triangle." This oculomotor triangle is a significant anatomical landmark. Oculomotor nerve, abducens nerve and part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) lie in this triangle. The determination of this analysis is to calculate the oculomotor triangle in dry processed skull bones of the south Indian population and its clinical significance. Fifty-one processed skulls of human origin were received from Anatomy Department, Basic Medical Sciences, Saveetha Dental College. Length from anterior-clinoid process (ACP) to posterior-clinoid process (PCP), length from PCP to APEX, and length from ACP to APEX were measured. Paired samples t-test was considered to analyze the values between the right triangle with the left triangle. From the measurements taken, the mean for the left side of the oculomotor triangle, ACP to PCP was 8.0591 ± 0.52 mm and the right side was 7.5482 ± 0.52 mm. The mean left side of the oculomotor triangle, measured from PCP to APEX was 6.73 ± 0.48 mm and the right side was 6.55 ± 0.72 mm. The mean of the left side of the oculomotor triangle, measured from ACP to APEX was 15.94 ± 0.682 mm and the right side was 16.21 ± 0.747 mm. Through this paired triangle of the cranial cavity, the horizontal section of ICA may be correlated with numerous vascular-related pathological considerations.
... Our team has produced high-quality articles as a consequence of their extensive research and understanding. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] Alcohol concentrations and low pH have an effect on the surface characteristics of composite resin material. This study explains how changes in the surface roughness of composite materials are caused by the absorption of acidic chemicals from beverages into composite resins, which causes the matrix of the composite resin to soften. ...
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Resin-based composites have been widely used to reconstruct anterior and posterior teeth, as dentistry has progressed and there has been an increasing interest in the creation of suitable materials to replace damaged tooth tissue. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of fruit juices on the surface roughness of bulk fill and flowable composite restorative material. A total of 8 bulk fill composite and flowable composite resin disc samples were made. These eight samples were tested for surface roughness following immersion in three juices which were pineapple juice, lime juice, orange juice, and distilled water as the control group. They were immersed at room temperature for 7 days. Surface roughness was evaluated by the Mitutoyo SJ-310 contact profilometer. It showed that there was a decrease in the Ra value of flowable composite when compared to bulk fill composite. Rq and Rz values were more for the flowable composite resin group. Flowable composite resin samples had more surface roughness than bulk fill dental composite restorative material after exposure to pineapple, lime, and orange juices.
... The extensive knowledge and experience of our research team have been translated into high-quality publications. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] The present study was done to find whether the second maxillary interpremolar distance can be used to effectively estimate stature of individual. ...
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Stature is the height of an individual in an upright position. It is one of the key characteristics, which helps in defining any individual. Stature estimation is needed mostly in medicolegal cases where only a limited number of human fragments are left for forensic analysis. The teeth provide essential measurements that can be used to determine stature. The aim of the study is to find out whether the second maxillary interpremolar distance can be used to effectively estimate stature of individuals. For the study, the sample size taken was 60 (30 male and 30 females), and their second maxillary interpremolar distance was measured using a digital vernier caliper. The collected data were tabulated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (23), followed by linear regression. For male: Y = 178.65 - 1.09X, correlation coefficient, r = 0.05, For female: Y = 169.30 - 1.99X, correlation coefficient, r = 0.13. Since r < 0.2, there is no correlation between the interpremolar distance of the second maxillary premolar and the stature. From our study, we conclude that the interpremolar distance of the second maxillary premolar cannot be a reliable parameter for stature estimation in both genders.
... [13,14] The extensive knowledge and experience of our research team have been translated into high quality publications. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] The present study was taken with an aim to investigate the stature estimation using head circumference and to derive the linear regression formula and to prove head circumference is a reliable source for stature estimation. ...
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Stature is an essential measurement in anthropometry that resolves individual representation of the body. Forensic determination is the resolution of origin, sex, and natural height. Many previous study has been done on estimation of height using various measurements of teeth and skull. The aim of this study was to estimate stature from head circumference and to derive a linear regression formula between them. The study was conducted in Saveetha Dental College among 70 1st year students (35 males and 35 females). Stature was measured using a stadiometer and head circumference was measured using measuring tape. All the measurements were tabulated and linear regression equation was done using the SPSS software (version 23). For males, Y = 1.85x + 71.12, r = 0.487; for females, Y = 2.07x + 46.24, r = 0.433. By the study, we know that in both genders, head circumference has moderate correlation in estimating stature. From the present research, we conclude that head circumference is a moderately reliable parameter for stature estimation in both genders.
... [9] Our team members have the extensive clinical knowledge and research skills which have resulted in publications of the highest quality. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] In the current survey, we attempted to evaluate dentists' awareness, perception, and validate the usage of lead aprons by conducting a study among general dental practitioners in Chennai. ...
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In dentistry, radiographs are often used to diagnose and assess problems relating to oral conditions as well as for better treatment planning. Even though the radiation risk offered by X-rays is minimal, the absorption of this lower level radiation in the individual for a long time challenges a health concern. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of lead aprons among dental practitioners and specialists in Tamil Nadu. A cross-sectional survey was performed around 100 dentists in Tamil Nadu, India, by framing standard questionnaires and collecting responses by online survey forms such as "Google Forms." The statistical study was undertaken with SPSS version 22 and the Chi-square test was selected to determine the correlation. This study showed that lead aprons were regularly used by 63% of participants during radiation exposure. Thirty percent of participants were aware of radiation protection protocol but neglected to use lead aprons routinely (P = 0.113). About 91% of participants gave more preference for thyroid gland to protect it from dental radiation rather than other head-and-neck organs and 82% of them were using thyroid collars for patients during exposure (P = 0.671). Our survey shows that the usage of lead aprons is practiced strictly by dental practitioners under <5 years of clinical experience. However, dental practitioners and specialists were aware of radiation protective aprons but often neglected to use them in practice.
... 14 Meanwhile, other studies found that the maximum occlusal bite force value decreases with the progression of the caries spectrum of first permanent molars. 16 Aside from caries, Consolação Soares et al also stated a negative influence on masticatory performance of preschool children that came from higher frequency of sweet beverage consumption and higher BMI. 12 Another study also stated that a higher number of tooth loss correlated with an inferior masticatory performance in older children. 7 The presence of dental cavity not only interfere with children's chewing ability, but also alter their masticatory behavior, such as food refusal, using tongue to crush food against the palate. ...
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Childhood caries might have several effects on the children's general health and growth, including chewing ability. This study aims to identify the evidences found regarding the effect of caries on the chewing ability of children through a scoping review. A scoping review literature search was performed in three databases (Scopus, PUBMED, and Web of Science) without restricting the publicized year. The selected articles were using human as its subjects and aiming to analyze the effects of caries on mastication ability in children. Ten articles matched the inclusion criteria of this review. All the articles suggested a deleterious effect of caries on masticatory performance, maximum bite force, swallowing threshold, and even masticatory behavior. Two of them stated that the effect was reversible by giving dental treatment. This scoping review concludes a negative effect of caries on the children's chewing ability.
... Previously our department has published extensive research on various aspects concerned with endodontic dentistry, this vast research experience has inspired us to research about the sterilization practice of gutta percha among dental students (14). Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications (15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24), (25)(26)(27)(28), (29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36) (37) ...
... As root canals are not directly exposed to light , concern over the potential iatrogenic doxycycline staining of endodontically treated teeth should not take precedence over the well-documented advantages of the NaOCl-MTAD irrigation regime in disinfecting bacteria-infected root canals [71]. Peroxidation of tetracycline leads to partial loss of its antimicrobial potency and its clinical implications and have not been fully investigated in the field of endodontics.Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications [80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89], [90][91][92][93], [94][95][96][97][98][99] ...
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Root canal therapy is to eliminate or at least reduce the number of microorganisms and remove inflamed or necrotic pulpal tissue. Root canal cleaning and disinfection during chemomechanical preparation relies heavily on irrigants because of the anatomic complexities of the pulp canal system.Although endodontic irrigants have been well characterized individually, combinations of the materials are not well understood.To know the interactions of different irrigants this review throws more light in depth to understand the interactions of irritants better.
... They were not conducted in the Indian population mostly, the majority of the studies were not questionnaire based study. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], [18][19][20][21], [22][23][24][25][26], [27]. The aim of the present study is to check the knowledge, awareness and practice on various types of topical fluoride among different dental professionals. ...
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Background: The expression ‘topical fluoride treatment’ refers to methods that provide a high concentration of fluoride to exposed tooth surfaces for a local protective effect. The most popular topical fluoride agents are toothpastes (dentifrices), mouthrinses, gels and varnishes that contain fluoride. These may be used separately or in combination. Topical fluoride application will be a simple but important procedure that is nominated by dental care professionals. Topical fluoride applications using fluoride varnish are recommended between two and four times for children annually and twice for adults for treatment of dental caries. Materials and methods: The study was done as an online setting, the responses were obtained from 110 dental professionals from the Chennai sub population. A self structured questionnaire comprising about 12 questions and circulated as a link to the participants. The responses were exported to google sheets and data was retrieved and analysed in SPSS software version 26. The results were obtained from SPSS software. Results: From the results analysed, it has been found that male participants (57.27%) and undergraduates (77.27%) took the majority party in the study.
... From the studies done, it was seen that many studies were conducted based on the armamentarium used in operative dentistry but negligible surveys were done among the dental students. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17), (18)(19)(20)(21), (22)(23)(24)(25)(26) (27). The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of dental students on the armamentarium used in aesthetic restorative procedure. ...
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Introduction: The aesthetic dentistry mainly involves restoring the best smile back to the patients. This mainly involves the tooth colour, proper alignment, with proper shape of the tooth and also with all the properties of the tooth. The dental instruments are used to examine, clean, cut and restore the tooth structures. They mainly consist of hand-held, auxiliary and rotary instruments. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge and awareness of the armamentarium used in the aesthetic restorative procedure. Materials and method: The survey was conducted by preparing the questionnaire pertaining to the topic and it was circulated through an online portal. The participants were informed in detail about the study and the informed consent was obtained for everyone and they participated willingly. The response collected and observations were made. Results and discussion: From the responses obtained it was seen that the students were about the aesthetic restorative procedures, aware of the hand instruments used for operative dentistry, common shade used in the composite restoration. Uses of plastic instruments. They also had good knowledge on the duration that the restoration lasts.
... (10) Many studies have been done testing the anxiety levels of patients in a dental clinic but no study has been done to test the anxiety levels of a dentist before extraction. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), (21)(22)(23)(24), (25)(26)(27)(28)(29) (30). This study aims at assessing the anxiety levels of dentists before an extraction procedure. ...
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Introduction: Stress and anxiety go hand in hand and are common in the lives of every student these days. Dentistry being a professional course is very demanding and aims at bringing out the best in a student in clinical practice. Extraction is a very common but much feared procedure by both patients as well as dentists, especially those who are new to clinics. In our study we aim to find the anxiety levels in dental students towards the procedure of extraction. Materials and Methods: A self prepared questionnaire was circulated to 100 dental students and the responses were collected and statistically analysed. The statistical software used was SPSS version 23. The results were graphed for easy visualisation. Results and Discussion: It was found that females had higher anxiety levels towards extraction than males. Also BDS students had the highest anxiety levels followed by MDS students. PhD students were not found to have much anxiety towards extraction. Conclusion: In this study, anxiety levels towards extraction were found to be high among dental students. As the students gain experience, anxiety levels also decrease. Newcomers to the clinic face the highest anxiety levels.
... Henceforth, further dilution studies need to be carried out to find out the better activity of turmeric extract. This study warrants the use of herbal-based non-irritant non-toxic irrigant in place of chemical ones.Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] ...
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Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma Longa, 17% EDTA, and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E.faecalis, C.Albicans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined using disc diffusion test. Ethanol extract of turmeric, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, 17% EDTA, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis cultures, Candida Albican cultures, Mueller Hinton agar. The disc diffusion test was performed in Mueller Hinton agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours and zone of inhibition were recorded. Finally, it was statistically analyzed. Results: Ethanol extract of turmeric showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Ethanol extract of turmeric showed significantly greater (almost same) zones of inhibition than 2% chlorhexidine. Henceforth research should be directed towards the use as an irrigant in root canal treatment. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that Ethanol extract of turmeric has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of ethanol extract of turmeric observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intra-canal irrigant.
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19), (20)(21)(22)(23), (24)(25)(26)(27)(28) (29). The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice about management of diastema among the dental students. ...
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Introduction: Diastema is a term used in dentistry which refers to a gap between the teeth. This condition is both common in children as well as in adults. These gaps can be an aesthetic issue for individuals when they are highly noticeable. The causes for diastema can be several reasons like size of teeth, size of jaw bone etc. Treatment of diastema varies from individual to individual based on the cause of the condition. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice about management of diastema among the dental students. Materials and methods: Self-administered questionnaire was prepared based on diastema and distributed among dental students through an online survey link. The sample size was about 113 undergraduate dental students. The data was statistically analysed with the SPSS software. Results and Discussion: In the study, 94.7% of the population were aware about the term diastema and 5.3% of the population were not aware about the term diastema. 13.3% % of the participants responded that transient malocclusion is the cause for diastema, 14.2% responded midline pathology, 7% responded proclination and 65.5% responded as all of the above.
... There is no proper research or survey carried out previously on knowledge, attitude and practice on stainless steel crowns among post graduates. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22), (23)(24)(25)(26), (27)(28)(29)(30)(31) (32). The main aim of this survey is to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice on stainless steel crowns among undergraduates. ...
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Introduction: Stainless steel crowns (SSC) are an important restorative armamentarium in paediatric dentistry. They are cemented with a biocompatible luting agent and are adapted to individual teeth. An appropriate cementing agent for SSCs is conventional glass ionomer cement. For the restoration of primary teeth, these crowns offer an outstanding alternative to other restorative materials. Aim: The main aim of this survey is to analyse the knowledge, attitude and practice on stainless steel crowns among undergraduates. Materials and method: Self-administrated questionnaire was designed based on the knowledge, attitude and practice of stainless steel crowns. The questionnaire contained 14 questions which were shared through Google forms link. The study population included undergraduates belonging to the 18 – 25 age group. The statistics done using SPSS software, chi square test was done to check the association and a p value of 0.05 was said to be statistically significant. The survey has been completed in the month of February 2021. Results: 53% think extensively decayed teeth are the major indication for stainless steel crown, 34% think as a preventive restoration and 13% think severe cases of bruxism.
... To effectively resolve the problem, it is important to identify the factors that cause patients anxiety, preventing them from participating in RCT. A crucial move is to complete these population-based surveys.Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17), (18)(19)(20)(21), (22)(23)(24)(25)(26), (27). Hence, the aim of this present study is to assess the patients perception who had undergone root canal treatment. ...
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Introduction: Root canal treatment (RCT) is generally known as a painful procedure. One of the most significant disadvantages of root canal therapy is that most patients are unaware of it. To effectively address the problem, it is important to understand and recognise the factors that prevent or deter patients from undergoing RCT. According to a review of the literature, there is a scarcity of data on RCT knowledge and acceptance among patients in the Indian population. Aim: The aim of this present study is to assess the patients perception who had undergone root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: 100 participants were involved in the study. A well structured questionnaire containing 15 questions was administered to the participants through an online survey link. The responses were analysed through descriptive statistics using SPSS software. The results are represented through pie charts and association graphs. Results and Discussion: The patients association is not significant. This shows that if patients are not properly educated regarding RCT, they get motivated to undertake the treatment. Patients' confidence can be increased by informing them about potential post endodontic pain and administering drugs to handle it.
... Upon graduation, The students must be able to make a sound endodontic diagnosis and thereby implement a reasonable treatment plan (7).There is little information related to the way students perceive the endodontology treatment procedures and their level of self-confidence on various aspects of endodontic treatment in relation to their future practice. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17), (18)(19)(20)(21), (22)(23)(24)(25)(26), (27) Hence, the present study aims in gathering information in the form of survey about the general opinion of RCT treatment a, type of endodontic treatment to the students of Saveetha dental college, chennai Tamilnadu regarding their perception of fear of performing RCT how they self-evaluate their confidence level while performing in patients and the difficulties faced by them if present. ...
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Introduction: Root canal treatment is considered a procedure in endodontics that requires more focus and precision.It is a type of endodontic treatment that is mainly used to repair and save a badly injured or infected tooth. Most dental students feel that they are not prepared well enough to carry out the treatment while practising due to the presence of levels of difficulty of the root canal.Due to the gradual increase in the life expectancy among population and desire of individuals in preserving their natural teeth, an increasing demand for these endodontic treatments and are bound to increase in the years ahead. Aim: Gather information from students regarding their perception of fear of performing RCT, how they self‑evaluate their confidence level while performing in patients and difficulties faced by them. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted to 100 dental students from pre-clinical second years to interns of saveetha dental college.The survey was conducted online and consisted of 15 questions based on the perception of fear among the students while performing RCT in patients after which the survey was summarised and analysed statistically using SPSS version 23.0.
... GDPs' understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of various dentoalveolar injuries has been assessed in a variety of ways. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), (21)(22)(23)(24), (25)(26)(27)(28)(29) (30). The main aim of the study is to assess the awareness level for managing the endodontic emergencies. ...
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Introduction: Endodontic emergencies are characterized by violent or disabling pain. The management of these emergencies requires a precise diagnosis and an emergency act with or without a prescription. Endodontic emergency treatment options have sparked a lot of debate. As a result, dentists must have sufficient experience and expertise about appropriate care procedures in order to effectively handle these cases. Aim: The main aim of the study is to assess the awareness level for managing the endodontic emergencies. Materials and Method: Based on knowledge, a self-administered questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to the sample population through a Google Docs link. The participants were explained about the purpose of study in detail. Once after the results of the survey were obtained, pie charts with a frequency table were prepared. The statistics done using SPSS software, chi square test was done to check the association and a p value of 0.05 and lesser was said to be statistically significant. Results and discussion: 88 % of the population have handled endodontic emergency cases but the treatment options which were given by the participants are not the same as the standard procedures.
... False denticles can be histologically divided into two types, (14,15): ...
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Calcific metamorphosis is also called pulp canal obliteration. Canals can be partially or fully obliterated. Most common reasons for calcified canals are trauma and aging. These calcific deposits can cause a considerable challenge to the dental practitioner in locating the canals, reaching the working length and also cleaning and shaping the canals. Attempt to negotiate the canals and perform biomechanical preparation without proper and thorough knowledge on management of calcified canals can lead to iatrogenic errors caused by the clinician such as perforation, fracture of instrument, transportation etc.Most important thing before attempting to negotiate such calcified canals is to have a thorough knowledge on the normal anatomical form and morphology of the root canal system of the particular tooth. Practicing under dental loupes or microscope can add to the clear vision and aid in locating and negotiating the canal. Different armamentarium is available for this purpose like basic small size k file, c pilot files, Endo guide burs, ultrasonic, chelating agents, endodontic surgery to advanced Guided Endodontics.
... From previous research conducted, it can be noted that magnification of the oral cavity affects the quality of dental procedures and the use of these devices varies with each procedure conducted. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17), (18)(19)(20)(21), (22)(23)(24)(25)(26) (27). The present study was adopted to determine the importance of magnification in dental procedures. ...
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Background: The use of magnification devices in dentistry, not only enhances the quality of each procedure but in addition reduces the time for each procedure and improves the ergonomics of the practitioner. Various devices such as dental loupes and endoscopes are employed, which differ in their magnification based on the type of procedure conducted. Aim: The present study aims at determining the awareness of the different types, advantages, disadvantages and effects of magnification in dentistry. Materials and method: A self assessable survey consisting of 16 questions were prepared and circulated among 100 dental students and the results were analysed to determine the use and effects of magnification and magnification devices. Results and discussion: On analysing the results, it was found that different dental procedures require the use of different magnification devices and the advantages posed by these devices include reduced procedure time, improved posture and ergonomics of the dentist and enhanced quality and success of treatment regimes. The awareness among dental students was moderate and better knowledge on these aspects can improve the success of treatment procedures employed. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the awareness of the different magnification devices among dental students was moderate.
... Mandible is the strongest and largest bone of the face which forms the lower jaw. It is the only bone articulated with cranium forming the temporomandibular joint [1][2][3]. The lower jaw contains teeth which include incisors, canines, premolars and molars [4]. ...
Article
Introduction: Mandible is the single bone articulated with cranium forming a temporomandibular joint and it contributes to the lower jaw containing teeth. The mandible is composed of the body and the ramus. Aim: Aim of this study is to find the distance between each parameter in different mandibles. Materials and Methods: The present study has utilized 30 south indian dry skulls from the Anatomy Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Dental college. The following parameters are taken to measure by using vernier calipers. They are the maximum distance between the mandibular incisors, mandibular inter canine, mandibular 1st premolar, mandibular molar, mandibular coronoid process, mandibular condylar process, mandibular notch on either side. The results were analysed statistically by using t-test calculator in Graph pad. Results: From the study it was observed that the mean distance between the mandibular incisors is 15.658 ± 1.642416 , mandibular inter canine 29.0025 ± 9.04636, mandibular 1st premolar 40.746 ± 2.543341, mandibular molar 62.076 ± 3.4988, mandibular coronoid process 85.8735 ± 5.10615, mandibular condylar process 103.013 ± 3.794, mandibular notch on either side 88.368 ± 3.5832 (Table 1 & Figs. 1-6). Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the morphometric analysis of the mandible is of utmost importance in determining the gender, anatomical studies, clinical and anthropometric studies.
... Implant dentistry is a field that avoids usage of high speed hand pieces, leading to nongeneration of aerosols [13,14] Thus, treatments can be performed in a sterile environment which is a necessity during the pandemic [15,16] Water coolant is not necessary too [17]. On the contrary, general dentistry was affected because the majority of the treatments use high speed and ultrasonic devices that generate aerosols which increases the risk of respiratory transmission [17,18,19]. ...
Article
Aim: To analyse the problems faced by patients with dental implants during the pandemic. Introduction: Dental implants have been used for a long time in the dental field and continue to dominate the field. Due to this reason, a huge amount of people go for dental implants. However, they have their own drawbacks and this is worsened by the coronavirus pandemic. Patients are unable to reach their dentist in person which sometimes leads to complications. This study hopes to shed more light on the different types of problems faced by patients with dental implants, especially during this pandemic. Materials and Methods: This study had a sample size of 100 and data was collected using an online questionnaire with a total of 11 questions. The statistical method used to analyse data is SPSS software version 23. Results: Some of the responses had significant p- values (of 0.001 and 0.101) whereas the others did not. Conclusion: By the end of the study, it was concluded that most patients with dental implants underwent a lot of problems during the covid pandemic.
... A number of suspected risk factors, including chronic discomfort, poor oral hygiene, viral infection, occupational exposure, malnutrition, including low fruit and vegetable diets, and genetic factors, have also been identified [14]. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are the two most significant risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma, and they have a synergistic impact [15,16]. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, cigarette smoke contains more than 60 carcinogens [17,18]. ...
Article
Aim: To study the prevalence of oral cancer among younger individuals in India. Introduction: It helps us to study the prevalence, management, causative agents, signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Oral cancer is defined as an uncontrolled growth of tumour cells in the oral cavity. Cancer can occur in the tongue, lips, hard palate, and soft palate, floor of mouth, cheeks and mucosal layer. There is a wide range of variations in prevalence of oral cancer in different regions from minorities or sub-population. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out with Google forms and recorded 104 responses for 10 self prepared questionnaires. Responses collected were analyzed using SPSS software. The analysis shows that there was a significant awareness of oral cancer. Results: There was a significant level of awareness of oral cancer among younger individuals. The present observation shows statistically significant (0.032) between gender and awareness of prevalence by screening oral mucosa, by using Pearson Chi Square test with confidence level 95% with the value of 0.05. Conclusion: The important message is that early detection of asymptomatic early stages of cancer translates in general terms to satisfactory clinical outcome and cures in most cases.
... The mandible is often won't distinguish among ethnic groups and between sexes. Our team has research experience that has translate into high quality publications [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. Thus the present study attempted to evaluate the sexual dimorphism of inter condylo-coronoid process distance by digital orthopantomogram in the south indian population. ...
Article
Background: Sexual dimorphism is a condition where the sexes of an equivalent species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. Sexual identification is most significant in huge fatality accidents where the body is beyond recognition. Coronoid process of mandible is a triangular eminence, thin and flattened in size and shape. The Condylar process is the process of the mandible and it is thicker than the coronoid process. Identification of Gender characteristics is of forensic importance. Aim: To evaluate the sexual dimorphism of inter condylo-coronoid process distance by Panoramic radiographic study in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 49 digital orthopantomogram collected from a private dental college in Chennai. The distance between the condylar and the coronoid process is measured on both sides of a digital orthopantomogram using adobe photoshop. The data was analyzed and observed using SPSS v23.0 and the standard deviation was calculated. Results: The mean of left and right distance of inter condylo-coronoid distance is 2.45cm and 2.52cm respectively. The standard deviation of left and right distance of inter condylo-coronoid distance is 0.32cm and 0.31cm respectively. Conclusion: From the results obtained, within the limitations of the study it can be concluded that there is no significant difference in the measure of distance between inter condyle-coronoid processes in terms of age and gender. Future studies should be conducted with large samples to get conclusive results using advance CBCT.
... Nicholson and Keros, analyzed the morphology of the mandibular foramen and lingula and on which they concluded that structures variability would account for failure to dam the inferior alveolar nerve [12]. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20], nanoparticle based studies [21][22][23], in silico validation studies on oral microbes [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between right side and left side of lingula with reference to gonial angle in dry human mandibles. ...
Article
Introduction: Gonial angle is located at the junction of lower border and posterior region of mandible. Lingula is a bony projection which provides attachment for sphenomandibular ligament and is superior to mandibular foramen. The purpose of this study was to research the gonial angle in reference to the position of the lingula helps to guide the oral surgeons to stop injury to inferior alveolar nerve and peripheral blood vessels during surgeries. Materials and Methods: The distance from the gonial angle to the tip of the lingula and the gonial angle to the base of the lingula on both right and left sides of the mandible was measured using a protractor. The values are calculated from gonial angle with reference to lingula on both sides. The obtained values of both sides were correlated using descriptive statistical analysis and by applying paired t-test. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant for this study. Results: The mean value for right gonial angle to base of lingula is 26.54 mm ± 3.30 mm and the left gonial angle to base of lingula is 25.59 ± 0.56 mm. The right gonial angle to lingula tip is 33.25 ± 2.65 and the left gonial angle to lingula tip is 32.83 ± 1.36mm. The mean gonial angle on the right side is 88.60° and on the left side it is 89.40°. Conclusion: It was found that there was no correlation between the right and left side gonial angle to mandibular lingula since the mandibular angle, was measured within the group of unknown sex of dry human mandible.
... Most people are not aware that the species Tecoma stans have anticancer properties in their leaf extracts. Our team has research experience that has translate into good quality researches [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. The aim of the present study is to analyse the activity of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Tecoma stans against breast cancer cells though m RNA gene expression of Bcl2 and Bcl xl genes. ...
Article
Background: Cancer is abnormal growth of cells, which invade or spread to other parts of the body. There are over 200 types of cancers. Breast cancer is a cancer which develops in tissues of the breast, most commonly originating from the inner lining of milk ducts or lobules that supply ducts with milk. Tecoma stans commonly known as trumpet flower is a yellow trumpet shaped flower belonging to Bignoniaceae, and is native to Americas. It has anti cancer and anti proliferative properties. Aim: Aim of the is to analyse the anti cancer activity of Tecoma stans against breast cancer cells MCF-7. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was purchased from National Centre for Cell Sciences (NCCS), Pune, India. Cell viability test was done by MTT assay. BcL2 and BclxL gene expression analysis was done by Real Time-PCR. The obtained data were analysed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test with Graph Pad Prism version 5 to analyse the significance. The significance was considered at p<0.05 level in Duncan’s test. Results: The results suggest Bcl2 mRNA gene expression is reduced on induction of 400, 500 ug/ml of Tecoma stans with significant difference in comparison with control. Bcl-xL mRNA gene expression is slightly reduced on induction of 400, 500 μg/mL of Tecoma stans with no significant difference in comparison with control. Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be concluded that hydroethanolic leaf extract of Tecoma stans possess anticancer activity against breast cancer cells with respect to Bcl2 mRNA gene expression as compared to Bcl xL mRNA gene expression. If complete research is done, we can use this drug to treat various cancers.
... It can cause neurosensory problems or traumatic neuroma if the accessory nerves are accidentally damaged. Our team has a wealth of research and knowledge that has resulted in high-quality publications [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. The study's goal is to look at where mental foramen are found in the South Indian population. ...
Article
Background: The mental foramen (MF) is a hole in the body of the mandible that is placed on the antero-lateral side. Between the upper and lower mandibular borders, it can be found. It sends signals to the brain's nerves and blood vessels. Many researches have documented variations in the placement of the MF among different ethnic groups, as well as variations in its forms. It's commonly found beneath the first premolar teeth. The study's goal is to look at where mental foramen are found in the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 distinct OPGs from the South Indian population were used in the investigation. The position of mental foramen for various mandibles was visually examined using OPGs, and the data was tallied and analyzed using SPSS. Results: From the results it is suggested that the maximum frequency for the right side is at location 2 which is in the longitudinal axis of 1st premolar. 14.0% at location 1, 31.6% at location 2, 21.1% at location 3. 17.3% at location 4. 10% at location 5, 6% at location 6. The situation of mental foramen at the axis of 1st premolar was observed to have a high frequency of occurrence in the age group of 26-35. Conclusion: The Mental foramen in study population is mostly found in the longitudinal axis of 1st premolar. The clinical students and surgeons should know the existence of mental foramen at surgical procedures using mandibular premolar and molar regions. Future studies with large sample sizes should be conducted to make the results conclusive.
... The experiences from our previous studies [8,9,10,9,11,12,13,14,12,14,15,16,17] have led us to focus on the current topic. Our researchers has elaborate stuff and research experience that has translate into good quality research papers [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]32,[33][34][35][36][37]. Thus, the goal of the research is to analyze the chemotherapeutic role of endogenous serotonin replica in lung cancer prevention and prognosis in lung cancer cell line. ...
Article
Background: Lung cancer is still the most common cause of carcinoma-related death in the globe. Non-pharmacological treatments such as physical activity and exercise have been shown to improve quality of life and provide better results in lung cancer patients. Lung cancer patients usually lack adequate amounts of physical activity and exercise, both of which can improve quality of life. Aim: To analyse Chemotherapeutic potential of endogenous serotonin replica mediated through β-catenin/Wnt signaling in lung tumor cell lines (A549). Methods and Materials: The National Centre for Cell Sciences (NCCS), Pune, India, provided the human lung cancer cell line (A549). MTT assay was used to determine cell viability. Real-time PCR was used to examine -Catenin mRNA, Wnt mRNA, and GSK mRNA gene expression. The significance of the acquired data was determined using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test with Graph Pad Prism version 5. Duncan's test was used to determine significance at the 0.05 level. Results: The Results suggest that maximum inhibition of cell growth was at concentration (2-4 mM/ml) used in this study when compared to control. The cancer cells were significantly inhibited and it was found that there was notable reduction in GSK mRNA gene expression, β-Catenin, Wnt when compared to control at a dose of 2 mM/ml. Conclusion: It may be concluded, based on the analyses' findings and the study's limitations, that the role of exercise induced endogenous serotonin may act as the regulator of wnt/β-catenin signaling in lung cancer cells. The exercise may help in maintaining the equilibrium of the gene expression by modeling Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and act as a protective factor in prevention.
... Interforaminal distance is critical in evaluating the scenario and, as a result, the number of implants to be placed within the interforaminal area of a complete edentulous patient [18,19]. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. The purpose of this study is to assess and investigate the distance between the intermental foramina in the south Indian population. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The intermental foramina distance varies between ethnicities, according to an OPG (orthopantomogram), which is a form of dental x-ray. The mandibular foramen has a bony canal developed in the mandible at two independent anatomies and its rim is 'v' shaped, that was its common form where the groove separating the anterior and posterior parts is horizontally orientated rim which is an oval shaped rim. The placement of the mandibular foramen varies by ethnicity; the intermental foramina distance is always measured from the mandibles' mid-line. Materials and Methods: The OPGs are collected from the private dental college and hospital in chennai. The location of mental foramen is identified and the intermental foramina distance is calculated by adobe photoshop. The collected data is analysed using SPSS software. Results: The average intermental foramen distance in the south Indian population was 4.93 cm. Males have a 5.14 cm inter mental foramen, whereas females have a 4.76 cm inter mental foramen. With a p value of 0.001, there is a significant difference in the intermental foramina distance between the genders in the south Indian population. Conclusion: Within the restrictions of the study, it may be stated that there is a significant difference in the intermental foramina distance between men and women in the south Indian population, with a p value of 0.001. The dentist's understanding of the intermental foramina difference is critical when performing implants, orthodontic surgery, and periodontal surgery. It aids the dentist in planning the drilling of the lower jaw bone.
... (Table 2, Fig. 4) The results of the statistical analysis depicts clearly that there is no significant difference between both the groups. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. The current study within the limitations demonstrated the surface roughness of cention N before and after brushing stimulation but still the study analysed the surface roughness of only one product by simulating brushing between herbal and fluoridated toothpaste and sample size was less. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Cention N, a new alternative tooth coloured resin based filling material. Toothbrushing abrasion is a key issue in restorative dentistry. A smooth surface is a crucial factor to be considered for establishing a successful restoration because the surface roughness of a restorative material results in plaque deposition, discoloration of the restoration, microleakage and secondary caries. The present study aims in evaluating the surface roughness of Cention N before and after brushing with herbal toothpaste and fluoridated toothpaste. Materials and Methods: A total of 8 Cention N samples were prepared and randomly divided into two groups into 2 groups as Group A-herbal toothpaste(n=4), Group B-fluoridated toothpaste(n=4). The samples were placed in a brushing simulator for 30000 cycles and their surface roughness was evaluated by using stylus profilometer-Mitutoyo SJ 310 and with the results collected a statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software "SPSS VERSION 23" and its results are demonstrated in the form of bar graph. Results: The Ra values of both the samples before and after brushing simulation was constant and only the Rq and Rz values showed difference between the groups. There was no notable changes in surface roughness parameters between the groups. The statistical "paired t test" analysis depicts that the p value for Rz parameter was 0.359 which is (p<0.05), hence statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Brushing simulation did not influence the surface roughness of Cention N restorative material. There was no significant increase or decrease in surface roughness values after brushing simulation which indicates cention N material can withstand abrasive forces, but the results can vary in oral cavity environment.
... This leads to paralysis of facial muscles especially the buccinator, required for sucking the milk [19]. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. The aim of this study was to analyse morphological and morphometrical measurements of stylomastoid foramen. ...
Article
Introduction: Stylomastoid foramen present between two processes which are styloid process and mastoid process. Facial nerve and stylomastoid arteries are transmitted through the stylomastoid foramen. Facial canal gets terminated in the stylomastoid foramen. Stylomastoid foramen has a site for facial nerve block. Complications reduced by localization of foramen. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the morphology and morphometry of stylomastoid foramen. Materials and Methods: Damaged skulls were excluded and 60 dry human skulls without any damage were taken for this study. By using digital vernier caliper length and breath of the stylomastoid foramen was measured. Then the statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and paired t-tests were done for comparison. Results: The length and breadth of the right stylomastoid foramen was 2.39 ± 0.18 mm and 0.85 ± 0.12 mm and the left stylomastoid foramen was 2.18 ±0.33 mm and 1.13 ± 0.38 mm. From the paired t-tests it was very clear that the difference between the breath of right and left stylomastoid foramen was significant (p<0.05) and difference between the length of right and left stylomastoid foramen was not significant (p> 0.05). Conclusion: The narrow size of stylomastoid foramen varied from individual skull to other. The accurate value for length and breadth, was measured to determine the variations of facial nerve emerging through it. The change in length and breadth of stylomastoid foramen can be correlated with its clinical aspects with reference to facial nerve.
... So it can be fulfilled with this kind of research in the south indian population between the left and right side. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. This study aims at accurate morphological and morphometrical measurements of human scaphoid bone between left and right side in the south indian population. ...
Article
Introduction: Scaphoid is the second largest among all the carpal bones, which is present on the radial side of the proximal row of carpal bones. Scaphoid Fractures are the most common of the carpal bone injuries. Scaphoid Fractures heal slowly due to thelimited blood circulation of the bone Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 20 Scaphoid Bones,which were collected from the Department of Anatomy,Saveetha dental college. By using digital vernier callipers,morphological and morphometrical parameters (length and breadth)of scaphoid bones were measured,tabulated and statistically analysed. Results: All the 20 scaphoids showed the presence of tubercle. Double foramina in the main dorsal sulcus were seen in 7 right and 6 left specimens. No significant differences were found in lengths and breadths of the bone.In the present study, at least one foramen is found in all the main dorsal sulcus and the number of specimens showing presence of double foramen in the main dorsal sulcus are 7 right and 6 left specimens. Conclusion: This study showed that no significant morphological and morphometric differences were found between right and left sides. The data obtained in the present study will be helpful for the hand surgeons, radiologists and clinical anatomists for surgical reduction to follow up the reunion of fractured scaphoid bones.
... Lambda is a landmark or craniometric point for radiological and anthropological measurements. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. The aim of this study is to determine sexual dimorphism of dry human skulls using pterion, asterion and lambda as a reliable criteria. ...
Article
Introduction: Pterion is a H- shaped sutural junction of the frontal, parietal, squamous part of the temporal and greater wing of sphenoid bone. Asterion is a sutural junction of lambdoid, parietomastoid and occipitomastoid sutures. Lambda is the junction where lambdoid sutures and sagittal sutures meet. These sutures play an important role in infants' brain development. Flexibility of these allows the bones to overlap and hence it can pass through the brain canal easily without any damage to the brain. Aim: To analyse pterion asterion and lambda of dry human skulls morphologically and morphometrically and determine its sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: 40 dry human skulls were collected from the department of Anatomy of Saveetha dental college and hospitals. By excluding abnormal and damaged skulls, 20 skulls were studied. Out of 20 skulls, 11 were male skulls and 9 were female skulls. On investigation, Pterion was classified into four types: Sphenoparietal, stellate, Epipteric and Frontotemporal. Asterion was classified into types: Type-1 and Type-2 based on the presence and absence of wormian bones respectively. Lamda was classified into two types: Normal and Abnormal. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software. Paired Sample T test was used to analyse the data. Results: Percentage of occurrence of different types of pterion in males and females: Sphenoparietal (59.09 % of males and 59.09 % of females), Stellate (27.7% of males and 22.2% of females), Epipteric (99% of males and 16.6% of females) and Frontotemporal (45.5% of males and 5.5% of females). Different types of Asterion: Type-1 (13.63% of males and 16.66 % of females and Type -2 (86.63% of males and 83.33% of females). Different types of Lambda: Normal (90.9% of males and 94.4% of females), Abnormal (9% of males and 5.55% of females). Conclusion: In the present study, there was no correlation between the male and female skulls in the presence of Pterion, Asterion and Lambda. Therefore these cannot be used as reliable parameters for determining sexual dimorphism.
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has been translated into high quality publications [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. The main aim of the study was to determine the morphological and morphometric analysis of mastoid process and mastoid notch in dry human skulls and its clinical implications. ...
Article
Introduction: Mastoid process is a pyramidal bony projection . It is located in the posterior inferior region of the temporal bone. Mastoid notch is on the medial side of the mastoid process. Clinical significance causing infection of the middle ear could spread to the mastoid area causing mastoiditis. The aim of the study is to determine the morphometric and morphological analysis of mastoid process and mastoid notch in dry human skull and their clinical implication. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken from the department of Anatomy in Saveetha Dental College and Hospital by taking 72 dry human skulls. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure the mastoid process and mastoid notch of different parameters. The data was measured and analyzed statistically, using paired sample ‘t’ tests. Results: The present study shows 0.641 significance in the right and left length of the mastoid process which is not significant. Right breadth and left breadth of the mastoid process of 0.007 and mastoid notch of right and left length 0.00 are significant. Conclusion: It concludes that the mastoid process and mastoid notch have varied significant differences in the dry human skulls. This study will be helpful in mastoid surgeries.
... Aging causes changes in masticatory function and changes the contractile activity of individuals. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]25,26,27,28,29,30,31,[32][33][34][35][36]. The aim of the present study is to assess the gender determination using gonial angle in OPGs of South Indian population. ...
Article
Introduction: Sex determination is a valuable and important factor in the forensic dentistry. Mandible has several useful traits for sex determination. Forensic practitioners study this by two methods: morphological and metrical analyses. Among various methods, the gonial angle may be used to differentiate male and female strongly to express sexual dimorphism. Aim: To analyse the gender determination using gonial angle as panoramic study among south indian population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted among 200 individuals. Gonial angle is a measurement taken by measuring the angle between the 2 tangents from the gonion.As a standard procedure, measurement of right gonial angle and left gonial angle were carried out by Adobe Photoshop and the results were recorded and analysed statistically using SPSS tool. Results: The mean right gonial angle for males is 95.25 and for females is 95.22 The mean left gonial angle for males is 95.39 and for females is 95.15. The significance of the right gonial angle is P=0.874 and significance of the left gonial angle is P= 0.147. The total mean value for right gonial angle was found to be 95.23 and for left gonial angle is 95.27. Therefore, there was no significant difference found between the right and left gonial angle. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there is no statistically significant difference observed between males and females in the gonial angle measurements. The Gonial angle measurements can be used to determine the gender and the growth pattern of the mandible. Measurement of gonial angle has its own surgical importance too in the field of orthodontics and therefore future studies should be carried out using larger samples to get reliable results.
... Elongation of the styloid process may be a fortuitous asymptomatic radiographic observation.Although the panoramic radiograph is the more common radiographic view to detect the elongation of the styloid process, other views such as posterior-anterior projection of the mandible, lateral oblique projection of the mandible and axial and cephalometric radiographs can also aid in establishing the elongated process. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translate into high quality publications [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]. The present study was carried out in the south indian population to analyse the elongation of the Styloid process in the South Indian population ...
Article
Introduction: Styloid process is a slender osseous projection, cylindrical and sharp projection of the temporal bone, located in front of stylomastoid foramen. Styloid process is from Reichert’s cartilage of the second branchial arch, this is a part of the splanchnocranium. This is Connected to the hyoid bone through the Stylohyoid ligament. The morphology of the Styloid process is due to hormonal and genetic changes. Orthopantomography is a radiographic method used to visualise mandibles. It also provides a rotational view of the jaw. The aim of the study is to analyse the elongation of the Styloid process in the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in dental institutions with convenience sampling. The random orthopantomogram sample was collected from a dental institution. Total number of orthopantomogram involved in the study was 80 (40-males and 40-females) that is used to examine elongation of the Styloid process in the South Indian population. The minimised sampling bias is done by stratification according to age and gender. Statistical Analysis: The data were analysed by using SPSS software. The probability value p< 0.05 is considered as significant and the value p>0.05 was considered as not significant. Results: This study showed various types of Styloid processes in males and females. However we concluded that there is a difference in shape of Styloid processes. The most common type of the Styloid process found in males is pseudo articulated (32.5%) whereas in females the most common type of Styloid process found is uninterrupted (37.5%) Conclusion: From the current study we have concluded that the pseudo articulated Styloid process is more in males whereas uninterrupted is more in females. Only retrospective studies were done so far. Therefore in future studies with live models and larger sample size should be conducted.
... Another pressure-sensitive device used for bite force measurement is a fiber-reinforced pressurized rubber tube connected to a pressure sensing element. Changes in pressure are transformed into electrical signals and transferred to a digital strain indicator [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To test the inter- and intraexaminer reliability of a recently developed instrument for measuring the maximum bite force (MBF). Material and Methods. Sixty patients who were clinically confirmed as having Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) and 60 healthy controls were included in this study. For each subject, age, gender, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. The maximum bite force was recorded in alternate order with a bite force sensor (D1) and an occlusal force meter (D2). Bite force was measured in the first molar region. Pearson's correlation coefficient and kappa statistic were applied to assess the reliability between D1 and D2 in the assessment of maximum bite force. The independent t-test was performed to find the statistical significance between the two study groups. The paired t-test was applied to find out the difference between the right and left disease in groups of two devices separately. The one-way analysis of covariance (ANOVA) was performed to find the significant difference between grades of OSMF. Results: The results of the kappa values were 0.8531 ± 0.0724 and 0.7336 ± 0.0737 for interdevice reliability in OSMF patients in right and left sides. Similar findings were obtained in right and left sides of healthy individuals (0.7549 ± 0.0816 and 0.9440 ± 0.0806) and in the total sample (0.8132 ± 0.0544 and 0.8303 ± 0.0538). Pearson's correlation coefficient between two devices revealed a high and significant positive correlation between D1 and D2 separately and in the whole sample. Conclusion: The observations of the present study suggest that the bite force sensor can be used as a reliable device for measuring bite force.
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. The present study however possesses certain limitations due to its limited sample size and restriction to only two brands of GIC. ...
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. The limitations of the study is that only limited samples from two commercially available GIC brands were used to perform the experiment. ...
... Hence, it is important to understand what the future endodontists think in this regard. Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice on regenerative endodontic procedure among dental practitioners and specialists. ...
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. Turmeric is a widely used spice in India due to its various therapeutic properties. ...
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. In addition, as compared to other soft drinks, the storage medium coke/ Coca-cola in D-tech products has a lower surface roughness. ...
... Our team has extensive knowledge and research experience that has translated into high quality publications [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. Composite is a compound that is composed of resins and it can be light cured. ...
Article
Ostial resorption occurs after the placement of implant fixture upto first third of the implant fixture body or to first contact of the alveolar applied to imagine anatomic structure like alveolar bone. To Evaluate periimplantitis using intra oral and extra oral imaging. The data of patients at stage 2 review after implant placement was collected from Dental Information Archiving Software. The collected data was tabulated and imported to SPSS for statistical analysis. The results of the current study shows that males are most likely to have bone loss. Patients of 31-40 years exhibited more bone loss. Orthopantomogram and Intra Oral Periapical Radiograph were good parameters for evaluation of successful implant and prognosis monitoring.
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Introduction: Dental fluorosis is a condition which occurs due to exposure to fluoride than required.The condition begins at the first eight years of life which leads to an eruption of discolored teeth with stains from yellow to dark brown, surface irregularities and noticeable pit. It can be treated by teeth whitening, composite bonding and Porcelain veneers. Aim: To determine knowledge, attitude and practice on the management of fluorosis among dental students. Materials and Methods: Self-administered structured questionnaires were designed based on the knowledge, attitude and practice on the management of Fluorosis among the dental students. The questionnaire was distributed through online google forms link, the study population included 100 General dental practitioners and specialists in Chennai.The data was collected and statistically analysed in SPSS of version 26.0. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Results: In the current survey based on the results obtained 72.48% of second years had participated in the survey among whom 48.62% were aware about the daily requirement of fluorosis was <2ppm. 49.54% of participants responded that fluoridated water usage causes fluorosis. 95.41% of participants responded that erupting teeth itself may appear discolored due to fluorosis.
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Introduction: Intracoronal bleaching is a simple, useful procedure for restoring the colour of discoloured root - filled teeth that are not extensively restored. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, awareness and perception on intracoronal bleaching among undergraduate dental students. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 undergraduate dental students through a self administered questionnaire. The responses were collected, tabulated in excel sheets and analysed using SPSS software. Chi square test was used to analyze the level of knowledge on intracoronal bleaching among dental students in different years of study with statistical significance of P< 0.05. Results: The 4th year undergraduate dental students had high knowledge on intracoronal bleaching compared to others. 60.3 % of the participants were aware of the intracoronal bleaching with the p value of 0.002, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: This study concludes that the undergraduate dental students have a good knowledge and awareness on intracoronal bleaching and its techniques.
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Introduction: A matrix is defined as a properly contoured piece of metal or other contoured piece of metal or other material used to support and give form to material used to support and give form to the restoration during its placement and restoration during its placement and hardening. Characteristics of a good matrix are rigidity, establishment of proper anatomical contour,restoration of correct proximal contact relation, easy adaptation to the tooth, easy adaptation to the tooth,ability to be contoured,prevention of gingival excess, strength to offer resistance to condensation pressure and easy removal from the tooth. Aim: To check the knowledge and practice of different matrix systems in class 2 composite restoration. Materials and Methods: Self administrated questionnaire was designed based on matrix systems for class 2 composite restoration. The questionnaire was distributed through an online survey link. The questionnaire was completed by 100 participants, and the data were analysed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics and Pearson Chi square test were done to analyze the results of the survey. Majority of the participants are aware of the different matrix system for class 2 composite restoration.
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Introduction: Management of waste generated from the medical sector is a challenging task and it is a critical issue because it acts as a hazard for human health as well as the environment. The waste generated from dental clinics are sharps, glasswares, metallic implants, blood, mercury, lead, biodegradable wastes, non biodegradable wastes and chemical wastes. It is important to segregate and transport these wastes using the proper guidelines. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of biomedical waste disposal among dental students. Materials and methods: Self administrated questionnaire was designed and distributed through an online google forms link. The Study population included 100 dental undergraduate students belonging to the age group of 18 to 24 years. The participants were explained about the purpose of the study in detail. The questions were carefully studied and the corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data were collected and statistically analysed using SPSS software version 22.0. Chi- Square analysis was performed and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: From the obtained data it was concluded that 87 % of the people were aware of biomedical waste and the methods and techniques to handle the biomedical waste.
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Objectives: To determine the complete range of carious conditions and furthermore to compare the risk factors and patterns of dental caries amongst schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Bhubaneswar. Material and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive survey was performed among 800 schoolchildren to assess the dental caries status by Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) scoring. Chi-square, parametric t-test, one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni and stepwise multiple linear regression were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: Study population comprised of 476 (59.5%) boys and 324 (40.5%) girls, of which 356 (44.5%) and 444 (55.5%) represented the 12- and 15-years age group respectively. Prevalence of dental caries was 60.6% (Mean 0.38+0.545). Younger age group children presented a significant (p<0.05) lower caries prevalence (54.8%) as against 65.3% in 15 years children. Majority, 189 (23.6%) revealed distinct visual change in enamel (code 3). Acuteness of disease constructed on maximum CAST score for each subject showed that teeth with morbidity (28.5%) is higher followed by reversible pre-morbidity (23.6%) and serious morbidity (6.5%). Predominantly first molars were generally influenced. Significant interpreters in plunging order for DMFT were frequency of cleaning teeth and sweet score. Conclusions: A creative instrument named CAST index describes full continuum of dental caries. Its utilization in epidemiological studies is exceptionally encouraging as it is less tedious and more cost effective. It can possibly be a useful tool for planning caries control programs in both individual and community levels.
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Objective: To estimate caries spectrum in first permanent molars (FPMs) of 7- to 8-year-old children in Saudi Arabia using Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index, and examine the correlation between distributions of CAST codes among contralateral and opposite arches. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 7- to 8-year-old Saudi school children in Sakaka, Aljouf, Saudi Arabia. A total of 385 children were examined. CAST codes were determined for FPMs, and their distribution was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was set as p<0.05. Intra-examiner reliability was determined using the unweighted kappa coefficient. Results: The results indicated most of the FPMs were scored as code 3 (enamel lesions) such as upper contralateral FPM 44.40% for right, 53.50% for left, respectively, and lower contralateral molars were 61.30% for right and 64.90% for left, respectively. It was also observed that upper FPMs had scored code 0 (sound teeth) more than that of lower FPMs. Serious morbidity (codes 6 and 7) and mortality (code 8) showed a low prevalence in FPMs. Strong correlations were observed between upper contralateral FPMs (r=0.586) and lower contralateral FPMs (r=0.567, p<0.001). Conclusion: A high prevalence of enamel caries lesions (code 3) was observed in FPMs; in addition, a strong correlation was present between upper contralateral FPMs and between lower contralateral FPMs
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Aims To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries and the presence of fissure sealants on the first permanent molars (FPMs) among 6 to 9 years old primary school boys in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods The carious status and the presence of fissure sealants on the FPMs were examined in 1844 schoolboys, aged 6-9 years (the first three grades), from 17 randomly selected primary schools in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of differences in prevalence and proportions. Results A total of 5394 FPMs were assessed in the 1844 children. Eighty-three point five percent of children were caries free. Only 0.8% of the children had at least one fissure sealant applied. At tooth level, the decayed FPMs counted for 10.6%. There was obvious underuse of fissure sealants on the FPMs; 0.5% (n = 25). The caries prevalence in the mandibular FPMs (14.4%), was significantly higher than in the maxillary FPMs, 7.7% (p < 0.01). The proportion of carious FPMs increased with age of the children significantly (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of the presence of fissure sealants among the three different grade/age groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion Caries prevalence in the FPMs was moderate but serious amongst this cohort of young students. This was opposed with very low use of fissure sealants. Clinical significance Careful examination of the first permanent molars among children is mandatory because of their high caries susceptibility. It is important to increase public and dental professionals’ awareness of the effectiveness of fissure sealants and encouraging more placement. How to cite this article: Aldossary MS, Alamri AA, Alshiha SA, Hattan MA, Alfraih YK, Alwayli HM. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in the First Permanent Molars among Male Children in Riyadh, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent., 2018;11(5):365-370.
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Caries detection is fundamental to understanding the oral health status of a population and is the basis for caries diagnosis for individual patients. Although different caries detection/diagnosis criteria are available, none of them include the total spectrum of dental caries (which ranges from a sound tooth to a tooth lost due to caries) other than the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) instrument. The CAST codes and descriptions were submitted to experienced epidemiologists from across the world for obtaining face and content validity. Its construct validity and reproducibility under field conditions were tested in child and adult populations, and showed a high level of agreement between examiners. Compared to what is usually reported in the literature, CAST provides more relevant information on caries prevalence, experience, and severity. CAST is straightforward and easy to use. A manual with valuable information about how to apply CAST and report its results has been published in order to facilitate communication among researchers, oral health planners, and medical professionals. Feedback from researchers indicates that CAST is considered an asset and that reporting results after using CAST is uncomplicated. More research about the effects of CAST in different cultures and age groups is required.
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Objective The present study aimed to assess and monitor patterns of dental caries among primary and permanent molars using Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index and to evaluate integration of CAST tool into patient health information (PHI) system of a Teaching Dental Hospital. Materials and Methods Dental records of n = 348 children, aged 7–9-years, attending University Dental Hospital Sharjah, for routine checkup and treatment as part of School Dental Program were assessed and translated into CAST codes. Dental caries prevalence for the second primary and first permanent molars were recorded. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation of the status between primary and permanent molar. Results CAST codes 0–2 were observed only in about 3% of primary and almost 5% in permanent dentition. The prevalence of children with diseased first permanent molar (codes 4–7) was almost 67%, while it was over 70% in second primary molars. A strong correlations were observed in the status between second primary and first permanent molars in the lower jaw on both right and left sides, r was 0.694 and 0.643 (P = 0.001), respectively. In the upper jaw, both right and left second primary molars revealed moderate correlation r = 0.435 (P ≤ 0.05) between disease stages with their neighboring permanent first molars. The unweighted kappa value for the intraexaminer reliability was 0.97 for second primary and 0.95 for first permanent molars. Conclusion Our study recommends the integration of CAST tool in the PHI system where a simple numerical value can express clinical progress, overcome interruptions of treatment, and ensures continuity of patient care in teaching hospitals.
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Aim Mastication turns food into a bolus and prepares it for chemical digestion. Any condition affecting tooth structure and position may have an impact on mastication. The aim of this study is to compare masticatory performance (MP) and maximum bite force (MBF) between children with and without clinically visible caries in permanent first molars. Materials and methods The study was conducted with 50 children in good general condition aged 12-14 years (25 girls, 25 boys) with no orthodontic/ skeletal anomalies and no missing teeth due to dental trauma or extraction. Maximum bite force was measured bilaterally using strain gauge sensors. Masticatory performance was evaluated by silicone tablet comminution test. Results Masticatory performance was superior in caries-free children when compared to children with caries. Maximum bite force values in children with and without caries were not statistically different. Conclusions Caries reduces masticatory performance. Therefore, treatment is crucial for masticatory efficiency.
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Maximal bite force of the jaw can cause thorough food chewing and result in good digestion. Bite force is related to the health of the masticatory muscles. Muscle force is frequently affected by obesity in adolescence, however, little is known about how obesity influences the maximum bite force and the difference between genders. Five hundred and seventy-seven adolescent students (292 girls and 285 boys), aged 13-16 years, from central Taiwan were recruited for a cross-sectional study in 2009. The maximum bite force, hand strength, triceps skin-fold fat thickness, serum level of testosterone, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Dental health was evaluated based on malocclusion and dental caries. Bite force in girls was highest in the obese group (32.49 ± 19.13 kg, mean ± standard deviation), whereas in boys it was higher in the overweight group (41.89 ± 19.3 kg) than in the obese group (33.21 ± 17.12 kg). The prevalence of obesity was twofold higher in boys (14.39%) than in girls (7.88%). The mean serum level of testosterone increased with BMI in girls (p = 0.0172), whereas it decreased with BMI in boys (p = 0.0014). The relationships of serum testosterone level and bite force with BMI were similar in the two gender groups. The maximum bite force decreased in obese boys but increased in obese girls, which may be due to the sensitivity to testosterone being modulated by the fat level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Objective: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases affecting children. In particular first permanent molar is more vulnerable to caries because of its morphological and functional characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to determine prevalence of first permanent molar in 7-10 years old school going boys in Abha City, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 836 school children selected randomly from private and public schools of Abha city, Saudi Arabia. All students were examined for Dental caries using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria by trained examiners. Data was analyzed using Chi-square and Fischer's exact t test. Results: The point prevalence of dental caries in first permanent molar was recorded to be 66.4% with an average DMFT of 2.74±1.18. Prevalence increased consistently with age. Mandibular first permanent molar exhibited higher caries prevalence than its Maxillary counterpart. Public schools exhibited higher caries prevalence than private school students. Conclusion: Caries prevalence among 7-10 years old students in Abha city, Saudi Arabia is higher than the global standards of WHO and Federation Dentaire International (FDI) for 2010. Hence adequate preventive measures are essential to be implanted at the earliest to bring down the current caries prevailing rate.
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The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) is a new epidemiological instrument for detection and treatment of dental caries. Worldwide, the WHO criterion constitutes the epidemiological tool most commonly used for caries detection. The objective of the present study is to determine the levels of similarity and difference between the CAST instrument and WHO criterion on the basis of caries prevalence, dmf/DMF counts, examination time and reporting of results. An epidemiological survey was carried out in Brazil among 6-11-year-old schoolchildren. Time of examinations was recorded. dmft, dmfs, DMFT and DMFS counts and dental caries prevalence were obtained according to the WHO criterion and the CAST instrument, as well the correlation coefficient between the two instruments. Four hundred nineteen children were examined. dmft and dmfs counts were 1.92 and 5.31 (CAST), 1.99 and 5.34 (WHO) with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. DMFT and DMFS counts were 0.20 and 0.33 (CAST), 0.19 and 0.30 (WHO), with r = 0.78 and r =0.72, respectively. Kappa coefficient values for intra-examiner consistency were CAST = 0.91-0.92; WHO = 0.95-0.96 and those for inter-examiner consistency were CAST = 0.90-0.96; WHO = 0.94-1.00. Mean time spent on applying CAST and WHO were 66.3 and 64.7 sec, respectively p = 0.26. The prevalence of dental caries using CAST (codes 2, 5-8) and the WHO criterion for the primary dentition were 63.0% and 65.9%, respectively, and for the permanent dentition they were 12.7% and 12.8%, respectively. The CAST instrument provided similar prevalence of dental caries values and dmf/DMF counts as the WHO criterion in this age group. Time spent on examining children was identical for both caries assessment methods. Presentation of results from use of the CAST instrument, in comparison to WHO criterion, allowed a more detailed reporting of stages of dental caries, which will be useful for oral health planners.
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Objective: To assess the caries experience among patients visiting a public sector hospital of Karachi, Pakistan, using novel caries detecting index - CAST (Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a public sector tertiary care hospital located in Karachi city of Pakistan, over a period of one month. The single examiner was trained and calibrated to perform the dental examination under standardized conditions to record the dental caries status of each subject using CAST- index. A structured and validated proforma was used to gather and record the data. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics were executed (frequencies and percentages) to record the prevalence of carious lesions. The p-value was set at 5% and the power of the test was kept at 80%. Results: A total of 100 subjects were recruited out of which 63% were females and 37% were males with mean age of 31+17 years. Majority of the teeth examined (84.08%) were recorded as sound, whereas, the rest 16% represented the previous, present and predicted stages of dental caries. The overall Prevalence of dental caries was found to be 8.28% in which the enamel and dentinal carious lesions were 4.21 and 4.07% respectively. Conclusion: CAST has introduced a new paradigm by reassessing the pathogenesis of dental caries. It has not presented an overestimated caries prevalence suggesting the potential of CAST Index for scoring the whole spectrum of dental caries, precisely.
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The purpose of this study was to determine correlations between maximum bite force and several variables, including age, sex, body height, body weight, caries index, occlusal pattern, vertical occlusal relationship, number of teeth in contact and maximum mouth opening, among healthy 4–6-year-old preschool children. Materials and methods: A total of 201 preschool children aged 4–6 years were selected from two kindergartens. The collected data included the oral checking and bite force measuring records. Whole oral records and measurements of bite force were taken and analyzed. Results: Growth variables, such as height and weight, correlated with sex and bite force. Although there was no significant difference in bite force among the three age levels (4, 5 and 6 years old), there were significant differences in growth variables. Oral status variables, such as the number of maxillary posterior teeth in contact and maximum mouth opening, showed significant positive correlations with bite force. Conclusion: By combining the results of this study, it was concluded that associations of bite force with factors like age, maximum mouth opening and the number of teeth in contact were clearer than for other variables such as body height, body weight, occlusal pattern, and tooth decay or fillings.
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This study was carried out to record maximum occlusal bite force (MOBF) among different dentition stages in children and to study the relation of occlusal bite force to weight, height, and gender. A total of 1011 children (500 females and 511 males) aged from 3 to 18 years were examined. The subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their dentition stage as the following:- early primary dentition stage (100 males and 100 females, average age was 3.37 ± 0.23 years), late primary dentition stage (104 males and 100 females, average age was 5.86 ± 1.15 years), early mixed dentition stage (100 males and 100 females, average age was 8.15 ± 0.67 years), late mixed dentition stage (100 males and 100 females, average age was 9.97 ± 0.86 years ), and permanent dentition stage (107 males and 100 females, average age was 14.03 ± 2.14 years). Occlusal bite force was measured using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge. The means of MOBF for the different dentition stages were:- 176 N in early primary stage, 240 N in late primary stage, 289 N in early mixed stage, 433 N in late mixed stage, and 527 N in the permanent dentition stage, respectively. Gender differences were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. Height and age significantly correlated with the MOBF in all dentition stage groups except group 1. In conclusion, the MOBF increased with age. Age, gender, and height were significant predictors of the MOBF.
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Serious difficulties in reporting results were encountered when using ICDAS II and PUFA separately in an epidemiological survey in a child population in Brazil. That necessitated the development of a comprehensive but pragmatic caries assessment index. This publication describes the rationale, development and content of a novel caries assessment index. Strengths and weaknesses of ICDAS II, PUFA and other indices were analysed. The novel caries index developed for use in epidemiological surveys is termed 'Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment' (CAST). 'Spectrum' indicates what is considered the main strength of the new index - its usefulness in describing the complete range of stages of carious lesion progression: from no carious lesion, through caries protection (sealant) and caries cure (restoration) to lesions in enamel and dentine, and the advanced stages of carious lesion progression in pulpal and tooth-surrounding tissue. CAST combines elements of the ICDAS II and PUFA indices, and the M- and F-components of the DMF index. A DMF score can easily be calculated from the CAST score, thereby enabling retention of the use of existing DMF scores. The CAST index for use in epidemiological surveys is very promising. It should be validated and its reliability and usefulness be tested in different age groups in different countries and cultures.
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Some factors such as gender, age, craniofacial morphology, body structure, occlusal contact patterns may affect the maximum bite force. Thus, the purposes of this study were to determine the mean maximum bite force in individuals with normal occlusion, and to examine the effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index (BMI), type of functional occlusion (canine guidance and group function occlusion) and balancing side interferences on it. Thirty-four individuals aged 19-20 years-old were selected for this study. Maximum bite force was measured with strain-gauge transducers at first molar region. Facial dimensions were defined by standardized frontal photographs as follows: anterior total facial height (ATFH), bizygomathic facial width (BFW) and intergonial width (IGW). BMI was calculated using the equation weight/height². The type of functional occlusion and the balancing side interferences of the subjects were identified by clinical examination. Bite force was found to be significantly higher in men than women (p<0.05). While there was a negative correlation between the bite force and ATFH/BFW, ATFH/IGW ratios in men (p<0.05), women did not show any statistically significant correlation (p>0.05). BMI and bite force correlation was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The average bite force did not differ in subjects with canine guidance or group function occlusion and in the presence of balancing side interferences (p>0.05). Data suggest that bite force is affected by gender. However, BMI, type of functional occlusion and the presence of balancing side interferences did not exert a meaningful influence on bite force. In addition, transverse facial dimensions showed correlation with bite force in only men.
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The aims of this investigation were to determine whether stabilization of maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF) occurs between 15 and 18 years of age in subjects with a normal occlusion, and to assess the influence of gender, body mass index (BMI), morphological occlusion, and jaw function measured by the number of occlusal contacts, overjet, overbite, maximal mouth opening, mandibular deflection during opening, sagittal slide between the retruded contact position and the intercuspal position, and number of dental restorations. The sample comprised 60 Caucasian subjects aged 15 (15 males and 15 females) and 18 (14 males and 16 females) years with a neutral occlusion, balanced facial profile, and absence of a previous orthodontic history. Bite force measurements were undertaken using a portable occlusal force gauge on both the left and the right sides of the jaw in the first molar region during maximal clenching. Two independent samples t-tests and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis. MVBFs were age and gender related (P < 0.05). Males showed a significant increase in bite force between 15 and 18 years of age (P = 0.002), but gender differences were significant only in the 18-year-olds (P = 0.003). In subjects with a neutral occlusion, MVBF could best be predicted using multiple regression from age and gender. The regression model accounted for 31.3 per cent of the variance in MVBF (P = 0.031), with gender contributing 17.9 per cent and age 7.9 per cent. Morphological occlusion, jaw function, and BMI explained the remaining 5.5 per cent of variance. While controlling for all other parameters, the independent contribution of gender to the prediction of MVBF was 16.2 per cent, age 6 per cent, number of occlusal contacts 3.2 per cent, and BMI 1.3 per cent.
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Maximum voluntary bite force is an indicator of the functional state of the masticatory system and the level of maximum bite force results from the combined action of the jaw elevator muscles modified by jaw biomechanics and reflex mechanisms. The measurement of bite force can provide useful data for the evaluation of jaw muscle function and activity. It is also an adjunctive value in assessing the performance of dentures. Technological advances in signal detection and processing have improved the quality of the information extracted from bite force measurements. However, these measurements are difficult and the reliability of the result depends on a number of factors, such as presence of pain and temporomandibular disorders, gender, age, cranio-facial morphology, and occlusal factors. In addition to these physiological factors, recording devices and techniques are important factors in bite force measurement. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the bite force values reported in the research.
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This study was carried out to record maximum occlusal bite force (MBF) in Jordanian students with three different facial types: short, average, and long, and to determine the effect of gender, type of functional occlusion, and the presence of premature contacts and parafunctional habits on MBF. Sixty dental students (30 males and 30 females) were divided into three equal groups based on the maxillomandibular planes angle (Max/Mand) and degree of anterior overlap: included short-faced students with a deep anterior overbite (Max/Mand ≤ 22 degrees), normal-faced students with a normal overbite that served as the controls (Max/Mand = 27 ± 5 degrees), and long-faced students with an anterior open bite (Max/Mand ≥ 32 degrees). Their age ranged between 20 and 23 years. MBF was measured using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge. Occlusal factors, including the type of functional occlusion, the presence of premature contacts, and parafunctional habits, were recorded. Differences between groups were assessed using a t-test and analysis of variance. The average MBF in Jordanian adults was 573.42 ± 140.18 N. Those with a short face had the highest MBF (679.60 ± 117.46 N) while the long-face types had the lowest MBF (453.57 ± 98.30 N; P < 0.001). The average MBF was 599.02 ± 145.91 in males and 546.97 ± 131.18 in females (P = 0.149). No gender differences were observed. The average MBF was higher in patients with premature contacts than those without, while it did not differ in subjects with different types of functional occlusion or in the presence of parafunctional habits.
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The effect of measuring bite force with different patterns of transducer on different occasions was studied. Maximum voluntary bite force was measured in eight volunteers. Three transducer positions, each with a different pattern of transducer, were used; between the anterior teeth, between the second premolar and the first molar on one side and between the second premolars and first molars on both sides. Visual feedback of force was provided. Two sets of five maximum clenches were recorded with a rest period in between. This sequence was repeated for each transducer and the experiment was repeated on three different days. The highest forces were measured with the bilateral posterior transducer (mean 580 N, s.d. 235) and the lowest on the anterior transducer (mean 286 N, s.d. 164). The standard deviations of the bite force mean values were used as an indication of the variability and were subjected to a non-parametric anova (Kruskal-Wallis). The forces recorded with each transducer position were significantly different between the transducers (P < 0.01) and the maximum bite force showed least variability when measured between the posterior teeth on one side only. There was little difference in bite force between the three different sessions (P > or = 0.05) when measured in the same position within the dental arch, whichever of the three positions that may be.
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The present study examined bite force in relation to occlusion, craniofacial dimensions, and head posture. The sample comprised 88 children (48 girls, 40 boys) aged 7-13 years, sequentially admitted for orthodontic treatment of malocclusions entiling health risks. Bite force was measured in the molar region by means of a pressure transducer. Angle classification, number of teeth and contact in the intercuspal position (ICP) were recorded and dental arch widths were measured on plaster casts. Craniofacial dimensions and head posture were recorded from lateral cephalometric radiographs taken with the subject standing with their head in a standardized posture (mirror position). Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations and multiple stepwise regression analyses.The maximum bite force increased significantly with age in girls, with teeth in occlusal contact in boys, and with increasing number of erupted teeth in both genders. Bite force did not vary significantly between the Angle malocclusion types. Only in boys was there a clear correlation between bite force and craniofacial morphology: cranial base length (n-ba, n-ar), posterior face height (s-tgo, ar-tgo), vertical jaw relationship (NL-ML), mandibular inclination (NSL-ML), form (ML-RL) and length (pg-tgo), and inclination of the lower incisors (Ili-ML). Multiple regression analysis showed that the vertical jaw relationship (P < 0.001) and the number of teeth present (P < 0.01) were the most important factors for the magnitude of bite force in boys. In girls, the most important factor was the number of teeth present (P < 0.001). No correlations between bite force and head posture were found.
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The bite force of 2594 school children (1248 males and 1346 females) living in northern Japan was investigated during oral health examinations in May and June 2001, using a new type of occlusal force gauge. The subjects were recruited from a variety of educational institutes and comprised: 73 nursery (3-5 years old), 1019 primary (6-11 years old), 902 junior high (12-14 years old) and 600 high (15-17 years old) school children. The measuring apparatus consisted of a hydraulic pressure gauge, with a bite element encased in a plastic tube. The bite force was measured at the first molar or second primary molar in the children presenting in the permanent and primary dentitions, respectively. The findings revealed significant variations in bite force between children of different ages. The average bite force was 186.2 N in males and 203.4 N in females of nursery school children; 374.4 N in males and 330.5 N in females of primary school children; 514.9 N in males and 448.7 N in females of junior high school children; and 545.3 N in males and 395.2 N in females of high school children. The prevalence of malocclusion in the nursery school children was found to be less than 30 per cent, which contrasted with almost 70 per cent in the high school children.
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It is not fully understood whether masticatory performance is compromised in individuals with the more common forms of malocclusion (i.e. Class I and Class II). The aim of this prospective investigation was to establish the relationships between masticatory performance, malocclusion (type and severity), age, body size and gender, in children and adolescents. A total of 335 individuals were examined at the average ages of 6, 9, 12 and 15 years. Each subject's occlusal status was described by Angle classification and by the Peer Assessment Ratio (PAR) index. Masticatory performance was quantified by the median particle size (MPS) and the broadness of particle distribution using artificial food. Masticatory performance improved significantly with age. The 6-year-old children were less able to break down the food particles (MPS 4.20 mm²) than the 15 year olds (MPS 3.24 mm²). Analysis of covariance showed that age differences in performance are related to an increase in body size. There were statistically significant differences in masticatory performance between children with normal occlusion and those with a Class I malocclusion; no differences were found between normal occlusion and Class II malocclusion. Gender differences did not explain the variation in masticatory performance. It is concluded that occlusal indices are not reliable predictors of masticatory performance. Traditional descriptors of malocclusion type and severity apparently cannot explain most of the variation in masticatory performance in children and adolescents.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between masticatory performance and maximum bite force in the primary dentition. The sample comprised 15 children of both genders, aged 3 to 5.5 years, with good systemic and oral health, presence of all primary teeth without large caries, no structural anomalies, without severe malocclusion, and no history of orthodontic treatment. They chewed one standardized silicone tablet for 20 strokes and the median areas of the chewed particles were measured by an optical digital system. Enhanced performance was measured by a decrease in the chewed particle areas and an increase in the amount of chewed particles. The bite force was determined using a transmitter pressurized tube connected to an analog/digital electronic circuit. Weight, height and body mass index (kg/m(2)) were determined. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Pearson or Spearman's correlations, after assessment of the normality of the distribution by Shapiro-Wilks' W-test. There was no correlation between bite force and particle area and amount (p > 0.05), neither were the body variables correlated with the masticatory variables (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the bite force was not a primary determinant of masticatory performance, and both variables were not dependent on body variables in the studied sample.
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Aim Dental caries epidemiological surveys produce information that may be used to assist health policy makers in the planning of preventive and curative strategies. The detection instruments used in these surveys should be able to identify the correct, true stage of the disease or medical condition. This makes it essential that valid instruments are used. This study aimed to critically review commonly used visual/tactile caries assessment instruments in epidemiological surveys with respect to their manageability, reproducibility and validity, and how results are reported. Method A Pubmed search identified the following international visual/tactile instruments for caries detection more than once between 2013 and 2018: World Health Organisation (WHO), International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). Results The review revealed that the WHO instrument can be considered a screening instrument, that the ICDAS instrument lacks sufficient validity and takes time to apply and that the CAST instrument is promising, but requires further field testing before it can be considered a fully proven caries-assessment instrument in epidemiology. It is recommended that calculating caries prevalence should be based on the presence of cavitated dentine carious lesions, that the prevalence of enamel carious lesions be reported separately and that the dmf/DMF index not be used in its current form. Conclusion Researchers/dentists should be knowledgeable of the limitations and advantages of common caries assessment instruments. Caries prevalence should not be based on the dmf/DMF index but on cavitated dentine carious lesions (d/D-component) as the M- and F-component do not refer to a disease stage.
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Background: Bite force is one of the components of masticatory function. Poor dental health impacts on quality of life as a whole due to a number of different elements, dental caries being one of them. Functional impairment is a negative sequel of caries. Aim: to assess the impact of comprehensive dental treatment on occlusal bite forces in children. Study design: The sample comprised of forty children of both genders, aged 6-9 years, with dental caries in primary molars. Occlusal bite force was recorded using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge, in the region of primary molars before and following the restorations in primary molars. The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Children with caries in all quadrants showed a significant increase in mean maximum bite force following restoration of their decayed teeth. In children with unilateral caries, either on right or left sides, a similar increase in occlusal bite force was seen in relation to the teeth that were restored. The contralateral sound teeth in these groups also showed an improvement in bite force. Conclusion: The mean occlusal bite force was seen to increase significantly following dental restoration of primary teeth.
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Piezoelectric force transducer and hand dynamometer were used for measuring the maximum bite force and hand grasp force on 2034 primary, middle, and high school students. Dental condition and body weight and height were also observed to relate to the force measurements. It was discovered that both forces increased relative to the increase of age, body weight, and body height. Boys had stronger bite force than girls at all age groups, while the grasp force of boys became significantly stronger only after the age of 13. Students who had dentition with decay and missing teeth tended to have weaker bite force, while hand force was not influenced. Bite force does not seem parallel to hand strength and is, instead, related to dental condition.
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To determine the magnitude of the biting forces in young children aged 3-6 years in the primary dentition and analyse the potential effects of caries and malocclusion on maximum bite force. Children aged 3-6 years of age attending primary schools within a major city in the UK were recruited to participate in this study. The magnitude of the bite force in Newtons (N) was measured bilaterally corresponding with the 1st and 2nd primary molars and central incisors using a new specifically designed single tooth bite force gauge. Two-hundred and five children were included in the study. The prevalence of dental caries and malocclusion was found to be 30.4% and 17.1% respectively. The levels of bite force recorded showed comparatively wide intra- and inter-individual variation with the maximum of the three bite force measurements ranging from 12.61 (N) to 353.64 (N) (M=196.60, SD=69.77). Bite forces of young children show comparatively wide intra- and inter-individual variation with some similarities with those found in the limited number of previous primary dentition studies undertaken elsewhere. The results will serve to provide key reference values for use both in paediatric dental clinical practice and wider research community.
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In order for bite forces to be used clinically, they must be reliable. While bite force transducers are accurate and precise during bench tests, widely varying reliabilities of intra-oral bite forces have been reported when measured in human subjects. Because few studies have reported total reliability, the clinical use of intra-oral bite forces measurements remains questionable. The purposes of this study were to (i) estimate total reliability, including both within- and between-session reliabilities, of repeated maximum incisor and molar bite force measurements and (ii) demonstrate how extraneous variation affects reliability by comparing estimates for which the effects of age have and have not been controlled. A sample of 28 healthy subjects with Class I normal occlusion (seven subjects in each of four age groups: 5, 8, 11 and 14 years) performed two sessions approximately 90 min apart. Each session consisted of three maximum voluntary bites at three bite positions (incisor and right and left molars). For each bite position, between-subject variance (true variance), between-session variance and within-session variance were calculated using Multilevel modelling procedures. The variances were used to estimate between-session reliabilities, within-session reliabilities and total reliabilities. Within-session reliabilities were substantially higher than between-session reliabilities, which in turn was higher than total reliabilities at all bite positions. Reliabilities were highest at the incisor bite position. Not controlling for age effects substantially overestimated total reliability at all bite positions. After controlling for age effects, total reliabilities of repeated maximum bite forces were low to moderate.
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Age, sex, overbite, overjet, and anterior linear contact are compared as indicators of biting force. F scores and correlation coefficients indicate a correlation of age, sex, overbite, and anterior linear contact with biting force.
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The sources of error in cephalometric measurement and their analyses are discussed. The importance of distinguishing bias and random errors is emphasized, and methods of control are discussed. Randomization of record measurement is one of the most important methods of avoiding bias, but it is rarely undertaken in cephalometric studies. Random errors are particularly important in the evaluation of individual radiographs, and a measurement that has a high error in relation to its total variability will be of little value in clinical assessment. In serial studies of facial change, the error variance is always a major part of the total variance and thus results have to be interpreted with caution. In cross-sectional studies it is not possible to specify exactly the acceptable limits of random errors, because this will depend on the difference between groups that would be of interest and on the number of cases. The judicious replication of measurements can be important in the control of random errors. In many papers, adequate error evaluation and control is lacking. In these circumstances, the results are of limited value because it is not possible to tell whether an apparent effect is the result of bias in measurement or whether a real effect is being obscured by random errors. It is incumbent on authors to consider how their measurement errors should affect the interpretation of results.
Article
Bilateral bite force was measured in a sample of 457 subjects (231 males and 226 females) from 6 years through 20 years. The mean maximum bite force was found to increase from 78 Newtons at 6 to 8 years to 176 Newtons at 18 to 20 years. While earlier studies have shown adult males have a greater mean bite force than females, this difference is not evident during growth and development. Gender-related bite force difference likely develops during the postpubertal period in association with greater muscle mass development in males.
Article
This preliminary study evaluated relationships between masticatory performance and areas of interocclusal distance contact (<50 microm) and near contact (50-350 microm) of the buccal segments during maximum intercuspation. The sample included subjects with normal occlusion (n = 18) and Class I (n = 14), Class II (n = 13), and Class III (n = 6) malocclusions. Chewing performance was evaluated on the basis of the breakdown of CutterSil (Heraeus Kulze, South Bend, Ind); chewing ability was assessed by the number of chews necessary to swallow jerky and almonds. Impressions of the buccal segments, taken with Blu Mousse (Parkell Bio-Materials, Farmingdale, NY) impression material, were scanned and enlarged, and each subject's first molars and premolars were manually traced bilaterally to estimate the platform area. The areas of contact and near contact (ACNC) that measured between 0 and 350 microm thick were estimated optically on the basis of the amount of light transmitted through the impression. The results showed no significant differences in platform area between the right and left sides or between the malocclusion groups. ACNC were negatively related to median particle size and broadness of particle distribution. There were no correlations between ACNC and the number of chews necessary to swallow jerky or almonds. Subjects with normal occlusion had significantly larger ACNC than those with Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions, in descending order. Subjects with Class III malocclusions had the smallest areas of near contact (<350 microm). We concluded that ACNC are similar on the right and left sides; that subjects with larger ACNC are better able to break down foods; and that subjects with malocclusions have smaller ACNC than those with normal occlusions.
Article
It has been suggested that people who suffer from impaired masticatory function may adapt food consistency to their oral status (which may lead to deficient nutrient intake) or rely on the digestive system to compensate for the lack of oral preparation of food (which may increase the likelihood of digestive diseases and decrease gut absorption). Masticatory deficiency thus may be detrimental to health. This article reviews evidence of the effects of masticatory deficiency on nutrition. The selection of relevant literature was based on Medline queries using the following key words: mastication, nutrition, digestion, diet, and disease risk. Earlier work not listed in Medline but related to the subject also was reviewed. Only publications available in English were selected for inclusion. It is difficult to draw conclusions from many of the reviewed studies due to issues related to study design, confounding variables, and the subjective nature of the measurements. In particular, data supporting a link between masticatory function and deficient dietary intake often are based on relatively weak correlations and cannot confer a causal relationship.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the bite force with primary dentition in 30 children with normal occlusion (group I), cross bite (group II) and open bite (group III). The magnitude of the bite force was determined through a pressurized transmitter tube (pressure sensor MPX 5700 Motorola), which was connected to a converse analog/digital electronic circuit. The children bit the tube with maximum force three times successively for 5 s, with a 10 s interval among each bite, and the sign was sent directly to the computer. The highest value of the three, for each patient, was considered. Analysis of variance evaluated difference among the three groups. The means of maximum bite force were 213 17, 249 63 and 241 19 N for the groups, respectively, and there were no significant statistical differences among them (P > 0.05). The analysis of correlation showed that the weight, height and bite force presented weak positive correlation (r=0.24 and 0.23). It was concluded that in the studied groups the type of occlusion did not affect the maximum values of the bite force and body variables had a small influence in this magnitude.
Article
Six hundred seventy-six Taiwanese children with deciduous dentition were sampled for maximum bite force and related dental status. Sixty-seven percent of children had at least one decayed tooth. The mean number of decayed teeth of all children was 2.97+/-3.58, and the mean plaque index of the right maxillary central incisor was 2.00+/-0.75. Twenty-seven percent of children had occlusal anomalies. Boys had a statistically significantly larger maximum bite force than did girls. Children with normal occlusion had statistically significantly larger maximum bite forces than did children with malocclusion. A statistically positive correlation was found between the number of decayed teeth and the plaque index. However, a statistically negative correlation was found between the number of decayed teeth and the maximum bite force and between the plaque index and the maximum bite force.
Article
A variety of both natural and artificial foods are commonly used for the evaluation of masticatory function. We compared swallowing thresholds of three natural foods (peanuts, cheese and carrots) to those of a standardized artificial test food (Optocal Plus) and examined the relationship between masticatory performance and the swallowing threshold. Eighty-seven healthy dentate subjects participated (25 men and 62 women, aged 42.0+/-12.1 years). We evaluated the dental state, registered the number of chewing strokes used before swallowing, analyzed the chewed particles and determined median particle sizes (X50) for Optocal Plus after 15 chewing strokes and at the moment of swallowing. The results show that the number of strokes used before swallowing each natural food linearly increased with volume (P<0.001), and that carrots required more strokes than peanuts and cheese (P<0.001). The number of chewing strokes used before swallowing Optocal Plus was comparable to the number used for carrots. Masticatory performance was significantly influenced by dental state, but not by age or gender. Significant correlations were observed for: (1) the number of chewing strokes used before swallowing natural foods and Optocal Plus; (2) the median particle sizes after 15 strokes and before swallowing; (3) the number of chewing strokes before swallowing and the corresponding median particle size. However, median particle sizes as obtained after 15 strokes did not correlate with the number of strokes used before swallowing (r=0.02). Thus, bad chewers did not necessarily chew longer before swallowing than good chewers. As a consequence bad chewers would, on average, swallow larger food particles.
Article
The aims of this study were to compare bite force in adolescents with and without temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), and to investigate the influence of gender, age, height and weight on bite force magnitude. The TMD was evaluated using a self-report questionnaire and the Craniomandibular Index, which has two subscales, the Dysfunction Index and the Palpation Index. Subjects with lower and upper extremity values were used to integrate the control (Group I -n = 20) and TMD (Group II -n = 20) groups, respectively. In addition, the TMD group should have at least one subjective symptom. Bite force was determined with a transducer, which consisted of a pressurized rubber tube connected to a sensor element (MPX 5700 - Motorola SPS, Austin, TX, USA). Analysis of covariance, Pearson's coefficient, Mann-Whitney and t-tests were applied to analyse the data. The results showed that Group II presented smaller values for bite force than Group I and boys had greater values than girls in Group II (P < 0.05). Bite force values were significantly smaller for girls between groups (P < 0.05), whereas for boys there was no statistical difference. Weak positive correlation between bite force and weight, height and age (P > 0.05) and significant negative correlation between bite force and Palpation and Craniomandibular Indexes (P < 0.05) were found. It was concluded that decreased bite force was correlated with TMD in girls, primarily with muscle tenderness.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum bite force in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Two hundred women were equally divided into four groups: myogenic TMD, articular TMD, mixed TMD and control. The maximum bite force was measured in the first molar area, on both sides, in two sessions, using an IDDK (Kratos) Model digital dynamometer, adapted to oral conditions. Three-way anova, Tukey and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis. The level of statistical significance was given when P < or = 0.05. The maximal bite force values were significantly higher in the control group than in the experimental ones (P = 0.00), with no significant differences between sides. Higher values were obtained in the second session (P = 0.001). Indeed, moderate negative correlation was found between age and bite force, when articular, mixed groups and all groups together were evaluated. A moderate negative correlation was also detected between TMD severity and the maximal bite force values for myogenic, mixed and all groups together. Authors concluded that the presence of masticatory muscle pain and/or TMJ inflammation can play a role in maximum bite force. The mechanisms involved in this process, however, are not well understood and deserve further investigation.
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate molar bite force (BF) magnitude and its correlation to the signs of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD),