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أثر الرفاهية في مكان العمل على الصحة العامة للموارد البشرية

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أثر الرفاهية في مكان العمل على الصحة العامة للموارد البشرية

Abstract

ملخص: تهدف هذه الورقة البحثية إلى دراسة أثر الرفاهية في العمل على الصحة العامة للموارد البشرية، بحيث طُبِقَت الدراسة على عيّنة متكونة من 265 عون تمريض على مستوى المؤسسات العمومية الاستشفائية بولاية معسكر، باعتبار أنَّ هذه المؤسسات هي المسؤولة على معالجة جميع العوامل التي يمكن أن تمس بالصحة النفسية والجسدية لمواردها البشرية، تم قياس متغير الرفاهية في العمل بالاعتماد على نموذج Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey (MBI-GS) المتكون من 16 عبارة، كما تم قياس متغير الصحة العامة بالاعتماد على نموذج General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) الذي يضم 12 عبارة. توصلت الدراسة إلى وجود تأثير مباشر للرفاهية في مكان العمل على الصحة العامة لأعوان التمريض بالمؤسسات الاستشفائية محل الدراسة، إضافة إلى عدم تأثر الصحة العامة لأعوان التمريض بالمتغيرات الشخصية كالجنس والسن والمستوى التعليمي، حيث أوصت الدراسة بضرورة تحسين ظروف العمل وبذل هذه المؤسسات لجهود أكبر في سبيل بناء سياسة الرفاهية التي تسمح بالحفاظ على الصحة والسلامة المهنية لمواردها البشرية والوقاية من مختلف المخاطر خاصة منها تلك المتعلقة بالسيكو اجتماعية والتي برزت مؤخرًا في منظمات الألفية الثالثة. الكلمات المفتاحية : الرفاهية في العمل، الصحة النفسية، الصحة الجسدية، المورد البشري. The effect of well-being at work on the general health of human resources -Case study on a panel of nurses working in the Mascara’sPHE- Abstract: The present study aims to study the impact of well-being at work on the general health of the human resource. The study was conducted on a sample of 265 nurses in public hospitals (PHE) in the wilaya of Mascara, considering that these institutions are responsible for dealing with all the factors that can influence the mental and physical health of their human resources. The measurement of the first variable "well-being at work" is based on the model Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey (MBI-GS) which is made up of 16 items. For the measurement of the second variable which, deals with “the general health of HR”, it is based on the model General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) which includes 12 items. As a result, the study found the correlation of a direct impact of well-being at work on the general health of nurses. In addition, the study recommended the need of the improvement of working conditions by making efforts to establish a well-being policy that will maintain the health and safety at work of HR and will prevent various risks, including psychosocial risks (PSR) that recently have appeared in the organizations of the 3rd millennium. Key words: Well-being at work, mental health, Physical health, HR.
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 MaslachBurnoutInventoryGeneralSurveyMBI-GS
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QuestionnaireGHQ-1212 
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

   (Richard, 2012,
p26) 
2 






 
 
  
 
281
75

 
3 
 
   Maslach
Burnout Inventory (MBI)
General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)


 
4 




 
5 

Accidents avec
arrêt

les risques psychosociaux (RPS)


281
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Nicolas, 2014, p38 
15 

Benchemam & Galindo, (2015, p143

201664
25 

 Soulez,
(2017,p13)Cllip


        (Medzo-
p35M’engone, 2016,
2011)(t al, aschinger eL 
      
            


(Baptiste, 2008, p 285 
Bien-être
être-Mal
 
281
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



/

)(
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

(
)   (  )
(
)01(.
)2005(Colle, 
 
1.2.5 
    E. Abord de chantillon et D.
RichardSLAC
Ottmann,2015, p76 
Le Sens donné au travail 
Le Lien social 
L’Activité 
LeConfort 
225
1998VeenhovenbonheurLe
Le bien-être 

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1
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3
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
2

4

02
Richard, 2012, p88 
281
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        

Lavaleur

(2011)L. Combalbert






Richard,2012,p88-89
35 

2009
15
2014206
, 2011, p01Corréard et al 





200513 
 
281
79
1.35 
   






 
 
 



 


 




 


03
2011
 
2.35 

2008
 
 







 
45Les risques psychosociaux (RPS) 


281
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
2019165 

2019165


Roques, 2014, p82 &Moulette  
     
2019165
            La
discriminationLes situations de malaise au travail
LesaddictionsLadépressionLes
suicideleetsuicidedetentatives Nestea, 2017, p50 
55
 





2012)(Thompson et al, 


1999)(Montgomery et al,
281
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


 




,Jahoda
1982)
    
Turner&Turner, (2004)

2005(McKee et al, 

Eurofound,
(2012)


Blanchet & Debrand, 2007




ben nasr -Abaidi
281
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& Drillon, (2014)
2019 
    



2008Morin
)Nestea, 2017, p45 
  01
)Nestea, 2017, p45( 
   
Chakor2010
2019 
Grilledelecturebiologique

Grilledelectureépidémiologique


Grille de lecture psychodynamique
281
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

Grille de lecture psychologique cognitiviste



Grilledelecturepsychologiqueclinicienne

           

Grilledelecturesociologique
 Lesubjectif     

 

Lesdysfonctionnements






ben -Abaidi
Nasr & Drillon, (2014)
Lesélargissementssuccessifs

281
84
Uneapprochepathogénique
L’approche salutogènique de la
santé autravail2019 
  02 
2005Grosjean
Richard, 2012, p93 
6 
16 

270265
98%
26
GS-MBI
)1996(, et al Schaufeli 16
GeneralHealthQuestionnaire
12)-(GHQ)1996(& Muñoz, Lobo
1972(Goldberg, 12 
281
85
36 




Spss

0457.750

   
28
57.7
7.59
04 
46 
  


 
  


 

 

 
%
37
 
 

05

 
%
43.4

 
%
63

5

10

 
%
36.2

 
100
%

11

15

 
6
%
 
 
 
 
 
20
-
30
 
%
57

16

 
%
14.3
3140
 
%
23.8

 
100
%
 
4150
 
%
15.5


 
 
%
51.3
50
%
3.8
 
%
46
 
100
%
 
 
%
2.7

 

 
 
%
1.1
 
100
%
 
 
%
3.8
 

 
0
 
%
50.9
 
 
%
24.9
1
 
%
14.3
 
281
86
 
%
70.2
2
4
 
%
1.9
 
100
%
4
%
28.3
 
100
%
 
05 
05%63
%37%45.12030
           
%70.2
%24.910

 %51.346%
50.9% 
56
1.56 

 
 

 

 

 
01
 

 
2.76
 
1.24
 

 
02
 

 
3.91
 
1.07
 

 
03
 

 
3.35
 
1.09
 

 
04
 


 
2.93
 
1.23
 

 
05
 

 
3.85
 
0.95
 

 
06
 

2.98
 
1.16
 

 
07
 

 
3.75
 
1.77
 

 
08
 


 
1.61
 
1.03
 

 
281
87
06 
06







   

 
  
 

 
 
01
 



3.46
 
1.19
 

 
09
 




 
2.09
 
1.18
 

 
10
 




 
3.73
 
1.15
 


 
11
 









 
4.27
 
0.89
 


 
12
 













4.12
 
0.97
 


 
13
 






 
4.46
 
0.98
 



 
14
 








 
1.93
 
1.26
 

 
15
 



 
1.80
 
1.16
 


 
16
 







 
4.37
 
0.93
 



 
 
3.24
 
0.39
 

 
281
88
02
 

 
2.56
 
1.17
 


 
03
 



 
3.71
 
2.09
 

 
04
 





 
2.98
 
1.16
 

 
05
 





 
3.21
 
1.21
 

 
06
 



2.04
 
1.18
 


 
07
 





1.51
 
0.91
 




 
08
 







2.31
 
0.98
 


 
09
 



2.85
 
1.14
 

 
10
 



 
3.31
 
1.15
 

 
11
 



3.87
 
0.85
 

 
12
 






4.01
 
1.05
 

 
 
2.98
 
0.39
 

 
07 
07

   







 
 
281
89
2.56 
 
H0 
sig=0.05 
 
β
 


 
T
 
Sig

 
2
R
 

 
F

 
Sig

 


 
0.41
 
7.291
 
0,000
 
0.168
 
53.155
 
0,000
 
08 
08
Sig0.05

%41T
7.291F53.155
0.16816.8%





 
0
H
 
281
90

 

 


 


 


 

 


sig



 





 
 
 


,79
0

 
3.06
,79
0
5.137
,24
0

 


40.46

2.98
,154
0

 
41.25

 


1.04
20
-
30
2.95
,347
0
2.250
,083
0

 


40.21
31
-
40
 
3.02
 
,154
0
 
41
-
50
 
3.1
 

 
41.25
>50
 
2.83
 
 
 


0.88

 
2.77
,296
0
1.914
,12
0

 


40.
36

2.75
 
,155
0
 

 
41.25

 
3.04
 

 
2.98
 
09one way anova 



sig0.05
0.240.0830.12
281
91


 
7 








 


 








 

281
92
 

 

 

 

 

 


 
7 
1.7 
1 2011
 
2 2008

3 2009
 
4 2014
 
5 2019
 
281
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6 2019
172019

7 2005

8 2016

2.7
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de l’audit social : Responsabilité sociétale des organisations et GRH à l’heure
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The effect of well-being at work on
the general health of human
resources
-Case study on a panel of nurses
working in the Mascara’sPHE-
Dr. Mohammed El Amine MECHEROUR & Dr. Hocine BOUTELDJA
Abstract:
The present study aims to study the impact of well-being at work
on the general health of the human resource. The study was conducted
on a sample of 265 nurses in public hospitals (PHE) in the wilaya of
Mascara, considering that these institutions are responsible for dealing
with all the factors that can influence the mental and physical health of
their human resources.
The measurement of the first variable "well-being at work" is
based on the model Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey(MBI-
GS) which is made up of 16 items. For the measurement of the second
variable which, deals with “the general health of HR”, it is based on the
model General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)which includes 12 items.
As a result, the study found the correlation of a direct impact of
well-being at work on the general health of nurses. In addition, the study
recommended the need of the improvement of working conditions by
281
95
making efforts to establish a well-being policy that will maintain the
health and safety at work of HR and will prevent various risks, including
psychosocial risks (PSR) that recently have appeared in the
organizations of the 3rd millennium.
Key words: Well-being at work, mental health, Physical health, HR.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Thesis
Full-text available
Dans cette thèse de doctorat, le sujet de la transformation de démarches de prévention des risques psychosociaux en outils de la préservation de la santé au travail est abordé sous le prisme des théories de l’auto-détermination et du sensemaking. Cette recherche consiste en une étude qualitative de différentes organisations publiques dans lesquelles des démarches de prévention des risques psychosociaux ont été mises en place et à la collecte et à l’analyse quantitative de 1373 questionnaires administrés aux employés d’une organisation publique. Les résultats obtenus soulignent le rôle de l’action créatrice de sens, de la motivation autonome et de la satisfaction des besoins d’autonomie, d’affiliation et de compétence comme des variables cruciales de la réussite de démarches de prévention de risques psychosociaux et de la mise en place de mécanismes de prévention primaire. La satisfaction des besoins d’autonomie, d’affiliation et de compétence joue aussi un grand rôle dans la réalisation du bien-être au travail. Cette recherche présente donc des apports théoriques nouveaux en gestion des ressources humaines qui peuvent aussi inspirer de meilleures pratiques organisationnelles.
Book
Full-text available
440 mots clés de Gestion des Ressources Humaines • Recrutement (sélection, intégration…) • Gestion des carrières (ancres, comité…) • Évaluation (appréciation, entretien…) • Formation (plan, dispositifs…) • GPEC (compétence, prospective…) • Rémunération (prime, épargne salariale…) • Temps de travail (durée, congés, repos…) • Risques professionnels (santé, sécurité, conditions de travail…) • Relations sociales (syndicats, négociation, accord d’entreprise…)
Thesis
Full-text available
Le bien-être et le mal-être au travail sont des concepts d’actualité, qui recoupent de nombreux modèles et théories issus de disciplines et d’épistémologies différentes. On peut questionner la pertinence de ces modèles pour comprendre le rapport au travail de professions intellectuelles, d’activités d’expertises ou de travailleurs de la connaissance. En partant d’une synthèse des littératures qui existent sur ces sujets, cette thèse étudie le rapport au travail des métiers de laboratoire en sciences dures. Ce travail est une démarche qualitative, compréhensive et interprétativiste, basée sur l’étude de cas multiples enchâssés de quatre laboratoires du Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA). Cette recherche montre que les différents statuts présents dans les laboratoires partagent les mêmes sources d’engagement et de bien-être mais ont des facteurs de mal-être différents. De plus, ils présentent tous des « rapports ambigus au travail », conjonction simultanée de bien-être et de mal-être, qui obligent à repenser l’articulation entre bien-être et mal-être au travail. https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01261099
Thesis
Full-text available
This research deals with well-being management at work by means of discussion areas. Indeed, pathogenic perspective seems to be largely prevailing as well in literature as in professional practices – psychosocial risks, stress, burnout and suffering at work prevention – to address the issue of health at work. This considered, the challenge treated by this research is to propose a more appreciative picture of this issue by means of the concept of well-being at work. On the basis of the definition of health at work by the WHO (2007) which defines health as « A state of complete physical mental and social well-being», and not only as the absence of pathosis, this research aims at drawing the outline of a salutogenic perspective of work using three action researches .This communication aims to define that the setting up and the animation of discussion areas by the HRD and managers are a powerful lever to preserve resources (skills, working rules, capabilities, power to act, professional identity...) and consequently a factor of well-being – and quality – at work .Trust between actors, and the possibility to say and hear words on the activity and the effective organization of work as they really are, are the basis of the setting up of such discussion areas without which sustainable well-being is not possible.Within a constructivist framework we conducted three action researches on various public and private French organizations, using qualitative and quantitative studies. The results highlight how important work discussions areas’ design is to preserve well-being and health at work, provided that users still work, and are not being polluted by psychological violence. The essential added value of this research is the presentation of a pattern on sustainable well-being management at work by means of discussion areas.
Article
Full-text available
Devenu progressivement un enjeu majeur au sein de la sphère professionnelle, la question du bien-être au travail est sujet à débat. Sa subjectivité, à l'instar de celle des risques psychosociaux, rend sa prise en compte et son développement peu aisé, notamment pour les acteurs de l'entreprise. Les représentations retenues, notamment en fonction des différentes grilles de lecture disciplinaires, ont un impact décisif sur leur usage et leur mesure dans la sphère de l'entreprise, et ainsi sur les actions mises en place.
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Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to show that, though essential, the achievement of business-oriented performance outcomes has obscured the importance of employee wellbeing at work, which is a neglected area of inquiry within the field of human resource management. Instead the emphasis typically placed on the business case for HRM suggests a one-sided focus on organisational outcomes at the expense of employees. With this in mind, this paper seeks to examine the effects of HRM practices on employee wellbeing and performance. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from a public sector (local government) organisation to identify the link between HRM practices, employee wellbeing at work, and performance. A preliminary staff survey of employees provides a brief overview of the link between HRM practices, employee wellbeing at work and performance. Findings – HRM practices adopted have a significant impact on employee wellbeing at work and tend to be more positive than negative. Overall a consistent result in the study was that management relationship behaviour in the form of support and development of trust, promoted employee wellbeing at work amongst workers. In general, the findings will prove helpful to human resource practitioners, management, policy makers and business practice. Research limitations/implications – HRM practices that help to maximise employee wellbeing at work are not necessarily the same as those that make up “high performance” HR practices. Moreover, the promotion of wellbeing at work is not likely to be a result of the HRM practices but can be linked to line management leadership and relationships. Practical implications – The importance of management relationships, support and employees' trust was found to predict wellbeing at work. The decision by management to embrace the business case for employee wellbeing at work is likely to complement more conventional methods of improving employee attitudes and productivity, which in turn can enhance organisational effectiveness and decision making. Originality/value – This paper builds on existing work within HRM and provides a framework for establishing the linkage between HRM practices, employee wellbeing at work and performance in the public sector that it is suggested could improve individual and organisational outcomes through enhanced efficiency and productivity.
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This chapter provides an overview of the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in health, including disease, health behaviors, and access to health. The literature on the social determinants of health is reviewed. The chapter then provides a review of the health status of the homeless, poor, and near-poor. The incidence and mortality rates for leading diseases and health behaviors are reviewed, in addition to issues of environmental exposures, access to care, and health literacy. SES is one of the strongest predictors of health status (Kahng, 2010; Kawachi & Kennedy, 1997; Link & Phelan, 1996). SES is important to health regardless of a person's social status and in general, the more advantaged individuals are, the better their health, and the more disadvantaged individuals are, the greater their chances of increased morbidity and mortality (Adler et al., 1994; Adler & Coriell, 1997, Kidder, Wolitski, Campsmith, & Nakamura, 2007; Zlotnick and Zerger, 2009). The chapter provides an overview of strategies and policies to address the health needs of the poor and vulnerable in our society, including workplace wellness strategies and school-based health clinics. The authors suggest ways to extend these innovative practices. This chapter emphasizes an approach to addressing the health of the poor and near-poor that acknowledges the significant role that access to social and economic resources plays in the acquisition and maintenance of health. Recommendations for health interventions are focused on strengthening the utilization of community institutions to deliver needed services.
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Objective: Assess the joint mental health effects of unemployment and physical disability. Study Design: Face-to-face interviews with participants screened for the presence of a physical disability and a matched comparison sample obtained from the same geographic area. Participants: Five hundred fifty-six community-based physically disabled persons and 460 matched comparison participants. Outcome Measures: Mastery (L. I. Pearlin & C. Schooler, 1978) and self-esteem (M. Rosenberg, 1979), financial strain, and depression (L. S. Radloff, 1977). Results: Persons with disabilities are 5 times more likely than their nondisabled counterparts to be involuntarily unemployed. However, this difference accounts for only about 30% of the elevations in depression among the former. Furthermore, the emotional impact of unemployment appears to be greater among those with disabilities. Conclusions: There appears to be no overlap in the psychological impacts of physical disability and unemployment-the 2 stressors representing cumulative, and even synergistic, adversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[fre] Les souhaits des individus en matière d'âge de la retraite sont très différenciés entre pays et au sein même de chaque pays. La proportion d'individus de plus de 50 ans et encore en emploi qui souhaitent prendre leur retraite le plus rapidement possible varie d'environ 30 % aux Pays-Bas à 67 % en Espagne. Cette aspiration à un départ rapide peut dépendre à la fois de facteurs économiques et non économiques. Les facteurs non économiques incluent notamment la satisfaction au travail, la santé ou encore l'espérance de vie : un état de santé dégradé, une faible espérance de vie et un travail peu satisfaisant sont autant de raisons de vouloir prendre sa retraite le plus rapidement possible. Mais ce souhait peut aussi dépendre de facteurs économiques ou monétaires et notamment du barème des droits à retraite. Des prestations élevées dès l'âge d'ouverture des droits permettent d'envisager un départ précoce. Des droits plus faibles ou plus progressifs avec l'âge devraient rendre ce souhait moins fréquent. En combinant les données de l'enquête Share et des indicateurs de structure des droits à retraite par pays récemment proposés par l'OCDE, il est possible d'analyser le rôle conjoint de tous ces facteurs. Au niveau individuel, il apparaît que la santé et la satisfaction au travail constituent des déterminants importants du souhait de prendre sa retraite le plus tôt possible : être globalement satisfait de son travail fait baisser d'environ 16 points la probabilité de souhaiter prendre sa retraite le plus tôt possible, se déclarer en mauvaise ou très mauvaise santé a un effet inverse d'ampleur à peu près comparable. Mais ces facteurs non économiques n'expliquent qu'une part limitée des différences entre pays car leurs moyennes sont trop peu différenciées d'un pays à l'autre. En revanche, les déterminants économiques semblent assez bien rendre compte d'un certain nombre de spécificités nationales. [eng] Wanting to Retire as Early as Possible: Health, Job Satisfaction and Monetary Factors. Individuals’wishes in terms of retirement age vary widely between and, indeed, within countries. The proportion of over 50-year-olds still in work who want to retire as early as possible varies from around 30% in the Netherlands to 67% in Spain. This aspiration for an early retirement may depend both on economic and non-economic factors. The latter particularly include job satisfaction, health and life expectancy: a poor state of health, low life expectancy and unsatisfying work are all reasons for wanting to retire as early as possible. But this desire may also depend on economic or monetary factors and particularly on the scale of retirement rights. Early retirement becomes feasible when favourable services are available from retirement age onwards. The desire to retire early should become less frequent when rights are less favourable or become available more gradually. By combining the data from the Share survey and the indicators of individual countries’retirement rights structures recently released by the OECD, it is possible to analyse the combined role of all these factors. On an individual level, it seems that health and job satisfaction are signifi cant determiners of the desire to retire as early as possible: individuals who are on the whole satisfi ed with their job are 16% less likely to want to retire as soon as possible; declaring oneself to be in poor or very poor health has a more or less comparable inverse effect. However, these non-economic factors only explain a limited number of the differences between countries since on average they differ too insignifi cantly from country to country. On the other hand, the economic determiners seem to fairly satisfactorily explain some specifi c national characteristics. [spa] Jubilación anticipada: salud, satisfacción laboral y factores económicos. Los deseos individuales en materia de la edad de jubilación son muy diferentes entre los países, incluso dentro de cada país. La proporción de individuos de más de 50 años todavía activos que desea jubilarse lo antes posible varía entorno al 30 % en los Países Bajos y el 67 % en España. Esta aspiración a una salida rápida puede depender a la vez de factores económicos y no económicos. Los factores no económicos incluyen en particular la satisfacción en el trabajo, la salud o la esperanza de vida: una salud degradada, una corta esperanza de vida y un trabajo poco satisfactorio son buenas razones para querer jubilarse lo más pronto posible. Pero este deseo puede depender también de factores económicos o monetarios y, especialmente, del baremo de derecho a la jubilación. Prestaciones superiores a partir de la edad de apertura de los derechos permiten considerar una prejubilación. Menores derechos o derechos progresivos según la edad deberían atenuar esta tendencia. Combinando los datos de la encuesta Share y los indicadores de estructura del derecho a la jubilación por países, recientemente propuestos por la OCDE, es posible analizar el papel conjunto de todos estos factores. A título individual, parece que la salud y la satisfacción en el trabajo son determinantes básicos en el deseo de jubilarse antes de tiempo: estar globalmente satisfecho de su trabajo reduce de aproximadamente 16 puntos la probabilidad de desear jubilarse con anticipación, declararse en mal o muy mal estado de salud tiene un efecto inverso, con un alcance más o menos comparable. Pero estos factores no económicos sólo explican una pequeña parte de las diferencias entre los países, ya que sus promedios se diferencian muy poco de un país al otro. Por el contrario, los determinantes económicos parecen recoger bastante bien un cierto número de peculiaridades nacionales. [ger] Der Wunsch, möglichst früh in Rente zu gehen: Gesundheit, Zufriedenheit bei der Arbeit und fi nanzielle Faktoren. Die Präferenzen der einzelnen Personen im Hinblick auf das Rentenalter sind je nach Land und sogar innerhalb eines jeden Lands sehr unterschiedlich. Der Anteil der über 50-jährigen und noch erwerbstätigen Personen, die möglichst rasch in den Ruhestand gehen möchten, reicht von rund 30 % in den Niederlanden bis zu 67 % in Spanien. Dieser Wunsch, rasch aus dem Erwerbsleben auszuscheiden, kann durch zugleich wirtschaftliche und nicht wirtschaftliche Faktoren bedingt sein. Zu den nicht wirtschaftlichen Faktoren gehören insbesondere die Zufriedenheit bei der Arbeit, die Gesundheit oder auch die Lebenserwartung: ein schlechter Gesundheitszustand, eine kurze Lebenserwartung und eine wenig befriedigende Arbeit sind allesamt Gründe, möglichst rasch in Ruhestand gehen zu wollen. Entscheidend können aber auch wirtschaftliche oder fi nanzielle Aspekte sowie insbesondere die Rentenansprüche sein. Eine hohe Rente bei Begründung des Anspruchs auf Altersversorgung ermöglicht ein frühes Ausscheiden. Geringere oder nach Alter gestaffelt Ansprüche gestatten dies seltener. Durch Kombination der Daten aus der Erhebung Share . mit den von der OECD kürzlich vorgeschlagenen Strukturindikatoren der Rentenansprüche nach den einzelnen Ländern kann die gemeinsame Rolle aller dieser Faktoren analysiert werden. Auf individueller Ebene stellen Gesundheit und Zufriedenheit bei der Arbeit wichtige Determinanten des Wunschs dar, möglichst rasch in Rente zu gehen: bei globaler Zufriedenheit mit seiner Arbeit sinkt die Wahrscheinlichkeit um rund 16 Prozentpunkte, möglichst früh in Ruhestand gehen zu wollen; bei schlechter oder sehr schlechter Gesundheit ist der gegenteilige Effekt ungefähr gleichen Umfangs festzustellen. Diese nicht wirtschaftlichen Faktoren erklären aber nur einen begrenzten Teil der Unterschiede zwischen den Ländern, da ihre Durchschnitte je nach Land zu wenig differenziert sind. Dagegen geben die wirtschaftlichen Determinanten recht gut Aufschluss über eine Reihe nationaler Besonderheiten.