Technical ReportPDF Available
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Annual Report on Excavations at the
Wallace Great House (5MT6970) 2020
Bruce A. Bradley and Cynthia S. Bradley
December 2020
In fulfilment of the requirements of State Permit #77190
Tom Hoff 1944-2020 doing ONE of the things he loved
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Annual Report on Excavations at the Wallace Great House (5MT6970) 2020
Table of Contents
Title page………………………………………………………………………..………….i
List of Figures
List of Tables
Introduction………………………………………………………………………….……..1
Wallace Ruin Site Description……………………………………………………….…..1
History of Research…………………………………………………………………….…2
Research 2020………………………………………………………………….…………3
Excavations……………..…………………………………………….………….....4
Old Wallace- Phases 1 and 2………..…………………………………………..4
Room 59……………….……………………………………………......4
Room 55……………………….…………………………………………..7
Room 65…………………………………………………………………..10
Plaza Nonstructure 76 Segment 5.…………………………………….20
New Wallace- Phase 3..…………………………………………………………22
Room 53………………………………………………………….…….…22
Revitalized Wallace- Phase 4…………………………………………………..28
Room 33…………………………………………………………………..28
Room 62…………………………………………………………………..30
Kiva 56…………………………………………………………………….33
Stabilization and backfilling……………………………………………………………..43
Lab Work………………………………………………………………………………….46
Artifacts……………………………………………………………………………………46
Crow Canyon Analyses……………………………………..…………………………..48
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Research Plans 2020……………………………………………………………………48
Human Skeletal Remains……………………………………………………………....48
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………..……….52
List of Figures
Figure 1. Wallace Ruin plan…………………………………………………………..1
Figure 2. Wallace Great House plan as known May 2020…………………………...2
Figure 3. Room 59 lower portion of south wall………………………………………...4
Figure 4. Room 59 lower portion of west wall showing transition into Surface 1..4
Figure 5. Room 59 west wall impressions in mud rendering…………………....5
Figure 6. Room 59 west wall applique……………………………………………….....5
Figure 7. Room 59 Surface 1…………………………………………………………....5
Figure 8. Room 59 Surface 2………………………………………………………....5
Figure 9. Room 59 Surface 3…………………………………………………………....5
Figure 10. Room 59 Feature 1 void and remnant of beam socket…………………..6
Figure 11. Room 55 north wall at end of excavation in 2020………………………...8
Figure 12. Room 55 east wall…………………………………………………………....8
Figure 13. Room 55 south wall……………………………………………………….....8
Figure 14. Room 55 south wall 2 of 3 secondary beam sockets with remnants...9
Figure 15. Room 55 secondary beams and large daub chunk……………………….9
Figure 16. Room 65 north wall at Surface 1 level…………………………………....10
Figure 17. Room 65 north wall with features highlighted……………………………10
Figure 18. Room 65b east wall Stone Course 11…………………………………….11
Figure 19. Room 65b east wall mortar course between Stone Courses 8 and 911
Figure 20. Room 65b east wall faces…………………………………………………..12
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Figure 21. Room 65a south walls at top of Stratum 2………………………………..12
Figure 22. Room 65a south wall remaining section of Type 3 masonry wall………13
Figure 23. Room 65a south Type 3 compound wall cross-section…………………13
Figure 24. Room 65 and Kiva 56 west wall showing support wall and other
remaining components……………………………………………………..13
Figure 25. Room 65a artifacts on floor along south wall…………………………….14
Figure 26. Room 65a artifact cluster on floor between firepit and
north wall (PD634) ………………………………………………………….14
Figure 27. Room 65a close-up of floor artifact cluster……………………………….14
Figure 28. Room 65a raised-sill doorway, south wall, east end (Feature 3)………17
Figure 29. Room 65a raised-sill doorway, south wall, west end (Feature 4)………17
Figure 30. Room 65a plugged raised-sill doorway, north wall, west of center
(Feature 5) …………………………………………………………………..17
Figure 31. Room 65a northeast corner, corner bin, (Feature 6)………………….....17
Figure 32. Room 65a firepit (Feature 7)……………………………………………….17
Figure 33. Room 65a metate bin (Feature 8)………………………………………….17
Figure 34. Room 65a wall vent, north end of east wall (Feature 9)……………..….17
Figure 35. Kiva 56, Stratum 6, daub chunks………………………………………..…18
Figure 36. Room 65a South-North profile looking west…………………………..….18
Figure 37. Room 65a Stratum 3 stones with sooted/charred edges………………..19
Figure 38. Room 65a daub with rod impressions……………………………………..19
Figure 39. Room 65a top of Stratum 4……………………………….………………...19
Figure 40. Room 65a top of Stratum 4 SE area close-up…………………………....19
Figure 41. Room 65a top of Stratum 4 SE main artifact concentration……………..19
Figure 42. Nonstructure 76 Segment 5 Surface 1 features……………………….20
Figure 43. Nonstructure 76 Segment 5 Feature 2 east end showing shelf………...21
Figure 44. Non-structure 76 Segment 5 Feature 2 east end………………………...21
Figure 45. Non-structure 76 Segment 5 Feature 2 east end masonry and
remnant of oxidized rendering………………………………………….…21
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Figure 46. Non-structure 76 Segment 5 Feature 2 south side masonry…………..21
Figure 47. Non-structure 76 Segment 5 Feature 2 west end masonry…………….21
Figure 48. Room 53a: Standing walls, looking east. Wall fall distribution is at
the base of Stratum 3……………..………………………………………..22
Figure 49. Room 53a, F. 2, upper section of a T-shaped doorway, west wall…….23
Figure 50. Room 53a, F. 4, Raised-sill doorway, east wall, bounded by
Phase 3 tabular sandstone slabs…………………...………………….…24
Figure 51. Room 53 wall cavities: F- 6, left and F-7 right………..……………….…24
Figure 52. Room 53 wall cavities, F-8 left and F-9 right……………………………..24
Figure 53. Room 53a, north wall, Feature 3, Other Wall Opening…………..…….25
Figure 54. Room 53a, south wall, Feature 5, Other Wall Opening…………………26
Figure 55. Room 33 final floor surface looking north…………………………………28
Figure 56. Room 33 final floor surface looking west……………...………………….28
Figure 57. Room 33 metate bin on lowest surface…………………………………...29
Figure 58. Room 62 and Phase 3 construction…………………………………….…30
Figure 59. Room 62 west wall upper portion of central area and south end……...31
Figure 60. Room 62 west wall north end as exposed in Kiva 56…………………...31
Figure 61. Room 62 east wall north portion exposed in Kiva 56…………………...31
Figure 62. Room 62 east wall central and southern portion………………………...31
Figure 63. East face of Room 62 east wall in Room 55...………………………...32
Figure 64. Kiva 56 final plan with features………….…………………………………34
Figure 65. Kiva 56 Feature-5 hearth plan and cross-section………………………..35
Figure 66. Kiva 56 F-10 sipapu complex before excavation….……………………..36
Figure 67. Kiva 56 F-10 sipapu complex plan and profile………………………...36
Figure 68. Kiva 56 F-10 final components excavated………………………………..39
Figure 69. Kiva 56 F-10 second stage components excavated…………………….39
Figure 70. Kiva 56 F-10 Component N after excavation…………………………….39
Figure 71. Kiva 56 F-10 Component N plan and cross-sections……………………39
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Figure 72. Kiva 56 F-10 Components G, a and b before and after excavation.…..40
Figure 73. Kiva 56 Surface 2 F-11 inset slab…………………………………………40
Figure 74. Kiva 56 Surface 2 F-12……………………………………………………..40
Figure 75. Kiva 56 Surface 2 Feature 13……………………………………………...40
Figure 76. Kiva 56 Feature 14 corner niche…………………………………………..41
Figure 77. Kiva 56 Feature 14 corner niche cover stone…………………………...41
Figure 78. Kiva 56 Feature 15 corner niche…………………………………………..41
Figure 79. Kiva 56 South to North section…………………………………………….42
Figure 80. Plan of backfilled and stabilized areas as of December, 2020…………44
Figure 81. Kivas 3 and 4 looking east………………………………………………....43
Figure 82. Kivas 3 and 4 looking NW………………………………………………….43
Figure 83. Path over the east side of Kiva 50 leading to Room 43………………...44
Figure 84. Room 43 with final amount of backdirt………………...…………………44
Figure 85. Room 43 modern dry-laid east retaining wall……………………………45
Figure 86. Kiva 50 main chamber SE area…………………………………………...45
Figure 87. Kiva 50 SE area modern retraining wall………………………………….45
Figure 88. Kiva 50 main chamber with garden cloth marking base of backfill……45
Figure 89. Kiva 50 backdirt from Room 53 looking SE……………………………...45
Figure 90. Miscellaneous flaked stone………………………………………………..46
Figure 91. Projectile points………………………………………………………….….46
Figure 92. Projectile point blanks and preforms………………………………….…..46
Figure 93. Core…………………………………………………………………………..46
Figure 94. Tchamahias………………………………………………………………….47
Figure 95. Bone and antler artifacts…………………………………………………...47
Figure 96. Sherd pendants……………………………………………………………..47
List of Tables
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Table 1. Point location catalog for Room 65a, Surface 1 (PD634)………………...15
Table 2. Features in Room 65a…………………………………………………….…16
Table 3. Kiva 56 feature catalog……………………………………………………....34
Table 4. Kiva 56, Feature 10 Sipapu Complex components…………………….….37
Table 5. Isolated skeletal elements from Wallace Ruin, 2020 field season……… 50
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Introduction
Excavations and research continued at the Wallace Great House (5MT6970)
where it left off at the end of the 2019 field season. This work was conducted under the
authority of the Colorado Historical, Prehistorical and Archaeological Resources Act
CRS 1973 24-80-401 et seq., and under the procedures of the State Administrative
Procedures Act, CRS 1973 24-4-101 et seq., Permit # 77190. The county sheriff’s and
corner’s offices were informed as per regulations. Also, consultation was done with the
State Archaeologist’s Office and through it the Colorado Indian Commission.
Wallace Ruin Site Description
The site of Wallace Ruin (5MT6970) consists of a small unit pueblo (Green
Stone), a Chaco Great House outlier, during the 11th and 12th centuries, and a possible
reservoir (Figure 1). This was part of a larger community including three other Great
Houses (Haynie Ruin East, Haynie Ruin West and Ida Jean Ruin) collectively known as
the Lakeview Group. Wallace Ruin was listed on the Colorado State Register of Historic
Properties on March 12, 2002 and in the National Register of Historic Places on 24
March 2005.
History of
Research
Figure 1. Wallace Ruin plan.
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Research excavations and reports of results were carried out intermittently
between 1969 and 2019 (Fig. 2). Excavations occurring before 1998 (Colorado State
Permit #98-57) completed a double row of 12th century two-story rooms in the west wing
Figure 2. Wallace Great House plan as known May 2020. Shaded areas are where we worked in 2020
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(Rooms 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 17, 18, 19, 26 and 27). Also excavated were an intrusive 13th
century kiva (Kiva 1), five multi-story 11th century rooms (Rooms 2, 14, 15, 24 and 25)
and two added 13th century intramural kivas (Kivas 3 and 4) on the north side of an
unexcavated elevated kiva (Kiva 32). Additional excavations were conducted between
2008 and 2010 in the southern projection of the west arm of the building (Annex Rooms
28, 29 and 30). Excavations in 2015 were undertaken in 13th century Room 33. In 2018
and 2019 excavations were continued or begun in Rooms 33, 55, 59, 62, and 65b, Kiva
56, and Nonstructure 77, Segment 1.
Throughout the research two major and two minor construction phases have
been identified: Phase 1 circa A.D. 1040, Phase 2 circa A.D. 1090, Phase 3a circa A. D.
1120 and Phase 3b circa A.D.1130. There seems to have been an abandonment of the
structure in the mid-1100s and then a reuse of the building in the late 12th and the 13th
centuries (Phase 4) that primarily involved existing structures.
Research 2020
The year 2020 has been a challenge, but we managed to get a lot done despite
the complications surrounding the Covid-19 pandemic. We had two excavation
sessions: one in May-June and another in September-early November. Work continued
in several multi-story structures in the east portion of Old Wallace (Phases 1 and 2),
Rooms 55, 59, 62 and 65. We also worked in Phase 4 Kiva 56 and Room 33 and began
in the underlying plaza area NST 76 Segment 5. Investigation of the east section of Old
Wallace (central in the final Great House plan) is being done to obtain more evidence of
this early structure and to assist with interests in the early Lakeview Community (see
https://www.crowcanyon.org/index.php/northern-chaco-outliers-project-2019). We
continued work in Room 53 to determine if east arm Phase 3 rooms were reused during
Pueblo III times, as they were in the west arm.
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Excavations
All work in 2020 was a continuation of the 2019 investigations previously
reported. Only where reference to that work is needed to clarify a discussion does this
report include what has already been reported.
OLD WALLACE- PHASES 1 AND 2
Room 59
Excavation continued but with a decreased footprint because little was being
found or learned. It will be expanded again if deemed warranted.
Architecture
Walls- Excavation in Room 59 revealed downward extensions of walls on the
west and south. Both walls are either Phase 1 or Phase 2, which are difficult to
distinguish because the faces are covered with mud rendering (Figures 3-5).
The rendering was very well preserved with impressions of hands and fingers
discernable. There was even a small ‘applique’ of a different mud source (Figure 6).
Figure 4. Room 59 lower portion of west
wall showing transition into Surface 1.
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Floors- Three surfaces were encountered; these may
have represented floors/use surfaces of a room or possibly an
exterior area. Surface 1 (Figure 7) was prepared or at least
was present during the final mud rendering of the west wall,
based on the transition from the wall to the surface. However,
the walls (south and west) continue below Surface 1. No
evidence regarding how Surface 1 may have been used was
encountered.
Surface 2 (Figure 8) was another clear break in the
stratigraphy, but it seems to be the result of the compaction
of the underlying sediments
rather than a prepared floor.
There was no indication of
connection with the walls.
Again, there was no evidence
of activity.
Surface 3 (Figure 9) was a
repeat of Surface 2, with the walls continuing downwards. Work was terminated when it
became too cold. It will be continued next field session.
Figure 5. Room 59 west wall impressions in mud rendering
Figure 6. Room 59 west wall applique
Figure 7. Room 59 Surface 1
Figure 8. Room 59 Surface 2
Figure 9. Room 59 Surface 3
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Roof/ceilings- No evidence of roofs or ceilings were encountered.
Features- Two features were investigated in the west wall. Feature 1 is a void
where it looks like stones were removed adjacent to a beam socket (Figure 10).
While the void extended through the wall, the beam socket that remained only extended
about halfway. This indicates that the beam was to a roof or floor, which was probably
removed during the construction of the Phase 3 elevated kiva (Kiva 50) to the east. If
this was the case, then what we have been calling Room 59 was indeed a structure.
However, it is possible that the socket held a short beam that may have been used for
something on the exterior of the structure (Room 65), but this seems unlikely.
Stratigraphy
Four strata (9-12) and three surfaces (1-3) were identified this year. All strata
above Surface 1 were the result of intentional filling of the area, probably during or
before the construction of Kiva 50, as they extend under the lowest part of its wall.
Dating
The only method of dating is pottery. Although preliminary, all identifiable pottery
is Mancos B/w, but looks to be early thus putting it in the 11th century. This dating
corresponds well to the construction and use of the adjacent rooms (65 and 55).
Figure 10. Room 59 Feature 1 void and remnant of beam socket
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Interpretations
It is unclear what is represented in the lower portion of what we are calling Room
59. Down to the bottom of the Kiva 50 wall, the space served as a corner room for the
kiva. Below this it could have been either an outdoor space or a room. The great
preservation of the south and west wall surface rendering argues for a room
interpretation since it clearly had not been exposed to outdoor elements before the area
was filled. Also, the beam socket in the west wall probably indicates that the area was
roofed. If a room, it would likely be another Phase 2 construction.
Room 55
Work continued in the narrow space south of Room 59 and east of a wall
constructed for Room 62, probably during Phase 3, but possibly in Phase 4. Previous
work indicates that this wall was built up against fill in what we are calling Room 55. So,
what we are excavating is only a portion of the original, Phase 1 or Phase 2 room.
Excavations continued down through intentional fill until a fallen floor remnant was
encountered. This is expressed by three small beam sockets in the south wall and a
unit of mixed daub and beams. Owing to the confined space and a loss of labor, Room
55 work ended before the fallen ceiling was removed.
Architecture
Walls-The north wall continues down from an upper story exposed in 2019. The
masonry looks to be Phase 1 but based on its integral connection with the east wall of
Room 65a it was built with a Phase 2 wall. The walls north face is exposed in Room 59
but the masonry is covered by mud rendering (Figure 11). The east wall continues to
present an irregular face, also coated in mud rendering. Since it is tied to the north wall
it is also probably Phase 2 (Figure 12). It is clear where the divide between the upper
and ground story was because of an irregularity, above which the masonry is exposed
8
and below which it is rendered. The south wall continues below where it leans out to
the south. It is also an early wall, probably Phase 2 (Figure 13).
Floors- We have not yet encountered a floor in
this space other than along the south wall.
Otherwise, it is too jumbled to have retained a
floor surface.
Roof/ceilings- We have just encountered a
fallen roof/ceiling that was between the second
and ground stories. It is comprised of pieces of
daub, some large-sized, with rotted beams, more or less in their original relative
positions. It was possible to trace missing sections of these beams by the molds they
left in the fallen daub. Three of the beams were traced northward from sockets in the
south wall (Figures 14-15).
Features- The only features encountered are the beam sockets in the south wall.
Figure 11. Room 55 north wall at end of
excavation in 2020
Figure 12. Room 55 east wall
Figure 13. Room 55 south wall
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Stratigraphy
Fill above the fallen floor was a uniform loam containing artifacts and animal bones.
The quantities are enough to indicate a cultural fill but not enough to suggest a midden
deposit. This material was derived from elsewhere and intentionally used to fill the
upper portion of the room, possibly during the construction of the Phase 3 or Phase 4
west wall.
Dating
The secondary beams were too disintegrated to allow tree-ring dating so again pottery
and masonry are the best indications of age. Preliminary assessment of pottery
indicates a mix of Mancos and Cortez B/w that places the intentional fill in the 11th
century.
Interpretations
It is clear that a Phase 1 or Phase 2 room was truncated on the west by the addition of
a Phase 3 or Phase 4 room (62). At this juncture it is speculation where the original
west wall is, but we expect to encounter it under the floor of Room 62, perhaps ending
on the north between the doorways in the south wall of Room 65a (see below).
Figure 14. Room 55 south wall, 2 of 3
secondary beam sockets with beam
remnants
Figure 15. Room 55 secondary beams and large daub chunk (right center)
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Room 65
Room 65 was a multi-story Phase 2 room, with the ground story being under the north
part of Kiva 56 (see below discussion). Three Room 65 wall features were plugged
and/or plastered over either when the kiva was built or sometime during its use. This
season the lower story of the room was excavated and by convention is designated
Room 65a. Strata within the room below the kiva floor preparation were considered as
related to the room although they were added after the lower story was no longer in use.
Architecture
Walls- To safely excavate Room 65 the east and west leaning walls had to be
dealt with. There were two options: 1) stabilization, or 2) removal. Different approaches
were used: the west wall was stabilized with a buttress wall and the east wall was
dismantled down to the base of the lean where it was safe. This is discussed by wall.
The north wall is the south face of the unexcavated Phase 1 Room 60 (Figure
16). Close to two stories remain intact with a clear boundary between the stories
represented by a layer of mortar, with evidence of secondary beams in Room 60 but not
extending into Room 65 (Figure 17). The upper story wall was exposed in 2018 and
Figure 16. Room 65 north wall at Surface 1
level
Figure 17. Room 65 north wall with features highlighted.
Red indicates plugged features; yellow outlines
secondary beam layer and blue shows north niche of
Kiva 56.
Interior face
Exterior face
Type 1 veneered
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2019; the surface rendering since has sluff-off from winter freeze-thaw and chemical
precipitation. It was covered over two winters so did not have surface erosion from
water. When first exposed it looked like the ground story wall. It is Type 1 veneered
masonry; note the exterior face veneer. The interior face has not yet been exposed.
The east second story wall was leaning inward at an extreme angle. Since the
other side of the wall was exposed in Room 59, the unsafe portion of this wall was
dismantled. This was an opportunity to record in detail a whole section of wall. Each
course was removed and photographed (Figure 18) and for the stone courses each
stone was measured. Upper elevations were also recorded for each stone course.
In total, 18 stone and 18 mortar courses were removed and recorded. This revealed
what to us was a new masonry style. We are designating it Type 2 plain. There are
alternating stone and mortar courses. Many of the stones span the wall thickness but
others are partially or completely narrower than the wall. In these cases, the stones
were carefully lined up on the exterior (east) face and any width irregularities were filled
in with mortar and small tabular stones on the west face. The mortar courses (Figure
19) were used to separate the stone courses and to provide a level bed. Stone courses
were not in contact with one another. The mortar courses were mud mortar in the
middle but lined on both faces with tabular stones, frequently two high.
Figure 18. Room 65b east wall Stone Course 11. Stones 1,2 and 4 do not span the wall width and the west sides are filled with
mortar and tabular stones. Stones 3, 5 and 6 span the wall width. All stone have their east sides lined up with the wall face.
Figure 19. Room 65b east wall mortar course between Stone Courses 8 and 9
12
The result of this masonry style is that
the wall faces exhibit distinct looks
(Figure 20). The exterior face is very
regular and even while the interior face
is irregular. If only the interior face is
examined, we would identify it as Type
1 plain, while the exterior is Type 2.
The south wall is complicated (Figure 21) in that it is not only the original wall but also
forms the lower two courses of a subsequent wall, though still under the kiva floor. This
upper wall portion looks to be double stone and may be either Type 3 or Type 4.
Below this compound wall was the original south wall of Room 65a. It looks to be
the interior face of a Type 2 wall, which is likely as it integrally bonded with the east
Type 2 wall. The east end extended up to the kiva floor but the west portion was partly
removed and filled over before the Type 3 wall was built, in a slightly different
orientation. There are two doorways in the wall, discussed under features. The west
end of the wall underlies the west wall of Kiva 56 with an offset of about 40 cm so I have
not exposed it.
The double stone wall (Figure 22) was built on intentional fill, the same deposit
that extended to the north in Room 65a. However, this wall originally extended up
another story, but most of it was removed by the construction of Kiva 56. It also
extended further to the west where there is a good cross-section showing that it was
compound masonry, most likely Type 3 (Figure 23).
Figure 20. Room 65b east wall faces
Figure 21. Room 65a south walls at top of Stratum 2. Blue outlines double stone wall, red shows the Kiva 56 hearth which
cuts into the double stone wall and green indicates the original Room 65a south wall.
13
Instead of removing the leaning west
wall of Kiva 56, we opted to build a
supporting wall (Figure 24) to make it
safe. This means that neither the west
wall of Room 65a nor the floor under
the support wall has been exposed.
Figure 23. Room 65a south Type 3
compound wall cross-section
Figure 22. Room 65a south wall remaining
section of Type 3 masonry wall
Figure 24. Room 65 and Kiva 56 west wall showing the support wall
and other remaining components. Red outlines the original portion
of the west wall of Kiva 56. Yellow outlines the support wall built to
hold up the leaning portion of the west wall of Kiva 56. Blue
indicates the unexcavated area.
14
Floors- A floor was encountered and exposed in Room 65a (Figures 25-26) except
under the west end support wall. This was a clear surface and looks to have been
prepared. Overall, the floor was lacking artifacts except for immediately adjacent to the
west area of the south wall where there were three tchamahias and a core (Figure 27)
in the area between the north wall and a central firepit (Table 1). The pottery was
mostly Mancos Corrugated with Mancos B/w and San Juan redware also present. The
bone awls and other tools may represent an activity area.
Figure 27. Room 65a artifact cluster on floor between firepit and north wall (PD634)
Figure 26. Room 65a close-up of floor artifact cluster
Figure 25. Room 65a artifacts on floor along
south wall
15
Table 1. Point location catalog for Room 65a, Surface 1 (PD634)
PL
DESCRIPTION
ELEVATION(s)
COMMENTS
1
tchamahia
1895.40
Slate poor condition
2
tchamahia
1895.39
Slate excellent condition
3
core
1895.39
Brushy Basin unidirectional
4
tchamahia
1895.39
Slate excellent condition
5
bone weaving tool
1895.39
Split rib, perpendicular wear
grooves
6
core
1895.37
Sandstone?
7
flake
1895.34
Coarse dark green
8
Sherd
1895.33
Deadman’s b/r seed jar rim
9
bone awl
1895.33
mammal
10
Peckingstone
1895.34
Green, moderate to heavy use
11
Antler ‘slab’
1895.35
Split, end truncated
12
Sherds (4)
1895.35
San Juan redware jar
13
sherd
1895.35
Mancos b/w bowl rim
14
Bone awl
1895.31
Mammal, perforated
15
flake
1895.37
Brushy Basin
16
Sherd (2 pieces)
1895.31
Mancos b/w jar body
17
flake
1895.31
Green Morrison
18
Sherd cluster
1895.33
Corrugated, whiteware, redware
Roof/ceilings- No evidence of roofs or ceilings was found in Room 65a. There
was ample roofing material/wall mortar in the intentional fills (Strata 1-4) but this
may not have been from either the Room 65b roof or the Room 65a ceiling.
There are also no beams sockets in any of the walls even though the north and
east walls remained high enough to show them. If a roof or ceiling had
disintegrated and fallen, this would have been evident. Therefore, it seems that
any roof or ceiling was dismantled and removed before Room 65a was
intentionally filled. It is likely that another floor will be found below Surface 1,
16
indicated by the two surfaces found in the corner bin (F-6) and the greater depth
of the north and east walls. There were multiple ground story floors in the other
excavated rooms (2, 14, 15, 24 and 25) in Old Wallace.
Features- Seven features were encountered in Room 65a (Figures 28-34; Table
2); three raised-sill doorways (Features 3, 4 and 5), a masonry corner bin
(Feature 6), a firepit (Feature 7) a metate bin (Feature 8) and a wall vent
(Feature 9). Features 1, 2 and 10 are associated with the second story Room
65b. Only the corner bin (F-2) and the wall vent (F-9) have been excavated.
Table 2. Features in Room 65a
#
type
location
Length
Width
Height/Depth
Comments
3
Doorway
raised sill
Room 65a
south wall
east area
n/a
50 cm
71 cm top to
stones
86 top to sill
not plugged, sides look
eroded. No evident sill
or lintel stones/beams.
Bottom 35 cm above
Surface 1 at elev1895.74
4
Doorway
raised sill
Room 65a
south wall
west area
n/a
46 cm
73 cm
incomplete
not plugged, sides look
eroded. No evident sill
or lintel stones/beams.
Top missing. Bottom 46
cm above floor at
elevation 1895.85
5
Doorway
raised sill
Room 65a
north wall
west of
center
n/a
Top 45
cm
Bottom
54 cm
70 cm
Plugged with type 1
masonry
6
Corner
bin
masonry
Room 65a
NE corner
Interior
94 cm
E-W
Interior
93 cm
N-S
49 cm
(original
surface)
single stone masonry
walls, abut Room 60 and
Room 59 walls
7
Firepit
Central; t
off-set to
west
50 cm
50 cm
not excavated
8
Metate
bin
Between
doorways
against
south wall
dismantled
9
Wall
vent
Room 65a
east wall
north end
Plugged
17
Figure 28. Room 65a raised-sill
doorway, south wall, east end
(Feature 3)
Figure 29. Room 65a raised-sill
doorway, south wall, west end
(Feature 4)
Figure 30. Room 65a plugged raised-sill
doorway, north wall, west of center
(Feature 5)
Figure 31. Room 65a northeast corner,
corner bin, (Feature 6)
Figure 32. Room 65a firepit
(Feature 7)
Figure 33. Room 65a metate bin
(Feature 8)
Figure 34. Room 65a wall vent, north end of
east wall (Feature 9)
18
Stratigraphy
The stratigraphy in Room 65a was quite straight forward in that all of it consisted
of intentional deposits brought in to fill in the room,
probably to allow new construction to take place
on top of it. The first 10-15 cm down from the top
of the south wall and below the Kiva 56 floor was
designated as Stratum 6 in the kiva. This layer,
composed almost entirely of pieces of daub
(Figure 35) and small pieces of sandstone, was
laid down specifically to construct the kiva floor.
Below this were 4 strata (Figure 36) which had a mix of daub pieces, small
pieces of charcoal, pockets of loam, various quantities of small sandstone pieces, a few
larger wall stones, some disintegrated organics, animal bones and artifacts. Stratum 1
gave way to Stratum 2 when there was a perceptible increase in the proportion of
charcoal. The break between Strata 2 and 3 was arbitrary as Stratum 2 was becoming
thick and separating it could allow upper and lower units to be compared. Some of the
stones in these strata were oxidized and some had one charred/sooted edge (Figure
37). These probably came from a burned structure where the wall faces were charred.
Curiously, there were few pieces of oxidized or charred daub.
Figure 35. Kiva 56, Stratum 6, daub chunks.
Figure 36. Room 65a South-North profile looking west
Elevation
19
Most of the daub lacked impressions but in
Strata 1 and 2 those that did had what looked to be
smoothed wood rods in parallel (Figure 38). There
were only a few that had these apparent
impressions of roof beams or splints. The majority
was probably mortar from dismantled walls. The
daub volume was huge; we estimate that greater
than 50% of the volume of the strata was daub.
There was a distinguishable break between
Strata 3 and 4 artifacts concentrated at the contact zone across much of the room
(Figures 39-41). Some of these were large Mancos Corrugated jar sherds. Adjacent to
the center of the south wall was an inverted slab metate on a concentration of
sandstone slabs and wall stones. This grouping extended to the floor where there was
a dismantled metate bin (F-8) and another metate.
Dating
Dating of the deposits in the room is
based on pottery types. Final analyses
have not been done but preliminary
observations of Mancos Corrugated,
Mancos B/w, Cortez B/w, Chaco B/w and
San Juan redwares place all of the deposits
in the 11th century.
Figure 37. Room 65a Stratum 3 stones with
sooted/charred edges
Figure 38. Room 65a daub with rod impressions
Figure 39. Room 65a top of Stratum 4
Figure 40. Room 65a top of Stratum 4 SE
area close-up
Figure 41. Room 65a top of Stratum 4
SE main artifact concentration
20
Interpretations
Room 65 was constructed in the 11th century and was originally at least two
stories high with Type 2, single width masonry. It was added to the south side of a
multistory room (60) with Type 1, single width masonry. There are two doorways in the
south wall in the ground story and a plugged doorway in the north Phase 1 wall. The
room seems to have been built along with one and possibly two Phase 2 rooms (55 and
an unnumbered one to the west) that was covered by a later room (62). The ground
story of Room 65 has features (metate bin and central firepit) that indicate that at least
the last use was as a habitation. It also has a built-in masonry bin that was probably a
storage feature (granary?). After use, the ground story of the room was intentionally
filled with deconstruction debris mixed with artifacts, including non-local pottery such as
Chaco B/w and San Juan redwares. Subsequently, the second story was modified,
probably as part of the Phase 3 construction episode in the early 12th century.
Eventually, the second story was incorporated in the construction of a Phase 4
rectangular kiva (56).
PLAZA NONSTRUCTURE 76 SEGMENT 5
The area below the floor of Room 33 would have been a plaza space for the
earlier Great House, so in accordance with standard procedures, we continued
excavation below the floor level. The plaza as a whole has been designated as
Nonstructure 76. Four previous areas (Segments 1-4) have been investigated, so this
area is designated Segment 5. Only a small portion of this area was investigated this
year. Despite the limited investigation, three features were identified (Figure 42).
Figure 42. Nonstructure 76
Segment 5 Surface 1 features
21
Features- Feature 1 is a posthole located in the NE area.
Feature 2 is a masonry-lined vault-like structure, the majority of which extends
under the vent shaft and south wall of Kiva 31. Excavation of the accessible portion of
this feature is yet to be completed. The masonry is fine with small to medium
rectangular blocks (Figures 43-46). The faces were coated with silty sediment
rendering, which was heavily oxidized to a bright orange color (Figure 47).
The fill of Feature 2 is complex but dominated by heavily oxidized sandstone
blocks and various sediments including sand. There is charcoal throughout and even
some sections of small logs that yielded two potential tree-ring samples. These have
been submitted for dating, but the results are not yet known. Some of the sandstone
blocks are full, large-spalled types typical of Style 1 and 2 masonry. Some lie almost
horizontally while others are at various angles.
Figure 43. Nonstructure 76 Segment 5
Feature 2 east end showing shelf
Figure 46. Nonstructure 76 Segment 5
Feature 2 south side masonry
Figure 44. Nonstructure 76
Segment 5 Feature 2 east end
masonry
Figure 45. Nonstructure 76 Segment 5
Feature 2 east end masonry and remnant
of oxidized rendering
Figure 47. Nonstructure 76 Segment 5
Feature 2 west end masonry
22
No identifiable decorated pottery has been recovered from this feature. Two
tree-ring samples have been submitted for dating. That Features 2 and 3 underly Kiva
31, which is Phase 3a, means that they probably predate the early 12th century.
Feature 3 is a shallow bowl-shaped firepit of about 1-meter diameter and 12 cm
deep. The north portion is under the vent shaft of Kiva 31, so only the south portion was
excavated. The fill was ashy sediment with a lot of charcoal, and all was retained for
flotation. While it was clearly a firepit it did not exhibit heavy oxidation or charring
indicating it probably did not see long-term or intensive use. The presence of large
pieces of charcoal also indicates it was either smothered or stirred while still burning.
NEW WALLACE -PHASE 3
Room 53
Room 53 is a Construction Phase 3 multi-story room situated on the southwest
corner of the east arm of Wallace Ruin, where it borders the great house plaza.
Following wall clearing and preliminary work in Stratum 1 wall fall in 2019, efforts in
2020 focused upon the removal of room fill, finding evidence of construction materials
and techniques, the location of architectural features, and obtaining artifact evidence of
chronology and room use during the 1100s and
again in the 1200s.
Architecture
WallsThe lower-story, standing walls of
Room 53a are comprised of Construction Phase 3
tabular sandstone, whereas the standing walls of
the upper-story room 53b are represented only by
a short section of Phase 3 coursing in the north
wall. The north wall of 53a is at full height, as are
the northern ends of the west and east walls
(Figure 48). These two walls then taper down to
the south wall, which is roughly a half story high.
Apart from two exceptions noted below, the
Figure 48. Room 53a standing walls, looking east.
Wall fall distribution is at the base of Stratum 3.
23
masonry coursing of 53a and the 53b remnant is well-preserved, evidencing attention to
stone selection and craftmanship. Most of the wall fall rubble consists of Phase 3
tabular sandstone, suggesting that the upper story room would have had a similar
appearance to 53a. However, several large, irregular Phase 4 stones are dispersed
within the middle and lower levels of rubble. This may indicate that the upper story room
was constructed with less attention to detail or had limited remodeling in later times.
Roof/ceiling- No sections of intact roof or ceilings are present. Mud daub, gray
clay chunks with wood shake striations, small sections of unburned shakes, and tiny
fragments of unburned wood are dispersed across the room in Strata 2 and 3. However,
these do not occur in concentrations indicative of an in-place section of fallen
roof/ceiling. A complete row of secondary beam sockets (Feature 1) is present in the
north wall of 53a/53b, indicating a north-south alignment. Thus, the primary beams
would have run east-west; however, the likely positions of their sockets in the east and
west walls would have been above the level of the current standing walls. One short
piece of an unburned beam fragment, oriented north-south on the upper contact of
Stratum 4, has a diameter consistent with a secondary beam.
Features-Every 53a wall has at least one wall feature. Two are formal doorways,
four are small wall cavities, and two are large Other Wall Openings.
Doorways: Both doorways (Figures
49-50) are well-made, constructed as
formal passageways during Phase 3 room
construction in the AD 1100s. Neither was
deliberately blocked with wall stones
(plugged), resulting in moderate subsidence
of the overlying masonry courses. The T-
shaped doorway (Feature 2), positioned in
the middle of the west wall, is thus adjacent
to the great house plaza. The upper inset of
the north margin of the lower section of the
doorway is highlighted in Fig. 49.
Figure 49. Room 53a Feature 2 upper section of a T-
shaped doorway, central west wall. Stones forming
the lower doorway inset are circled.
24
The east wall contains a completely
exposed raised-sill doorway (Feature 4) in
the middle of the east wall; this doorway
formed the west end of the passageway
between 53a and Room 54a to its east
(Figure 50).
Small wall cavities: Four wall features
consist of small wall cavities. These are
positioned more or less opposite each other
in the west and east walls, some 40 to 60 cm
from the north wall. West wall Features 6
and 7 (Figure 51) are roughly at the elevation
of the T-shaped doorway’s lower inset.
Features 8 and 9 (Figure 52) of the east wall
are about the elevation of the sill in the raised-
sill doorway. Feature 6 is the largest cavity, of
formal construction, apparently built into the west wall at the time of wall construction,
and some 50 cm north of the north margin of the T-shaped doorway. This opening has
yet to be excavated completely, so it is unknown if the back is bounded by masonry.
The vertical location of this cavity is atypical, either too high or too low; however, it may
have functioned as a single beam hole for a cantilevered beam that extended into the
plaza, a wall niche or a vent hole. Further work is needed to evaluate its original use.
Figure 50. Room 53a Feature 4 raised-sill doorway,
central east wall, bounded by Phase 3 tabular
sandstone slabs. The sill is a single large slab of
spalled-slab masonry.
Figure 51. Room 53 wall cavities: Feature 6, left and
Feature 7, right
Figure 52. Room 53 wall cavities: Feature 8, left and Feature 9,
right
25
The much smaller Feature 7 is about 15 cm north of F.6. This opening is clearly an
informal modification of the constructed wall that involved the simple removal of one or
possibly two wall stones.
Features 8 and 9 of the east wall are two more informal modifications, each
created by the simple removal of a wall stone. Although all four of these small cavities
are documented as separate features, they may have served as the endpoints of a
single architectural feature: possibly, they represent two sets of opposing wall sockets
for beams for shelving, either as exposed beams or for a lightweight shelf. With a
maximum height of 7-8 cm for the three small cavities, it is unlikely that their socket
sizes would have been sufficient to contain beams of sufficient diameter to support a
sitting or sleeping platform.
Other Wall Openings: The incompletely
excavated Feature 3 (Figure 53) and Feature 5 (Figure
54) of the north and south walls are large, post-
construction wall openings with irregular boundaries
and no evidence of lintel stones. These openings
eventually led to severe subsidence of the overlying
masonry, as is the case for OWO Feature 1 of
Nonstructure 77 (see 2019 Annual Report). From
current evidence, it appears that somewhat loose
plugging was inserted from within Room 51a (north of
53a), given that the faces of the stones oriented toward
Room 53a are unevenly spaced and do not align with
the masonry on either side of this OWO. Another
possibility is that the wall fabric of this double-coursed
wall has slipped downward as a unit on Room 51as
face, as occurred for the masonry above T-shaped
doorway Feature 2, while the stones on the 53a face
slumped individually into the room and mixed with
general wall fall. Future work will determine if this opening and its “plugging” extend to
floor level, which is roughly ½ meter below the current excavated elevation of 53a.
Figure 53. Room 53a, north wall, Feature 3,
Other Wall Opening. The boundary between
the “plugged” OWO and the subsequent
natural subsidence is denoted by the
horizontal blue line.
26
To date, only subsided stones are revealed in
the south walls disturbed masonry. This zone
is provisionally designated Other Wall
Opening Feature 5 based on similarities to
other such occurrences in Rooms 17a/NST
77, 27a and Feature 3 of this room. Future
work should reveal the extent of the
subsidence, confirm or disprove the
occurrence of a wall opening, and whether
there is any plugging below the region visible
to date.
Stratigraphy
As of Autumn, 2020 three strata and no surfaces (formal floors and use levels)
have been excavated in Room 53a. Based on west arm raised-sill doorways, the
original Pueblo II floor surface is still about 40 cm below the current excavation level.
Each stratum developed from natural processes involving building collapse, though it is
possible that some of the Stratum 2 materials may have been re-deposited from
elsewhere. Strata 1 is comprised of a thick layer of jumbled wall stones that are
primarily tabular sandstone. A few large, irregular blocks of Phase 4 “sugar stone” are
dispersed among these at irregular intervals. This stratum clearly represents stones
from at least one upper story room that tumbled down individually over time rather than
as large wall sections. Stratum 2 is a thick sandy-clay sedimentary level that is
intermixed with a significant amount of highly fragmented burned organic material.
Jumbled fallen wall stones are pervasive throughout this stratum, though in less dense
accumulations than Stratum 1. A few of these stones are well oxidized from heat
exposure, but their distribution within Stratum 2 is irregular and does not suggest
association with a fallen firepit or a particular wall. There are some chunks of burned
beams but nothing to suggest an intact section of fallen floor or roofing. The standing
walls show no evidence of burning or even smoke damage, so either this material has
filtered down from an upper room that suffered limited burning, or these materials were
Figure 54. Room 53a south wall Feature 5 Other Wall
Opening. Note the occurrence of jumbled, subsided stones
and the irregular margins within well-preserved masonry
27
dumped into this room from another part of the site. Stratum 3 is comprised of brown
sandy fill that includes scattered clumps of brown adobe daub, the occasional clump of
gray clay with shake striations, generally tiny fragments of unburned wood, and no
burned organic materials. Fallen wall stones continue to be present throughout this
stratum, though in decreasing density compared to the overlying strata. Together, these
daub and clay chunks, along with the wood fragments, suggest that this layer
represents unburned flooring/ceiling materials that collapsed slowly into the room over
time. Considering the evidence of deliberate Ancestral Pueblo intrusions through
exterior walls of Rooms 17a and 27a, special attention was given to examining
stratigraphy and wall fall patterns to identify evidence that humans intentionally moved
sediments or wall stones to forge a south-north pathway into and through Room 53a.
There is no such evidence in Strata 1-3, but the elevations of the bases of the wall
openings/subsided areas are still to be excavated.
Dating
Both the Construction Phase 3 masonry style visible throughout all four standing
walls, along with the high prevalence of tabular sandstone in wall fall, confirm that Room
53a, and probably Room 53b, were constructed during Great House expansion c. AD
1120. Artifacts are quite sparse in all three fill strata, but those recovered are consistent
with an Ancestral Pueblo presence of some sort in this part of the site during Pueblo II
and Pueblo III times. The large majority of artifacts are pottery sherds; however, their
original deposit locations are uncertain since most were found within the rodent burrows
that extend along all four walls and into a large section in the north third of the room.
Corrugated body sherds are predominant. Mesa Verde B/w sherds occur in all three
strata, though to a lesser degree in Stratum 3. McElmo B/w is also represented in Strata
2 and 3. Earlier wares are rare, though they are slightly more common in Stratum 3.
Interpretations
Since the room is incompletely excavated, it is not yet possible to fully evaluate
the research question regarding room use during Pueblo II or PIII times. At this point,
the evidence is oriented toward natural site formation processes associated with
building collapse. These indicate a slow deterioration and collapse of the upper and
28
lower story rooms over time. Also, the relatively small number of artifacts indicate that
the space above the elevation of the raised-sill doorway was not used as an intermural
midden, although intermittent, impromptu deposits, i.e., typical “background noise”, are
likely during all Ancestral Pueblo uses of the Great House. The observed configuration
of the four small wall cavity features raise the possibility that these are components of a
single architectural feature built into the east and west walls at some point after room
construction; this configuration has not been identified elsewhere in Wallace Ruin.
Further excavation below these cavities will reveal if more such individual features are
present that suggest other interpretations. The formal doorway positions of Room 53a
mirror those of Room 27a, the southeast room of the South Suite, a residential suite
within the opposite west arm. At construction, both rooms had a T-shaped doorway that
fronted the Great House plaza and, on the opposite wall, a raised-sill doorway for a
passageway into another, southernmost, front room. Likewise, subsided wall sections
associated with informal wall openings are present in the south and north walls of both
Room 53a and Room 27a. The opening in the south wall of 27a is definitely associated
with a deliberate intrusion into the great house by Ancestral Puebloans in middle to late
AD 1200s. Currently, the base levels of 53a’s two Other Wall Openings have yet to be
revealed, which means that whether one or both are associated with an intentional
intrusion into the east side of the building is to be determined.
REVITALIZED WALLACE- PHASE 4
Room 33
Excavations continued in the spring-summer session with the final clearance of
the original floor surface of west arm annex Room 33 (Figures 55-56).
Figure 55. Room 33 final floor surface looking north
Figure 56. Room 33 final floor surface looking west
29
Architecture
Walls- No additional wall faces were exposed on the east and south as
excavations had reached below these wall levels. The west end remained a profile.
The north side exposed the foundation stones of the Phase 3a kiva (31) wall.
Floors- Finally, after excavating multiple use surfaces in the room over
several field seasons, the original floor surface (Surface 8 PD 544) was cleared. It may
not be correct to say that this was the original floor, just that it is the lowest preserved
floor. Considering that the east and south masonry walls ended substantially above this
surface, it is likely that there had been higher floor surfaces that through time were
removed. What we are calling the original floor was not prepared with a laid surface but
simply compacted sediments. This also may have originally been a plaza surface.
However, there were artifacts resting on this surface, including Mesa Verde B/w sherds,
at least an indication that it was in use post AD 1180.
Roof/ceilings- No evidence of a ceiling or roof was encountered this year.
Features- One feature (Figure 57) was encountered on the lowest use surface
(8). This in interpreted as a metate bin based on remaining slabs.
Stratigraphy
Only one new stratum (16) and one new surface
(8) were investigated this year.
Dating
Based on the continued presence of Mesa b/w
pottery on the lowest use surface, the
construction and use of this Phase 4 room dates
post AD 1180.
Interpretations
Nothing encountered this year changes the previous interpretation that the room
was built in Phase 4 on or above a plaza surface south of and adjacent to a large,
Figure 57. Room 33 metate bin on lowest surface
30
elevated Phase 3a kiva. There are no features that indicate that the room served as a
habitation. There is evidence that at times in its life history it was used for processing
food, specifically corn, based on the presence of many grinding implements. There is
also a chance that most of the grinding tools were being stored in the room. At other
times, the room also served as a turkey pen and/or a midden. It slowly filled with
sediments that were occasionally compacted by use forming discontinuous surfaces.
Room 62
Room 62 is adjacent and to the south of Room 65 (Figure 58). It was undoubtedly
modified by the construction of Kiva 56. It is estimated that only about ½ of the depth
has been excavated if the original floor was at the same elevation as the base of what
might be the original north wall.
Architecture
Walls- The currently
exposed north wall is
composed of Phase 4
double-stone masonry,
added when Kiva 56 was
built. The original Phase 3
north wall may be the
remnant that was under
the kiva floor and which
also overlaid the south wall
of Room 65a. If this is the
case, it is a compound
masonry wall.
Figure 58. Room 62 and Phase 3 construction (yellow)
31
The north end of the west wall was exposed in Kiva 56 and in the upper section of the
south end in Room 62 (Figures 59-60). The south wall has not been exposed yet. We
are just at the top and it is clearly leaning southerly.
The north end of the east wall is exposed in Kiva 56
and is leaning inward at the top. The upper portion
of the central area and south end is exposed in Room 62 (Figures 61-62). In addition to
this, the entire back side of the wall is exposed in Room 55 (Figure 63). The east wall
was probably tied to the north wall but the corner was removed for the construction of
Kiva 56. On the east side (in Room 55) it abuts the Phase 2 south wall of Room 59.
Figure 60. Room 62 west wall north end as
exposed in Kiva 56
Figure 59. Room 62 west wall upper portion of central area and south end
Figure 62. Room 62 east wall central and southern portion
Figure 61. Room 62 east wall north portion
exposed in Kiva 56
32
What is evident in Room 55 is
that the compound masonry wall
was constructed with an even
west face (in 62) but an uneven
east face. This unevenness
indicates that the area in Room
55 was either already filled or
was filled-in as the wall was
constructed. The second option
is most likely as we recovered
no McElmo B/w pottery in the fill
of Room 55, which would be
expected if the filling was done in the early 12th century (Phase 3).
Floors- No evidence of a floor has yet been encountered. There may be floor
preserved below the Kiva 56 floor in the SW corner.
Roof/ceilings- No evidence of a roof or ceiling has been found, either in the fill or
in the form of beam sockets.
Features- No features related to Room 62 have been encountered. There is a
niche in the west wall at the north end, but this was added for Kiva 56.
Stratigraphy
Two strata have been designated in Room 62, but the boundary between them is
arbitrary. We encountered a significant concentration of artifacts and animal bones
along the west wall that probably represents secondary refuse. This contained Mesa
Verde B/w sherds and to determine if this continued deeper, we designated a new
stratum. As it turns out, both the refuse and the presence of Mesa Verde B/w is
continuing downward.
Figure 63. East face of Room 62 east wall in Room 55
33
Dating
There is a mix of pottery including Cortez, Mancos, McElmo and Mesa Verde B/w
as well as Mancos, Dolores and Mesa Verde Corrugated. While there are earlier
materials this indicates deposition after AD 1180.
Interpretations
Room 62 was a Phase 3 (or Phase 3a) room added to the front and on top of a
multi-story Phase 1 and Phase 2 building. It is unclear if this occurred during the same
construction episode as the two adjacent elevated kivas (32 and 50). It could have
been contemporary with the addition of the west wing annex (Rooms 28, 29 30 and Kiva
31). What is evident that it was filled later, after or during the construction of the south
wall and ventilator system of Kiva 56, probably in the early 13th century. While the fill is
refuse, there is a curious mix of materials from all time periods of the Great Houses
use, indicating that the fill didn’t accumulate slowly during the use of Kiva 56.
Kiva 56
The majority of Kiva 56 was excavated in 2018-2019 and is discussed in those
annual reports. This year, the central east-west support balk was removed as was the
support column under the SE corner where the early east wall met the later east wall.
Otherwise, Surface 1 was removed to Surface 2, revealing all of the floor features.
Architecture
Floors- There were two surfaces that have been interpreted as floors.
Surface 1 (see Figure 79) was a thin layer of clay that extended across the whole
structure (see 2019 annual report). Surface 2 was the original prepared floor.
Roof/ceilings- There was ample evidence of a fallen roof/ceiling in Stratum
4 (see 2018 and 2019 annual reports)
Features- A total of 15 features were recorded in Kiva 56. However, three
of them were plugged and/or plastered over, probably when the kiva was constructed
(see Figure 64 and Table 3).
34
All floor features were excavated in 2020
because they were only revealed by the
removal of Surface 1, which covered them all.
Some of the wall features are discussed in the
2019 annual report so this information is not
repeated here. There are 8 wall, 3 vent system
and 5 floor features. Three of the wall features
are in earlier walls and are probably not related
to kiva use.
Table 3. Kiva 56 feature catalog. Red text denotes features in earlier walls, blue text
indicates features included in this report.
#
type
location
Length
Width
Height/
Depth
PDs
Comments
1
Vent shaft
In Room 62
N-S 32
E-W 42
142
570
Dimensions at
base of shaft
where it meets
the tunnel
2
Vent
tunnel
Under south
wall
Vertical
65
Horizonta
l
42
N-S
70
567, 568,
569
Dimensions at
opening into
kiva, floor-level
3
Deflector
Between vent
tunnel and
hearth
E-W 79
N-S 17
84
n/a
Single stone
width masonry
4
Niche
West wall south
end
Up-
down
40
N-S 57
E-W 25
573
Added to wall
not
constructed
with it
5
Hearth
Central offset
west
N-S 70
E-W 60
25
571, 572
Firepit form
with one
vertical slab
6
Wall vent
West wall north
end
N-S 50
Up-down
20
Front-
back 35
551
Added to wall,
not built with it
7
Doorway
Second story
north wall west
of center
E-W 53
Up-down
43
(incomp)
Wall
thickness
25+
n/a
Plugged with
Phase 4
masonry
Figure 64. Kiva 56 final plan with features. Gray
indicates earlier architecture, pink denotes kiva
construction, orange is areas of oxidation, tan is
Surface 2 and all other colors are sipapu complex
components.
35
8
Niche
North wall west
of central
Up-
down
15
E-W 18
Wall
thickness
30
537
At level of
secondaries in
Room 60 to
north, goes
through wall
9
Wall vent
North wall east
end
Up-
down
18
E-W 20
Wall
thickness
27
n/a
Plugged
10
Sipapu
Complex
North central
E-W 78
N-S 71
15
36
assigned
39
components
11
Floor
slab
NE 1/4
E-W 35
N-S 20
Thicknes
s
4
n/a
Mortared into
floor
12
Sediment
-filled pit
NE 1/4
E-W 11
N-S 10
5
575
Base lined
with
plastered-in
corrugated
sherd
Cut into Strat
6
13
Sediment
-filled pit
NW 1/4
E-W 9
N-S 8
5
574
Cut into Strat
6
14
Corner
niche
NE corner
E-W 23
Up-down
20 (est)
23 (est)
619, 621
Plugged and
plastered
over
15
Corner
niche
SE corner of
north portion
of east wall
N-S 20
E-W 15
15
620
Plugged and
plastered
over
16
Niche
East wall north
portion
N-S 22
Up-down
10
Wall
thickness
22
560
Plugged and
plastered over
Hearth Feature 5- The hearth was in the
traditional place; north of the deflector and
more-or less central in the floor but offset
slightly to the west. It was basin-shaped, cut
into underlying fill and architecture. A single
vertical slab and several ‘lumpy’ stones were
built into the east and south sides. Three
stones on Surface 2 to the NW may have been
trivet stones used in the hearth. The oxidized
lining was evaluated for archaeomagnetic
sampling but was not considered to be consolidated enough. Also, dating in the 13th
century with this method is not precise enough to distinguish between early and late.
Figure 65. Kiva 56 Feature-5 hearth plan and cross-
section
36
Sipapu Complex Feature 10- The sipapu complex was just that-
complex. Similar features have been called complex sipapus, however, we have
chosen not to use this term because it is unclear if they represent a single sipapu or if
many of the components could have been considered ‘the sipapu’, changing location
through time. Therefore, we decided to use the term sipapu complex. Rather than
assign each hole, etc. a separate feature number, each was assigned a component
letter, going through the alphabet starting with upper case letters continuing with lower
case through r (skipping O, o, L and l as too confusing).
Figure 66. Kiva 56 Feature 10 sipapu complex before excavation
Figure 67. Kiva 56 Feature 10 sipapu complex plan and profile
37
Table 4. Kiva 56, Feature 10 Sipapu Complex components
Component
PD
Type
Dimensions (mm)
Shape
Comments
N-S
E-
W
depth
A
577
Sediment-filled pit
45
45
15
Cylinder
Adjacent to C
B
578
Burned daub-filled
pit
35
40
35
Basin?
Cuts C
C
601
Sediment-filled
basin
60
65
15
Basin
Cut by B
D
580
Sediment-filled pit
(posthole?)
100
100
120
Cylinder flat
base
Cuts into base of
feature
E
581
Sediment-filled pit
60
45
80
Oval
undercut
cylinder
Cuts into center of F
F
609
Sediment-filled pit
90
90
125
Round
undercut
then taper
to base
Cut by E, cuts into
feature base
G
583
Sediment-filled pit
90
80
150
Convex
cylinder,
basin base
Cuts center of a
H
584
Sediment-filled pit
80
75
140
Cylinder
basin base
Cuts into j
I
585
Sediment-filled pit
90
80
130
Off-round
cylinder
tapers to
basin base
Cuts into X
J
586
Paho hole
25
20
65
Peanut-
shaped at
top tapers to
base
Cuts into j
K
587
Sediment-filled pit
80
80
120
Cylinder
tapers to
base offset
to west
Cuts onent j
M
592
Paho hole
40
33
65
Conical and
crescent
ellipse
Cuts into j adjacent
to K
N
588
Paho hole
40
30
60
Bifurcated
ellipse
Cuts into j
P
589
Paho hole
25
30
65
Conical and
crescent
ellipse
Cuts int mixed
loam/ash
38
Q
590
Paho hole
12
11
13
Conical
Cuts into j
R
591
Paho hole
12
12
12
Conical
Cuts into j
S
593
Cupule
45
45
11
Basin
Cuts into j, partly cut
by T
T
Not recorded
U
594
Paho hole
upper
30
25
15
Cylinder
Cuts into j offset to
south
lower
20
20
15
Cylinder
Cuts into j
V
595
Paho hole
22
20
35
Cylinder
Cuts into j
W
596
Paho hole
12
12
20
Cylinder
Cuts into j
X
598
Sediment-filled pit
85
85
15
Conical
Cut by I, Cuts into a
Y
599
Sediment-filled
basin
12
11
25
Basin
Cuts into K
Z
600
Paho hole
25
30
20
Ellipse flat
base
Cuts j
a
602
Sediment-filled pit
125
120
245
Bell-shaped
Cut by H, I, X, c, d, e, f
and g
b
603
Sediment-filled
basin
65
65
240
Off-round b
Cuts j, cut by G and a
c
604
Sediment-filled
basin
75
75
20
Round basin
Cuts X and a
d
605
Paho hole
10
10
25
Conical?
Cuts j covered by a
e
606
Paho hole double
15
25
25
Conical and
crescent
holes
Cuts j covered by a
f
607
Paho hole
10
15
20
Elliptical
cone
Cuts j covered by a
g
608
Paho hole double
25
30
West
15
East 35
Figure 8
Cuts j covered by a
h
610
Paho hole
15
15
50
Cylinder
Cuts feature base
i
611
Paho hole
15
15
50
Cylinder
Cuts feature base
j
612
Firepit
200
300
200
Basin
Cut by many
components, rim
oxidized
k
613
Paho hole
15
20
15
Ellipse
Cuts j
m
614
Paho hole
10
10
10
Round
Cuts j
n
615
Paho hole
10
10
10
Round
Cuts j
p
616
Paho hole
10
10
10
Round
Cuts j
q
617
Paho hole
20
20
50
Conical
Cuts j
r
652
Firepit
300
430
40
Vertical
sides flat
base
Cuts j, sides oxidized
S
653
Paho hole
32
32
30
Round
Cuts a
T
654
Paho hole
27
33
28
Irregular
Cuts a and r, cut by I
U
655
Paho hole
12
13
17
Round
Cuts j
v
656
Paho hole
13
13
19
Round
Cuts j
39
Excavation of the components
proceeded in stages with the
first being the excavation of
components that were not cut
or intruded by any others, in
other words the final
components (Figure 68).
Subsequently, the components
that were cut or intruded into the final components were cleared
(Figure 69), and so on.
The original feature configuration was a basin-shaped firepit, with some oxidation
of the margins and full of ash with charcoal bits. This was Component j from which we
obtained two AMS dates (see below). Most of the subsequent components cut into this
unit (and many into each other). There was a second, smaller basin-shaped 'firepit'
(Component r) more or less centered in the original pit and cut into its ash-with-
charcoal. Eventually all was filled to the floor level from which many of the holes were
cut (although some were formed before the fills were level with the floor surface). Many
of the small holes were designated paho holes, but they did not necessarily
accommodate pahos. Several of these were double holes (Figures 70-71) with a range
of configurations. Figure 67 shows all the designated components as if they all were cut
from the upper surface, but some were not. Some components overlapped, some
intruded into earlier ones (Figure 72), etc. (see Table 4 comments). It is evident that
even the smallest and most
complex holes were formed by
intentional excavation and not the
result of pushing something into
the sediments. They were a
challenge to excavate and one can
only marvel at the difficulties faced
Figure 68. Kiva 56 F-10 final components
excavated.
Figure 69. Kiva 56 F-10 second
stage components excavated
Figure 70. Kiva 56 F-10
Component N after excavation
Figure 71. Kiva 56 F-10 Component N plan and cross-sections
40
in creating them. All sediment from each
component was retained. Similar
features are known to occur in Pueblo 1
pit structures and in an early Pueblo II
kiva but to our knowledge none have
been reported in a 13th century
structure. What such a feature is doing
in this late rectangular kiva is open to
speculation. Could this be a survival or revival of ancient rituals, perhaps related to a
house society?
Floor slab Feature 11- An off-
rectangular, fine-grained sandstone slab
(Figure 73) was set into Surface 2 in the NE
quadrant. This was fixed in place with daub
around the edges. While not exactly the same,
the slab is reminiscent of sandal-form tablets.
Sediment-filled pit Feature 12- This feature
was located approximately 1/3 of the floor length
from the north wall and ¼ the width from the east
wall. This small, round, basin-shaped, shallow pit
was cut into Surface 2 (Figure 74). An off-round
corrugated jar body sherd was used to line the base
of the features. It was fixed in-place with daub
around the edges.
Sediment-filled pit Feature 13- Feature 13
was located approximately 1/3 of the floor length
from the north wall and ¼ the width from the west
wall. This small, round, basin-shaped, shallow pit
was cut into Surface 2 (Figure 75). Features 12
Figure 72. Kiva 56 F-10 Components G, a and b before and after
excavation
Figure 73. Kiva 56 Surface 2 F-11 inset slab
Figure 74. Kiva 56 Surface 2 F-12
Figure 75. Kiva 56 Surface 2 F-13
41
and 13 were virtually identical and located in a mirror-image configuration with an
alignment approximately at the southern edge of the sipapu complex. They are not
deep enough to have held posts for a screen or altar, which is also precluded by the
sherd lining of F-12. However they were used, they were probably employed in concert.
Corner niche Feature 14- This feature (Figures 76-77) is unusual in that it was
constructed in daub rather than as part of a masonry wall. Daub was added to the base
of the stabilization effort for this leaning wall. This cavate form was ‘modeled’ into the
daub in the NE corner just above floor level. A fragment of a polished igneous cobble
was placed in it and then mudded over, a stone placed in front and it too mudded over,
then this corner, along with the north and east Phase 2 walls, was plastered over
multiple times.
Corner niche Feature 15- (Figure 78) was a
duplicate of Feature 14 except that there was no
polished cobble fragment in it. It was located in
the corner formed by the east Phase 2 wall and
the added masonry buttress. It also had a cover
slab and was plastered over.
Figure 78. Kiva 56 Feature 15 corner niche
Figure 76. Kiva 56 Feature 14 corner niche
Figure 77. Kiva 56 Feature 14 corner niche
cover stone
42
Stratigraphy
The only stratigraphy encountered in the kiva this year was the material added to
the top of Surface 2 to form Surface 1 as well as a layer of daub chunks (Stratum 6),
approximately 10-15 cm thick, for the base of the original floor (Surface 2). Strata
removed with the central wall-support balk and the corner support column was a
continuation of the previously described strata in the kiva (Figure 79). During
excavation it was unclear if Stratum 6 should be associated with the kiva or the
underlying Room 65a. Pottery recovered from Stratum 6 included 2 sherds of Mesa
Verde B/w indicating a post-AD 1180 origin for the stratum. Lower deposits were
recorded as fill of Room 65a, which seems likely as no Mesa Verde B/w was recovered
from them (see Room 65a discussion).
Dating
Again, no direct dating was made for Kiva 56 except for 2 charred corn cob
fragments recovered from Feature 10 Component j. This deposit was the original fill of
the complex sipapu which resembled a firepit and was clearly used as a thermal
feature. A small Mesa Verde B/w sherd was also recovered from the bottom of the
same ash with charcoal deposit, indicating a post AD 1180 origin, but how long after is
unknown. However, both corn cob samples returned AMS calibrated dates falling in the
Figure 79. Kiva 56 South to North section
43
AD 900s to AD 1020s (900 to 1020 and 995 to 1027 (CCAC report). This poses a
conundrum. What was the origin of the corn cobs? If they resulted from burning in the
feature, were they old cobs used as fuel? Or could they have been (charred or not)
intentionally placed with other ash in the feature related to the use of the sipapu
complex? Could this represent another possible example of ancestor veneration?
Interpretations
Possible interpretations for Kiva 56 could be extensive. It presents a fascinating
case of aberrant architecture and use which undoubtedly relates to the post AD 1180
uses of the Great House. Its rectangular form is unusual, although not unique to the
region. There are rectangular kivas at Sand Canyon Pueblo, all dating to post AD 1270.
The presence of a sipapu complex in a Mesa Verde Phase kiva may be unique and a
reflection of revitalized rituals, perhaps relating to a house society.
STABILIZATION AND BACKFILLING
We continued to use previous areas for backfill and added a few more. New
retaining walls of dry-laid masonry were also constructed or added onto already started
walls. All retaining walls for backfill areas are dry laid, mostly using stones from
adjacent areas with an attempt to represent the original masonry stones. Pathways to
these areas were also added where needed (Figure 80). Backdirt from Room 65a was
used to fill Room 24 and Kiva 3 which is now completely full (Figure 81). I have also
built up (dry-laid) the south curved wall of Kivas 3 and 4 and indicated with stones
Figure 82. Kivas 3 and 4 looking NW
Figure 81. Kivas 3 and 4 looking east
44
where the other walls and corner pilasters are (Figure 82). Stones were added to the SE
corner of Kiva 50 and a path was built over the east area of the kiva to the SW corner of
the pothunted Room 43, which continued to be used for spoil from Room 53 (Figure 83).
Some spoil from Room 59
was also placed in Room 43
and the dry-laid retaining
walls were raised. Eventually
the area reached capacity
and dumping of backdirt from
Rooms 53 and 59 was shifted
to other areas; to Room 57
and 53 to the main chamber
of Kiva 50 (Figure 84). The
test unit placed in NST 77 on
the exterior of Room 17 has
also been filled, mainly with
sediments exclusively from
Room 65a Strata 2 and 3
(screened). Fill is from
Rooms 53 and 59.
Figure 80. Wallace Great House (5MT6970) plan of backfilled and stabilized
area as of December 2020
Figure 83. Path over the east side of Kiva 50
leading to Room 43
Figure 84. Room 43 with final amount of backdirt
45
A new backfilling area was started. This is the
SE area of the main chamber of Kiva 50
(Figures 86-87 and 89), which was excavated
prior to 1969 when I began work at the site.
The SE side is a modern retaining wall marking
the upper lining wall of the kiva. It is holding in
the backdirt in the SE corner room and will now
serve to also retain backdirt in the main
chamber. Much of the main chamber has not been excavated and we are putting down
garden fabric to mark where our backdirt begins (Figure 88). Sediments will be mainly
from Room 53 but also Room 55 when that work resumes.
Figure 86. Kiva 50 main chamber SE area
Figure 87. Kiva 50 SE area modern retraining wall
Figure 88. Kiva 50 main chamber
SE area with garden cloth marking base of
backfill.
Figure 85. Room 43 modern dry-laid east retaining wall
Figure 89. Kiva 50 backdirt from Room 53 looking SE
46
LAB WORK
In the time between the two excavation sessions, we had weekly one-day
sessions to process artifacts. During this time, we washed and cataloged all of the
materials recovered in the spring session.
ARTIFACTS
Artifacts recovered in the two 2020 excavation sessions are typical of those
found in previous years. Most came from fill units, which did not represent activities that
took place in their find locations. The main exception to this were the artifacts
recovered from the floor (Surface1) of Room 65a. Here (Figures 90-96) are images of
some of the artifacts and a complete inventory may be found in Appendix 2 (copies of
Field Specimen sheets for 2020).
Figure 90. Miscellaneous flaked stone. a) notched biface
fragment; b) bifacial drill; c) denticulate
Figure 91. Projectile points. a-e) 11th century, f) early 12th
century; g) 13th century
Figure 92. Projectile point blanks and preforms. a and c) late
phase percussion bifaces; b) early phase percussion biface; d)
pressure on flake blank
Figure 93. Core,
unidirectional,
single platform,
Brushy Basin
silicified siltstone
47
Figure 94. Tchamahias, slate. All from Room 65a, Surface 1 (PD 634).
Figure 95. Bone and antler artifacts. a-d) awls; b-c) weaving tools; g) humerus scraper
(unfinished); h) antler tine punch fragment; i) antler slab of unknown use.
Figure 96. San Juan redware
sherd pendants
48
CROW CANYON ANALYSES
In addition to the work at the site and in the lab, various analyses of artifacts,
flotation samples and 14 C AMS dating were undertaken by the Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center, under a grant with History Colorado. These will be reported
separately by CCAC.
RESEARCH PLAN FOR 2021
Research plans for 2021 are to finish out all of the excavation units that we
currently have open.
HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS
Although the intentional discovery of human remains is not a Wallace Ruin
Project goal, a total of 31 isolated skeletal remains were identified during the 2020 field
season. Thirteen (13) were identified in field during the excavation of Room 33; these
were reported to the State on May 4, 2020. The remaining 18 were identified in
December 2020, after the end of the field season during laboratory processing of faunal
remains from Rooms 53a and 65a. This report fulfills the notification requirements to the
State and to the appropriate tribal entities. There are no articulated units or bone
concentrations. Rather, all bones were dispersed across fill units, as was the case for
faunal remains.
All protocols detailed in CRS 24-80-1303, Permit #77190 and in the approved
Wallace Ruin Project 2020 research design were followed regarding the discovery of
human remains during archaeological research excavation. An Ancestral Pueblo
cultural affiliation identification for each ISE is based upon their location within
undisturbed archaeological contexts. Also, consistent with the protocols agreed in 2018
with tribal consultants, the 13 ISE identified as human bones during field excavations
were removed when located so that excavation could continue in this essential study
unit. All bones are temporarily curated in the manner agreed. They will be reburied in
the location and manner agreed when climatic conditions permit. In accordance with
State protocols and the needs of Wallace Ruin research, all fundamental skeletal
analyses and documentation were performed by qualified physical anthropologist Dr.
Cynthia Bradley, who also produced this report.
49
The skeletal inventory provided in Table 5 includes basic information for each
ISE: provenience, element, side, condition, age group and comments. Minimum number
appraisals based on representation per room yield an estimate of five individuals. The
13 bones from Room 33 are from two infants: one of about 2 - 6 months and the other a
late term fetus/neonate. The 17 bones from Room 65a represent one adult and one
infant; the rib fragment from Room 53a is from someone larger than a child. The adult
bones from 65a are hand and foot bones with sharp-edged facets consistent with a
mature to older adult. The gracility of these bones indicate that they are probably
female. The absence of duplicate elements and their similarity in appearance strongly
indicates that these pedal bones are from the same individual. All bones other than the
Room 53a rib fragment are in very good condition, lacking surface evidence of exposure
to the elements, antemortem or perimortem trauma, or postmortem damage inflicted by
animals or structure collapse. No attempt was made to cross-match infant bones
between Rooms 33 and 65a.
The original mortuary locations of each of these 31 bones are unknown. Those
from Room 33 were located near the completion of excavation work within Room 33
proper so it is evident that they are not from primary burial deposits within that west arm
annex room. There is no evidence of movement into this area by rodent burrowing, and
no infant remains were found in the adjacent rooms. This section of Wallace Ruin, and
this room particularly, has a complicated use and remodeling history, so it is likely that
these ISE are from primary burials that were inadvertently disturbed by Ancestral
Puebloans and then re-deposited in this location.
This same situation may pertain to the bones from Room 65a. Potentially, these
hand and foot bones were moved upwards from a subfloor location that has yet to be
excavated; future work will address this possibility. However, this room was deliberately
filled prior to the building of the overlying Phase 4 rectangular kiva. Thus, these ISE
may have been accidentally transferred to multiple 65a fill strata after their original
mortuary context was disturbed when fill materials were gathered from another location.
There are no cross-matches of 65a bones with primary burials or isolated skeletal
elements from any other Wallace Ruin location.
50
Table 5. Isolated skeletal elements from Wallace Ruin, 2020 field season.
S UNIT
PD
STRAT
NUMBER
ID
SIDE
%
AGE
SEX
COMMENTS
33 543 16 1991 metapodial U 100% Infant U
unsided metatarsal or metacarpal
33 543 16 1992 femur L 100% Infant U
1 of 3 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (2-6 months)
33 543 16 1993 tibia L 100% Infant U
1 of 3 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (2-6 months)
33 543 16 1994 humerus L 100% Infant U
1 of 3 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (2-6 months)
33 543 16 1995 ulna R 75%
Infant U
1 of 4 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (late term
fetus/neonate)
33 543 16 1996 tibia R 80% Infant U
1 of 4 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (late term
fetus/neonate)
33 543 16 1997 tibia L <25% Infant U
1 of 4 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (late term
fetus/neonate)
33 543 16 1998 fibula U <25% Infant U
1 of 4 non-articulated diaphyses in which size, development and
coloration indicate that they were from the same infant (late term
fetus/neonate)
33 543 16 1999 neural arch L 100% Infant U
unfused neural arch; size suggests either to the older of two infants
represented by non-articulated long bones or another infant
33 543 16 2000 centrum U 100% Infant U
unfused vertebral centrum; size suggests either to the older of two
infants represented by non-articulated long bones or another infant
33 543 16 2001 metatarsal U 100% Infant U
unsided 1st metatarsal; size suggests either to the older of two infants
represented by non-articulated long bones or another infant
33 543 16 2002 metatarsal U 100% Infant U
unsided metatarsal
33 543 16 2003 metapodial U 100% Infant U
unsided metatarsal or metacarpal
53a 546 12021 rib U <25% Adult U
small fragment, midsection; older than child based on size
65a 550 12004 phalanx U 100% Adult U
unsided middle phalanx, hand; 1 of 5 widely dispersed isolated elements
in Stratum 1; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011,
2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult
female based on size, development and coloration.
65a 550 12005 metacarpal L 100% Adult PF
1 of 5 widely dispersed isolated elements in Stratum 1; 2nd MC, fully
mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and
2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult female based
on size, development and coloration.
51
65a 550 12007 phalanx U 100% Adult U
unsided distal phalanx, hand; 1 of 5 widely dispersed isolated elements
in Stratum 1; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011,
2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult
female based on size, development and coloration.
65a 550 12008 vertebra B 100% Infant U
2nd or 3rd sacral vertebra; unfused; possibly to same infant as #s 2012
& 2017
65a 622 22009 metacarpal R 100% Adult PF
1st; 1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones in Stratum 2; fully mature,
gracile; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-
2016, and 2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult
female based on size, development and coloration.
65a 622 22010 phalanx U 100% Adult U
unsided middle phalanx, hand; 1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones in
Stratum 2; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011,
2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult
female based on size, development and coloration.
65a 622 22011 phalanx U 100% Adult U
unsided proximal phalanx, foot; 1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones in
Stratum 2; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011,
2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult
female based on size, development and coloration.
65a 622 22012 vertebra L 75% Infant U
lumbar neural arch fragment; unfused to centrum; postmortem damage
precludes determination of whether the left and right arches were fused
by the time of death; possibly to same infant as #2008, #2017
65a 622 22013 metacarpal R 100% Adult PF
4th; 1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones in Stratum 2; fully mature,
small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and 2018-
2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult female based on size,
development and coloration.
65a 622 22014 phalanx U 100% Adult U
unsided proximal phalanx, hand; 1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones
in Stratum 2; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011,
2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult
female based on size, development and coloration.
65a 622 22015 capitate L 100% Adult PF
1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones in Stratum 2; fully mature, small,
gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are
probably from the same mature-old adult female based on size,
development and coloration.
65a 622 22016 cuneiform L 100% Adult PF
2nd; 1 of 9 widely dispersed isolated bones in Stratum 2; fully mature,
small, gracile; ISE #s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and 2018-
2019 are probably from the same mature-old adult female based on size,
development and coloration.
65a 622 22017 epiphysis U 95% Infant U
unfused proximal epiphysis, tibia; unsided
65a 623 32018 hamate L 100% Adult PF
1 of 3 widely dispersed ISE in Stratum 3; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE
#s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably
from the same mature-old adult female based on size, development and
coloration.
65a 623 32019 phalanx U 100% Adult U
1 of 3 widely dispersed ISE in Stratum 3; fully mature, small, gracile; ISE
#s 2004-2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and 2018-2019 are probably
from the same mature-old adult female based on size, development and
coloration.
65a 623 32020 tooth U 100% Adult U
isolated tooth; permanent canine; indeterminate arch; crown is extremely
worn; no measurements possible; wear extent allows for the possibility
that this tooth is from the same mature-old adult female as ISE #s 2004-
2007, 2009-2011, 2013-2016, and 2018-2019.
52
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
All excavation at Wallace and processing of records and recovered materials
were accomplished by a dedicated group of volunteers. A total of 315 person days
(including the authors) was donated to the excavation. To all of these volunteers we
express our deep gratitude. Everybody pitched in to do whatever was needed and all
were conscientious in terms of social distancing. Nobody contracted Covid-19 while at
the site. Unfortunately, two volunteers and one spouse had medical issues that
restricted their time at the site, again not related to their work. We look forward to
having everyone back in 2021, though Tom Hoff is and will be sorely missed. We also
wish to thank Crow Canyon Archaeological staff for their observations and advise during
visits to the dig. The adjacent landowners, Steve and Jay Wallace provided invaluable
assistance by allowing access through their property.
List of crew by
person days
contributed:
Bruce Bradley
Cindy Bradley
Karen Kinnear
Mary Gallagher
Terri Hoff
Tom Hoff
Téa Kaplan
Len Gallagher
Jill Patton (ns)
Steve Howard
Josue Valdez
Adam Dykes
(ns)
(ns= not shown)
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.