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There is increasing recognition of the potential role of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements in reducing health risks and improving nano-level health quality. In 1989, Dr Stephen DeFelice first coined the term nutraceutical to offer health and medical benefits, including disease prevention and treatment. Attributable to their safety and potential nutritional values and therapeutic effects, nutraceuticals have established substantial interest. Companies of pharmaceutical and nutritional products are aware of the monetary success of consumers seeking more health and the changing trends leading to an exploration of natural nanomedicines that cover a large number of chronic and fatal diseases, including cancer. Some popular nutraceuticals include ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, aloe-vera gels, ephedra, garlic, ginger, glucosamine, omega-3 eggs, orange juice enriched with calcium, green tea, etc. The majority of them are appealed to have numerous therapeutic benefits. This review aims to understand nutraceuticals as nano better-supplements to alter disease conditions with specific indications and their crucial role in pathophysiological interventions.
BEPLS Vol 9 [8] July 2020 1 | P a g e ©2020 AELS, INDIA
Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences
Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol 9[8] July 2020 :01-08
©2020 Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
Online ISSN 2277-1808
Journal’s URL:
Global Impact Factor 0.876
Universal Impact Factor 0.9804
NAAS Rating 4.95
Nutraceuticals: Supplements For Building A Healthy World
Neetu Agrawal1*,Ahsas Goyal1, Ankit Jain2
1GLA University,Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, NH-2, Mathura-Delhi Road, Mathura (U.P.), INDIA
2Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, INDIA
There is increasing recognition of the potential role of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements in reducing health risks
and improving nano-level health quality.In 1989, Dr Stephen DeFelice first coined the term nutraceutical to offer health
and medical benefits, including disease prevention and treatment. Attributable to their safety and potential nutritional
values and therapeutic effects, nutraceuticals have established substantial interest. Companies of pharmaceutical and
nutritional products are aware of the monetary success of consumers seeking more health and the changing trends
leading to an exploration of natural nanomedicines that cover a large number of chronic and fatal diseases, including
cancer. Some popular nutraceuticals include ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, aloe-vera gels, ephedra, garlic, ginger,
glucosamine, omega-3 eggs, orange juice enriched with calcium, green tea, etc. Majority of them are appealed to have
numerous therapeutic benefits. This review aims to understand nutraceuticals as nano better -supplements to alter
disease conditions with specific indications and their crucial role in pathophysiological interventions.
Keywords: nutraceutical; medicines; dietary supplements; herbal nutrients
Received 09.06.2020 Revised 26.06.2020 Accepted 16.07.2020
Economic development has improved the quality of life in connection with income, expenditure and
lifestyle. It also posed a significant challenge in the form of ‘lifestyle diseases’, however. The first victim of
this transformation in lifestyle was the habits of food. The consumption of junk foods has multiplied,
leading to a number of nutritional deficiency-related diseases. Nutraceuticals can play an essential role in
controlling them. In 1989, Stephen DeFelice, originator and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in
Medicine,an American organization that promotes medical health, devised the term nutraceutical from
nutrition and pharmaceutical[1- 4]. According to him, "a nutraceutical substance is a food or part of the
food and offers medical or health benefits, including disease prevention and treatment” (Figure 1).These
products can assort from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and specific diets to designer genetically
engineered foods and herbal products[5]. The notion of nutraceutical was taken from the survey in the
United Kingdom, Germany and France determined that the consumer rated diet more than exercise or
genetic factors in order to achieve good health [6]. "Nutraceutical" was commonly used in the United
States, but there was no regulatory definition. Its significance has been changed by the Canadian Ministry
of Health, which defines nutraceutical as "a product isolated or purified from food, generally sold in a
medicinal form that is not associated with food and has shown a physiological benefit. It also provides
benefits against chronic disease” [7].
Due to the increasing attention of researchers and sophisticated techniques for determining qualitative
and quantitative parameters, the nutraceutical market has been developed in recent years. It has changed
to a global industry of millions of dollars. In 2008, global nutraceuticals marketing was USD 128.4 billion.
Japan holds Asia's most significant marketing share of 70 percent [8,9].The Indian nutraceutical market
segment has experienced an annual growth rate of 20 % over the past three years, contributing to 2 % of
the world market. India is currently in the category of promising nutraceutical drift known as Fast Moving
Health Care Goods.The value of the nutraceutical market in 2009 was estimated at around 27 billion INR
and is expected to reach 40.1 billion INR in 2011 [10].The Indian nutraceutical market has reached a
value of approximately US $2 billion, retaining 1.5% of the global nutraceutical industry. This status
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illustrates ongoing studies and attempts to integrate traditional herbal ingredients into the nutraceutical
portfolio. In addition, it was found that the growth in the Indian nutraceutical market in 2016 was
estimated at US$ 2731 million. The scope and demand for nutraceuticals in the future depend on the
awareness of Indian consumers. For further growth and establishment of new horizons for the growing
nutraceutical industries, it requires particular focus and market interest [11].
Figure 1:Role of Nutraceuticals
Appropriate studies were identified through electronic searches of Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, and Google
scholar. The search used the terms‘‘nutraceuticals,’’ ‘‘dietary supplements,’’ or ‘‘herbal products,’’. In
addition, we searched the bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews for articles.
Hippocrates highlighted around 2000year ago “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food”.
Nutraceuticals are food or food ingredients that benefit health or health. This emerging product class
blurs the food - drug line. They are not easily included in the legal categories of food or medicine and
often live in a grey area between them [12].
The legal categorization of a nutraceutical in the European Union (EU) law is generally based on its
accepted effects on the body. It can therefore be considered a food ingredient if the substance contributes
only to the maintenance of healthy tissues and organs. However, if it can be shown to affect one or more
physiological processes in one or more of the bodies, it is likely to be considered a medicinal substance
[13]. For two reasons, the European Medicines Act can define a nutraceutical as a medicine:
It can be used to prevent, treat or cure a disease.
It can be administered in order to restore, correct or modify human physiological functions [13].
Nutraceuticals can be regarded as biological treatments used to promote wellness, prevent malignant
processes and control symptoms. The following are categorized:
Traditional and Non- traditional nutraceuticals
On the market, the wide variety of nutraceutical foods falling into the category of conventional and non -
traditional foods are available.
Nutraceuticals as nano-tools for
disease preventive and
therapeutic benefits
Nutrition required
for health
remedy for
sickness /injury
Disease Prevention and Cure
et al
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Traditional Nutraceuticals
These are natural substances that do not affect food. They are grouped according to chemical
constituents, probiotic microorganisms and nutraceutical enzymes. They can be categorized in Table 1, 2,
3 and4[14-17].
Chemical Constituents
a) Nutrients: With traditional nutritional functions, it includes vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty
acids. They help heal heart disease, strokes, cataracts, osteoporosis, diabetes and cancer. In osteoporosis
and anaemia, fossils originate in plant, animal and dairy products are beneficial. Flaxseed and salmon are
powerful inflammatory process controls, brain function maintenance and cholesterol deposition
b) Herbals: Examples include; Lavendulaan gustifolia contains tannin to cure depression, high blood
pressure, stress, cold, cough and asthma. Salix nigra, which has an active salicin component, which is
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, astringent and anti-arthritis. Mentha piperita contains active menthol and
cures cold and grippe. Petroselinum cripsum is diuretic, carminative and antipyretic and contains
flavonoids. Vaccinium erythrocarpum contain proanthocyanidins and are useful for cancers, ulcers and
infections of the urinary tract [6].
c) Phytochemicals Flavonoid polyphenolics are found in fruits, vegetables and vegetables that are effective
antioxidants, phytoestrogens, breast cancer prevention, prostate cancer and diabetes control. In dark
grapes, raisins, berries, peanuts, turmeric roots, non - flavonoid polyphenolics are present; they are
stronglyanti-inflammatory, antioxidants, anticoagulants and reduce cholesterol. Also used as food
supplements are spirulina and chlorella.
Table 1 List of vitamins, minerals and their benefits
Vitamin A
Antioxidant, vital for growth and development in the
Vitamin E
helps to
blood cells, muscles, lung and nerve tissue boosts the
immune system.
Vitamin K
Important for blood
Vitamin C
Antioxidant, for healthy bones, gums, teeth and skin, in wound healing,
common cold and attenuate its symptoms.
Vitamin B1
Helps in c
onversion of food into energy, which is essential for neurological function.
Vitamin B2
Helps maintain healthy eyes, skin and skin and nerve function in energy production as
well as other chemical processes in the body.
Vitamin B3
Helps convert food into energy and keep the brain function properly.
Vitamin B6
Produce cell genetic material,
RBC formation, central nervous system maintenance and
amino acid synthesis and fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
Folic acid
Produce cell genetic material to protect against heart disease during pregnancy to
prevent birth defects, the formation of RBCs.
Bone and teeth and bone strength in nerve, muscle and glandular functions are
Production of energy, transport and transfer of oxygen to tissues.
Healthy function of the nerve and muscle and bone formation can help
premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Strong bones and teeth help to form genetic material, produce and store energy.
With insulin, carbohydrates and fats can be converted into energy.
Vitamin B12 is an essential component,
but ingested cobalt is metabolized in vivo to
form coenzymes of B12.
Essential for the production of hemoglobin and collagen, the heart, energy production
and iron absorption from the digestive tract are healthy.
For proper thyroid
et al
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Table 2: Herbals used and their therapeutic relevance
Herbals (Botanical source)
Therapeutic relevance
Aloe vera gel
(Aloe vera Linn.)
inflammatory, emollient healing belongings.
(Matricariarecutita L)
inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, antimicrobial, wound
, treatment of cold and flu indications.
Bronchodilator, vasoconstrictor, reduce bronchial edema.
A nutritional
supplement of linoleic acid, handling of
(Tanacetum parthenium
Handling of headache, fever and menstrual problem, severity and
duration of migraine headaches.
Antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic, hypotensive anti
(Zingiber officinale
Carminative, antiemetic, cholagogue, positive inotropic.
(Panax ginseng)
(Ginkgo biloba L.)
Vasodilation, increased peripheral blood flow, treatment of the
thrombotic syndrome.
Antimicrobial, astringent,
treatment of mucosal
inflammation dyspepsia, gastritis.
(Marrubium vulgare
treatment of peptic ulcer.
(Melissa officinalis)
Topical antibacterial and antiviral.
Plantago seed
St. John’s
perforatum L.)
Anxiolytic, anti
inflammatory, antidepressant, monoamine oxidase
(Valeriana officinalis
Spasmolytic, mild sedative, sleep aid.
(Salix alba L.)
inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic,
astringent, treatment of
rheumatic and arthritic.
Table3Various categories of dietary supplements
Dietary supplements
Ketogenic diets
In order to improve seizure control, foods with high fat and low protein and
carbohydrates have been reported. These diets, however, are widely
recognized as unpleasant.
Minimally refined grains
Cereals and calcium
enriched grains can reduce diabetes incidence and
prevent gastrointestinal cancers.
It was found on soy flo
ur and linseeds and was documented to improve
levels of estrogen when the hormonal level is low. This can prevent hot
flushes and breast cancer.
Several species of edible
Tonnage, Lentinus, Pleurotus, Auricularia, Flammulina, Tremella,
and Grifola have different degrees of reduction and antitumor without
significant toxicity.
Glucosamine sulfate and
chondroitin sulfate
They are useful and safer to relieve osteoarthritis symptoms.
Found in casein
and whey protein and having activity like ACE inhibitors.
Buckwheat proteins used as flour reduce cholesterol, high blood pressure,
improve constipation and obesity by acting similar to dietary fibers and
interrupt in vivo metabolism.
Dairy foods
Containing friendly or probiotic bacteria that promote intestinal health.
TABLE 4 Various categories of dietary supplements based on their uses
Type of disease
Exploited nutraceuticals
Antioxidants, dietary fibers, polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega
3, vitamins, minerals,
to prevent and treat CVD. Polyphenol (in grape) prevents arterial diseases.
Flavonoids (in onions, vegetables, grapes, red wine, apples and cherries) block ACE
and strengthen the small capillaries that carry oxygen and essential nutrients to all
[26, 27]
In diabetic patients, ethyl esters of n
3 fatty acids may be beneficial. Docosahexaenoic
acid modulates insulin resistance and is also essential for the development of
neurovisual properties.
An antioxidant lipoic acid to treat diabetic neuropathy.
In diabetic patients, dietary fibers from psyllium were used to control glucose and
reduce lipid levels in hyperlipidemia.
et al
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Stimulants of herbs, such as ephedrine. Caffeine, ma huang
guarana, chitosan and
green tea help in the loss of body weight Buckwheat seed proteins similar to food
5-hydroxytryptophan and green tea extract can contribute to weight loss, while the
former reduces appetite and increases energy expenditure later.
In the dietary supplement, a mixture of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G Sylvestre
and vitamin C significantly reduced body weight.
Momordica Charanrtia (MC), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), capsaicin, has potential
anti - obese properties.
Flavonoids that block estrogen
producing enzymes reduce cancers caused by
A wide range of phyto-pharmaceutical products with a claimed hormonal activity
called "phytoestrogens" is recommended to prevent prostate / breast cancer.
The source of iso - flavones in soy foods, curcumin from curry and soy iso - flavones
have chemo preventive properties for cancer.
Lycopene is concentrated in the skin, testicles, adrenal and prostate to protect against
Saponins (found in peas, soybeans, herbs, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes, alfalfa and
clover) have antitumor and anti - mutagenic activity.
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a turmeric polyphenol, is carcinogenic, oxidative and
anti - inflammatory.
Beetroots, cucumber fruits, leaves of spinach and turmeric rhizomes have been
reported to have anti - tumor activity.
In the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune diseases, linoleic acid (found in
green leafy vegetables, nuts, vegetable oils, i.e. evening primrose oil, black cassava seed
oil, hemp seed oil, and spirulina, cyanobacteria) is used.
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are used to control osteoarthritis and regulate NO
and PGE2 gene expression and synthesis.
The cat's claw contains 17 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, sterol fractions
and other compounds and acts as a powerful anti - inflammatory agent.
By neutralizing the harmful effects of mitochondrial dysfunction of oxidative stress and
various forms of neural degeneration, β-carotene, curcumin, lutein, lycopene, turmeric
etc. can have positive effects on specific diseases.
In food, vitamin E can protect against Parkinson's disease.
Creatine changes the characteristics of Parkinson's disease by measuring a decrease in
clinical signs.
Vision improving
The treatment
of visual disorders uses lutein (found in mangoes, corn, sweet potatoes,
carrots, squash, tomatoes and dark, leafy greens such as kale, collards and bokchoy).
Zeaxanthin (found in corn, egg yolks and green vegetables and fruits, such as broccoli,
green beans, green peas, cabbage, kale, collard greens, spinach, lettuce, kiwi and
honeydew) is used mainly for the treatment of visual disorders in traditional Chinese
Glucosamine (GLN) and sulfate chondroitin (CS) alleviate
osteoarthritis symptoms.
Probiotic Microorganisms
It is defined as live microorganisms that have a health effect on the host when consumed in adequate
quantities. Probiotics can treat lactose intolerance by producing a specific enzyme B-galactosidase, which
can hydrolyze lactose into its sugar components. Prebiotics adds to our vocabulary more recently and are
substances that we do not digest when consumed. They act instead as a source of nutrients for good
probiotic bacteria [6,49].
Nutraceutical Enzymes
These enzymes come from microbial, animal or plant sources [6].
Non-traditional Nutraceuticals
These are artificial foods that biotechnology helps prepare. Food samples contain bioactive components
designed to produce human well-being products. They are divided into a) Fortified nutraceuticals b)
Recombinant nutraceuticals
a)Fortified nutraceuticals: Fortified food or added nutrients or ingredients from agricultural breeding, for
example. Calcium-fortified orange juice, added vitamins or minerals to cereals and added folic acid to
flour.Milk also used in vitamin D deficiency fortified with cholecalciferol. Bifidobacterium lactis HN019
fortified prebiotic and probiotic milk used in children with diarrhoea, respiratory infections and severe
et al
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b) Recombinant nutraceuticals: As the word itself indicates, with the help of biotechnology, they are
energy supplying food formed by "recombination." For example Yogurt, cheese, vinegar, bread, alcohol,
starch, etc [6].
In comparison with other therapeutic agents, the use of nutraceuticals as an attempt to achieve desirable
therapeutic results with reduced side effects has achieved great monetary success. Approximately two-
thirds of the American population use as a minimum one type of nutraceutical health product. In
pharmaceutical and biotech companies, there is a clear predilection for the discovery and production of
nutraceuticals over pharmaceuticals. In the United States, the nutraceutical industry is about $ 86. This
figure is somewhat higher in Europe and Japan; it accounts for about a quarter of its total annual food
sales of $ 6 billion - 47 percent of the Japanese population consume nutraceuticals. Professional
intelligences continuously propose that the market is continuous lyrising, even without specific financial
figures. The ageing baby-boomer population is one possible amplification for the growth of nutraceuticals
in the United States. As citizens' average age continues to rise, the population is increasingly focused on
health and wellness. By the middle of the 21st century, nearly 142 million Americans over the age of 50
could be based on a projected population of nearly 400 million citizens. As generic products enter the
market the price of some nutraceuticals may fall, the dependence of people on these products suggests
that market progress remains stable [7,50].
Together with India's rising healthcare industry, there is also a developing trend in Fast Moving
Healthcare Goods (FMHG) in India; ingredients with human health benefits beyond basic nutrition are by
definition is known worldwide as nutraceuticals.Nutraceutical and functional food ingredients are
ingredients that do not have essential nutritional benefits for human health. The market for
nutraceuticals in 2007 was INR 18.75 billion, according to Cygnus estimates. The total nutraceuticals
market in India is estimated at INR 44 billion in 2009; it is expected that it will reach INR 95 billion in
2013. Two segments of the market are food supplements and vitamins and minerals [7,51].
Although nutraceuticals have significant promises to promote human health and disease prevention,
health professionals and regulatory toxicologists could also work together strategically to plan
appropriate regulations to provide humanity with the ultimate therapeutic benefits. Quality controls such
as the composition and content of active ingredients in natural plants and maintenance are crucial for the
production processes of nutraceuticals. In order to determine the safety and efficacy of the product,
extensive safety studies are required, including acute, sub-acute, sub-chronic, chronic and long-term
toxicity studies, as well as studies in animals and clinical trials in humans. The safety and efficacy of
drugs, chemicals, food supplements and nutraceuticals can be examined using DNA microarray
technology. In summary, agricultural, food and biomedical biotechnology continue to grow as a constant
change in our lives, the potential for our food to one day also serve as medicines is high [52,53].
In many ways, the studies have confirmed the crucial role of nutraceuticals in the prevention and
treatment of different diseases. Most people prefer to treat any condition in a natural way that can be
achieved through the regular use of nutraceuticals. Nutraceuticals consumption is the best way to remain
natural and improve the quality of life. Nutraceuticals can also be an alternative for patients who are
unwilling to undergo chemical treatment. It is toocost-effective over other therapies. The studies show
that nutraceuticals mechanically carry out different types of biological activity. Ultimately, these
properties reduce age and chronic diseases. Many of these potential nutraceuticals are currently in the
research and development phases. The nutraceuticals marketing graph is also growing around the world.
The reported market values show the public behaviour to focus more on the use of nutraceuticals, which
is ultimately linked to the brighter scope of the nutraceutical industry. However, there is enormous scope
for further progress in the field by introducing supply carriers and raising awareness of the potential of
such systems. Therefore, the field undoubtedly has the greatest hidden value associated with it, which is
only necessary to explore in order to make life easier and better.
We are grateful to Mr. Narayan Das Agrawal(Chancellor, GLA University, Mathura, India), Dr. Pradeep
Mishra (Director, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, India), Prof. Meenakshi
Bajpai(Head of Department, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, India) and Dr.
et al
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Anoop Kumar Gupta(Dean Academic Affairs, GLA University, Mathura, India) for their praise worthy
inspiration and constant support.
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Nutraceutical is the hybrid of „nutrition‟ and „pharmaceutical‟. Nutraceuticals; in broad, are food or part of food playing a significant role in modifying and maintaining normal physiological function that maintains healthy human beings. The food products used as nutraceuticals can be categorized as dietary fibre, prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and other different types of herbal natural foods. These nutraceuticals used in various diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, diabetes, cholesterol etc. In whole, „nutraceutical‟ has lead to the new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry has become a research oriented sector. This article aim to provide the knowledge of nutraceutical with its uses in various diseases.
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Objective: To examine prospectively the relationship between glycemic diets, low fiber intake, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Design: Cohort study. Setting: In 1986, a total of 65173 US women 40 to 65 years of age and free from diagnosed cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes completed a detailed dietary questionnaire from which we calculated usual intake of total and specific sources of dietary fiber, dietary glycemic index, and glycemic load. Main outcome measure: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Results: During 6 years of follow-up, 915 incident cases of diabetes were documented. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with risk of diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, alcohol and cereal fiber intake, and total energy intake. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the relative risk (RR) of diabetes was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.71, P trend=.005). The glycemic load (an indicator of a global dietary insulin demand) was also positively associated with diabetes (RR= 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16-1.86, P trend=.003). Cereal fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of diabetes when comparing the extreme quintiles (RR=0.72, 95% CI, 0.58-0.90, P trend=.001). The combination of a high glycemic load and a low cereal fiber intake further increased the risk of diabetes (RR=2.50, 95% CI, 1.14-5.51) when compared with a low glycemic load and high cereal fiber intake. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that diets with a high glycemic load and a low cereal fiber content increase risk of diabetes in women. Further, they suggest that grains should be consumed in a minimally refined form to reduce the incidence of diabetes.
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The oil of evening primrose (Oenothera sp.) is an important source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). GLA [08:3Delta6,9,12] is an unsaturated fatty acid in demand for its nutritional and pharmaceutical application. Oenothera biennis L. is the primary commercial source of evening primrose oil. A study was conducted to determine if species of Oenothera, adapted to Texas, produce GLA levels comparable to O. biennis. This project identified and evaluated the fatty acid composition of eight species of evening primrose native to Texas. GLA levels of 54 accessions evaluated from collected seed ranged from 0.0% to 11.0%. Field experiments were then conducted to determine oil content, fatty acid composition, seed yield, and potential adaptation to commercial production of selected accessions. Mean GLA levels of cultivated seed from these accessions ranged from 0.0% to 10.1%. Mean seed oil content ranged from 7.3% to 21.7%. Of the species examined, O. elata subsp. hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S. Watson) W. Dietrich and O. jamesii (Torrey & Gray) demonstrated GLA levels and seed yields adequate for commercial production. Based on these results, O. elata subsp. hirsutissima and O. jamesii demonstrated sufficiently high GLA levels, oil content, and seed yields to be considered for commercial production.
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Food and drugs from nature place a quite significant role in public healthcare system throughout the world. Nutraceuticals have evolved from the recognition of the link between food and health. Nutraceuticals contain health-promoting ingredients or natural components that have a potential health benefit for the body. Consumer interest in the relationship between diet and health has increased the demand for information on nutraceuticals. Rapid advances in science and technology, increasing health care costs, an aging population and rising interest in attaining wellness through diet are among the factors fueling interest in nutraceuticals. Nutraceuticals currently on the market represent a small fraction of the possible products. The vast potential for functional foods will not be achieved without extensive scientific research to ensure the safety and efficacy of these products.
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Edible mushrooms such as shiitake may have important salutary effects on health or even in treating disease. A mushroom characteristically contains many different bioactive compounds with diverse biological activity, and the content and bioactivity of these compounds depend on how the mushroom is prepared and consumed. It is estimated that approximately 50% of the annual 5 million metric tons of cultivated edible mushrooms contain functional "nutraceutical" or medicinal properties. In order of decreasing cultivated tonnage, Lentinus (shiitake), Pleurotus (oyster), Auricularia (mu-er), Flammulina (enokitake), Tremella (yin-er), Hericium, and Grifola (maitake) mushrooms have various degrees of immunomodulatory, lipid-lowering, antitumor, and other beneficial or therapeutic health effects without any significant toxicity. Although the data for this functional food class are not as strong as those for other functional foods such as cruciferous vegetables, because of their potential usefulness in preventing or treating serious health conditions such as cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and hypercholesterolemia, functional mushrooms deserve further serious investigation. Additionally, there is a need for epidemiological evidence of the role of this functional food class.
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Nutraceuticals have received considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects". Pharmaceutical and nutritional companies are aware of the monetary success taking advantage of the more health-seeking consumers and the changing trends resulting in a proliferation of these value-added products aimed at heart health to cancer. Some popular nutraceuticals include glucosamine, ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, cod liver oil, omega-3 eggs, calcium-enriched orange juice, green tea etc. Majority of the nutraceuticals are claimed to possess multiple therapeutic benefits though substantial evidence is lacking for the benefits as well as unwanted effects. The present review has been devoted towards better understanding of the nutraceuticals based on their disease specific indications.
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Using food products to promote health and cure disease is renowned. Currently, most of the drug molecules available in the formulations were anciently used in their crude form. Dr Stephen De Felice first coins the term nutraceutics in 1989 to provide medical or health benefits including the prevention and treatment of diseases. This review classified the large number of nutraceuticals available from various sources and its significance. Further, the regulatory status of nutraceuticals and latest trends in nutragenomics are discussed.
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Nutraceuticals are medicinal foods that enhance health, modulate immunity and thereby prevent and cure specific diseases. They may range from natural diets, herbal products to genetically engineered foods and processed products such as cereals, soups and beverages. Biofortified crops have been considered as a complementary strategy for delivering nutrition to malnourished populations. Dairy products that contain probiotic organisms such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species represent a new research area which improves gut health by modulating gut microbial composition. The ability of nutraceuticals to influence chronic diseases like diabetes, different types of cancers, etc. should be recognized as an enormous opportunity in their treatment. They will play important role in future therapeutic developments. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss history, classification, commercial products and regulations of nutraceuticals.
Herbal medicine is the need of the day. With the modernised, competitive lifestyle and ever increasing stressful conditions, all types of diseases are having a field day. Allopathic cure is available for most of the disorders but it comes at a price. First, the cost of medicine is increasing day by day as for all other commodities. Second, allopathic medicines are associated with a variety of side effects. Therefore, more and more people are inclining towards lifestyle modification and use of herbal products only. This helps in keeping various diseases at bay and boosting the overall health of the person. Herbal or plant medicine constitutes an effective source of both traditional and modern medicines. It is more popular in rural population and around 80% of rural population in India depends on it for their primary health care [1]. Medicinal plants offer a rich, though inadequately explored, source of components which provide a variety of health benefits. These components, known as phytochemicals, can act as [2]: 1. Substrates for various biochemical reactions. 2. Cofactors/ inhibitors of different enzymatic reactions. 3. Absorbents/sequestrants that bind to and eliminate undesirable constituents in the intestine.
Regulation of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals: A Global Perspective offers a comprehensive resource for information on regulatory aspects of the growing and economically important functional food industry. Regulatory systems and definitions of key terms-food, supplement, drug, etc-vary from country to country. A thorough understanding of laws and regulation within and among key countries with regard to functional foods, herbal extracts or drugs, and nutritional supplements is critical to the direction of food companies that are developing products for these markets. International experts with legal and/or scientific expertise address relevant topics from quality issues, to organic foods to labeling. Innovative product development within the framework of existing regulations will be addressed in individual chapters. Overview chapters will discuss global principles, inter-country trading issues, and present a comparison of the laws and regulations within different countries graphically. A "must-have" handbook for research professionals, management, and marketing strategists in the worldwide functional foods/nutritional supplements business. Food technicians and engineers responsible for manufacturing quality in this industry should add it to their library to ensure that they have a thorough knowledge of the applicable legal requirements. The book will also serve as an indispensable shelf reference for lawyers in the food industry and government health professionals with regulatory responsibilities.