Article

Teacher Turnover in Rwanda

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Abstract

Despite widely documented shortfalls of teacher skills and effort, there is little systematic evidence of rates of teacher turnover in low-income countries. I investigated the incidence and consequences of teacher turnover in Rwandan public primary schools over the period from 2016 to 2019. I combined the universe of teacher placement records with student enrollment figures and school-average Primary Leaving Exam scores in a nationally representative sample of 259 schools. Results highlight five features of teacher turnover. First, rates of teacher turnover are high: annually, 20% of teachers separate from their jobs, of which 11% exit from the public-sector teaching workforce. Second, the burden of teacher churn is higher in schools with low learning levels and, perhaps surprisingly, in low pupil–teacher-ratio schools. Third, teacher turnover is concentrated among early-career teachers, male teachers and those assigned to teach Math. Fourth, replacing teachers quickly after they exit is a challenge; 23% of exiting teachers are not replaced the following year. And fifth, teacher turnover is associated with subsequent declines in learning outcomes. On average, the loss of a teacher is associated with a reduction in learning levels of 0.05 standard deviations. In addition to class-size increases, a possible mechanism for these learning outcomes is the prevalence of teachers teaching outside of their areas of subject expertise: in any given year, at least 21% of teachers teach in subjects in which they have not been trained. Taken together, these results suggest that the problem of teacher turnover is substantial in magnitude and consequential for learning outcomes in schools.

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... Consequently, education system faces shortage of competent and qualified teachers and high teachers turn-over across the country. For instance, 20% of the teachers annually leave teaching profession of which 11% leave from the public institutions (Zeitlin, 2020). Additionally, teachers with school administration put much interests in collecting PTA contribution and coaching fees (out-of-school coaching) to increase their income supplementing their inadequate salary whereby failing to meet all those costs for the students results in exclusion from schools, thus experience repeating a grade, or dropout of schools (Timothy et.al 2015). ...
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Background: Quality education produces substantial values for money, as people are educated, earnings grow, so do savings, so does investment, and in turn, so does the well-being of all. As such, human capital consists of the knowledge, skills, and health that people accumulate over their lives, enabling them to realize their potential as productive members of society. It has large payoffs for individuals, societies, and countries. These facts mark the contribution of quality education to the production of effective human capital as a cornerstone of knowledge-based economy. Materials and methods: The purpose of this study was to scrutinise what is currently known about Rwandan quality education, its remaining challenges and to suggest solutions upon the identified obstructions for the country to achieve its predetermined long-term goals. External Desk research method was used to collect relevant information already published online, published reports and policies, Government and related International education based organisations' published data, from different Rwandan government & ministerial websites, United Nations (UN) Agencies websites, World Bank (WB) website to enhance the overall effectiveness of this current research in light of education quality indicators in Rwanda namely: government spending in education, internal efficiency, access, equity, relevance, literacy and teachers' motivation. Results: The study established that expenditure on education as % of total government GNI & public expenditure remains insufficient. Internal efficiency discloses a weak cohort survival, low transition and completion rates. Access to education was revealed inadequate when it comes to proximity of schools, preschool education, health & nutrition services, language of instruction as it has been changing overtime, and inadequate access to current educational technology-high speed internet connection, adequate hardware & software, digital and online learning opportunities. The study also established an inadequate equity in distributing available scarce resources like professionally trained and qualified teachers, classrooms, desks, textbooks, computers, toilets, particularly in rural areas. Relevance of education was also revealed poor, for education to respond to the societal needs and labour market demands like provision of competent human resources on either national or international market as evidenced by Human Capital Index (HCI) of 0.36/1. As such, literacy rate keeps growing slowly i.e., 0.96% within 10years. At last, teachers' motivation was found insufficient enough to cover teachers' basic daily expenses since their pay falls far less than country' GDP/capital & purchasing power party. Conclusion: A conclusion upon such findings was therefore drawn that the expected long-term goals-transformation of Rwandan citizens into skilled human capital for social economic development of the country, achievement of access to quality, equitable and effective education for all and provision of human resource useful for the socioeconomic development through the education system, remain unfinished business by the year 2020. To this end, in regard to this conclusion, suggested solutions for the main identified obstructions were asserted in line of achieving the expected quality education for all.
... Data from the 2017 Rwanda Labour Force Survey indicate that only 37 percent of recent TTC graduates were in teaching jobs, with 15 percent in non-teaching, salaried employment (National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, 2017). This is not because the teacher labor market is tight; nationwide close to a quarter of vacancies created by a teacher leaving a school remain unfilled in the following school year (Zeitlin, 2021). A more plausible explanation is that the recent graduates in the outside sector earned a premium of close to 30 percent, making occupational choice after TTC a meaningful decision. ...
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