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Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability

Authors:
C
Construction Supply Chains
and Their Role in
Sustainability
Priyanka Erasmus
1
and Usha Iyer-Raniga
1,2
1
School of Property, Construction and Project
Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC,
Australia
2
Co-lead Sustainable Buildings and Construction
Programme, United Nations One Planet Network,
Paris, France
Synonyms
Case study;Goods;Procurement;Services;Sup-
ply chain;Value for Money (VfM)
Definitions
There are no accepted denitions in the literature
for construction supply chain. Construction sup-
ply chains essentially bring goods and materials to
the construction site to ensure a building and
construction project may be realized. It may also
include services required such as that of various
trades needed to complete a project. The various
stakeholders involved in the success of a construc-
tion project such as the owner or client, the archi-
tect, various types of engineers, and operators all
are involved in the success of the project and
therefore, they are also part of the supply chain.
Introduction and the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDG)
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) were
adopted by the United Nations member states in
2015 to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure
that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by
2030. The 17 goals are interrelated so that action
in one area will affect outcomes in others. Devel-
opment must balance social, economic, and envi-
ronmental sustainability (UNDP 2020).
The building and construction sector
accounted for the largest share of both global
nal energy use of 36% and energy-related CO
2
emissions of 39% in 2018 (UNEP and IEA 2017).
Since the adoption of the SDGs and the 2030
Agenda, construction companies have tried to
nd sustainable ways for delivering construction
projects. According to the WGBC (2020), sustain-
able green buildings can contribute toward the
sustainable development goals (SDGs) 3, 7, 8, 9,
11, 12, 13, 15, and 17. SDG 3 focuses on health
and well-being, SDG 7 focuses on energy use,
SDDG 8 on decent work and economic growth,
SDG 9 on industry and infrastructure, SDG 11 on
sustainable cities and communities, SDG 12 on
responsible consumption and production, SDG
13 on climate change, SDG 15 on biodiversity,
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021
W. Leal Filho et al. (eds.), Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development
Goals, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71059-4_97-1
and SDG 17 on collaboration and partnerships
(UNDP 2020).
Thus, green buildings can support and assist in
achieving outcomes in relation to these goals:
Improve peoples health and well-being
Use renewable energy particularly in operating
buildings, becoming cheaper to run
Create jobs in construction and operation of
buildings, thus boosting the economy
Spur innovation in the sector and contribute to
climate resilient infrastructure
Support the essence of and form the fabric of
sustainable communities and cities
Use circularprinciples where resources are
not wasted
Produce fewer emissions helping to combat
climate change
Improve biodiversity, save water resources,
and help to protect forests
Create strong, global partnerships (WGBC
2020)
It is important to note that triple bottom line
(TBL) plays a key role in helping the construction
industry achieve not only economic but social and
environmental success by diversifying work and
practices (Elkington 1998). To achieve this, the
construction industry must look at work and prac-
tices that are sustainable in terms of extraction,
transportation, processing, fabrication, installa-
tion, reuse, recycling, and disposal of these mate-
rials. As pressures continue to arrest the negative
impacts of environmental damage, the disposal of
materials themselves is presenting an opportunity
for deconstruction (rather than disposal to landll
or worse, in the local environment) and bringing
materials back into the supply chain using the
principles of a circular economy. A circular
approach reduces if not eliminates the need for
virgin materials to be extracted causing greater
environmental damage, compared to reuse and
reprocessing materials already existing in the sys-
tem, supporting a second life.
Therefore, SDG 9 is directly related to an
important component of the construction supply
chain. SDG 9 focuses on building of resilient
infrastructure, promotion of inclusive and sustain-
able industrialization, and fostering innovation.
Aligned with SDG 9, SDG 12 on responsible
consumption and production is also an important
consideration for a circular economy and the pos-
sibilities of setting up new supply chains in the
future.
This entry commences with the denition of
construction supply chain (CSC) and determines
whether CSC plays an important role in sustain-
ability within the construction sector using case
studies. As construction projects usually involve a
lot of money, the value for money for a building
and construction project needs to be considered.
So, a comparative analysis of the Value for Money
(VfM) framework is undertaken to determine if
this can assist in achieving sustainability in the
delivery of construction projects. Using case stud-
ies, success factors for construction projects are
highlighted. The entry concludes with determin-
ing the way forward for construction supply
chains.
Construction Supply Chain (CSC)
Stevens (1989)denes supply chain as a
connected series of activities which is concerned
with planning, coordinating, and controlling
material, parts, and nished goods from suppliers
to the customer and is concerned with the two
distinct ows through the organization: material
and information. The scope of the supply chain
begins with the source and ends at the point of
consumption. Christopher (1992) considered the
supply chain as a network of organizations that
are involved, through upstream and downstream
linkages, in the different processes and activities
that produce value in the form of products and
services in the hands of the ultimate customer.
Behm (2008) states construction work typi-
cally involves building of new structure, renova-
tions involving additions, alterations, or
maintenance and repair of buildings or engineer-
ing projects such as highways or utility systems.
According to Muya et al. (1999), there are three
types of construction supply chains:
2 Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability
The rst of these is the primary supply chain
which delivers materials that get incorporated
into the nal construction product
The second one is the support chain which
provides equipment and materials that facili-
tate construction
The third type of supply chain involves the
supply of labor
Therefore, the nature of construction supply
chains (CSC) is complex and there is no one
singular approach. CSC involves a high degree
of collaboration among stakeholders such as cli-
ents, consultants, contractors, subcontractors,
laborers, suppliers, and a range of other stake-
holders. The denition of construction must not
be confused with that of manufacturing which
typically refers to the production of nished
goods sold to distributors, retailers, or consumers.
Construction involves the architecture, engineer-
ing, construction, and operation (AECO) actors to
come together to produce a building or
infrastructure.
Vrijhoef and Koskela (2000) characterize the
construction supply chain into three categories
(p. 171):
Converging supply chain: This type of supply
chain, called a converging supply chain, directs
all materials to the construction site where the
object is assembled from the incoming mate-
rials. The construction factoryis set around
the single product, in contrast to manufacturing
systems where multiple products pass through
the factory and are distributed to many
customers.
Temporary supply chain: A temporary supply
chain produces one-off construction projects
through repeated conguration of project orga-
nizations. This is the most commonly occur-
ring type of supply chain. As a result, the
construction supply chain is typied by insta-
bility, fragmentation, and especially by the
separation between the design and the con-
struction of the built object.
Make-to-order supply chain: As the name sug-
gests, this type of supply chain is typically
make-to-order supply, with every project cre-
ating a new product or prototype. There is little
repetition, again with minor exceptions. The
process can be very similar, however, for pro-
jects of a particular kind such as prefabrication.
The characteristics of the construction supply
chain are considered next.
Characteristics of Construction
Supply Chain
There are certain characteristics of a construction
supply chain. Behera et al. (2015) list the charac-
teristics of CSC as follows:
(a) Customer inuence: A customer exercises
great inuence on the nal product in relation
to its physical aspects and to the value of
logistic parameters.
(b) Fragmentation: Construction industries are
very complex as many subcontractors and
vendors are involved and active group of
institutions that operate to meet numerous
different and incompatible business purposes.
(c) Number and type of stakeholders: The main
stakeholders are owners, designers, construc-
tors, and suppliers; however, a typical net-
work involves multiple organizations and
relationships, including the ow of informa-
tion, the ow of materials, services and prod-
ucts, and the ow of funds between client,
designer, contractor, and supplier.
(d) Buyersupplier relationship: This is mostly of
transactional nature, strained by conict and
mistrust. Moreover, it is widely known, espe-
cially among public sector clients, that in con-
struction, a tender price is the most signicant
parameter used for a bid evaluation. This
focus on price is the main reason for project
delivery problems.
(e) Temporary multiple organizations (project-
based nature): Production at a temporary site
by a temporary organization leads to relation-
ships focused on the short-term thinking, with
actors attempting to leverage what they can
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability 3
out of the existing contract, resulting in an
environment where opportunism reigns.
(f) Change inertia: Construction organizations
tend to be conservative referring to the need
for change, because of the risks associated
with the procurement of projects.
(g) Make-to-order supply chain: Clients are often
seen as the ultimate source of changes in
specications in make-to-order production. It
is the client who takes the initiative to start a
construction project, and this leads to frequent
conceptualization of the CSC as a process
explicitly starting and ending with the
end user.
(h) Collaborative opportunities: To model
interorganizational innovation in construc-
tion, there is a need for exploration of collab-
orative opportunities.
(i) Cyclical demand: The construction industry is
highly cyclical in output because its product is
not transportable but durable.
These characteristics make CSC a web of com-
plexities and pose many challenges for the suc-
cessful completion of a project. These involve
time, price, coordination, and collaboration
between key project players and project-specic
requirements.
Behera et al. (2015) outline these complexities
as follows:
Construction projects run a strict schedule
involving large capital investments and stringent
quality standards, and time is of the essence and a
critical factor as far as completion of a project is
concerned. Delays in project completion result in
legal consequences and further delays.
Behera et al. (2015) state that all pricing in
construction can be lump sum, cost plus, negoti-
ated or unit price and depends on the time that the
contractor determines it will take to complete a
job. The labour-intensive construction operation
is characterised by decentralisation. A main con-
tractor may self-perform a portion of the work as
other specialty subcontractors move in and out of
the project as and when they complete sections of
their work(p. 7).
Behera et al. (2015) also argue that there is
little coordination and collaboration between the
design professionals, main contractors, sub-
contractors and suppliers involved during the life
cycle of the project. Information generated by
various sources, at many levels of abstraction
and detail, contributes to the fragmentation,
which eventually results in lack of communica-
tion and implementation and leads to signicant
negative performance impacts low productivity,
cost and time overruns, change orders, inadequate
design specications, liability claims, and, gener-
ally, conicts and disputes which directly impact
the customer by increasing project completion
time and costs(p. 7).
Lastly, Behera et al. (2015) found that the
ultimate level of complexity involved with the
management of a construction project is to be
determined by the extensive requirements of the
end customer and found it difcult to quantify the
exact number of constituent material, equipment
and labour supply chains that have to be inte-
grated into a typical construction project due to
its unique project-specic requirements(p. 7).
A classic example of the complexities within
construction projects is the current Victorian gov-
ernmentsagship AUD11 bn infrastructure pro-
ject, the Melbourne Metro rail tunnel project in
Victoria, Australia. This mega project clearly
demonstrates the complexities in completing a
construction project.
While there are general characteristics of con-
struction supply chains, there are country-specic
characteristics that are unique to their construction
industry. Ho et al. (2007) characterize the supplier
selection criteria in Taiwan and Vietnam into six
groups; capability, ability to meet buyers needs,
honesty and integrity, price, buyersupplier t,
and strategic commitment of supplier to buyer
(pp. 408409). Amornsawadwatana (2011)
asserts that in Thailand, important factors for a
successful construction supply chain include solid
partnerships between the suppliers and the pro-
ject, suppliers must be able to monitor the day-to-
day construction progress as well as levels of
materials inventory and calculate materials
required for the next period, third-party logistics
providers should also be included; delay in trans-
portation generates extra costs to the project since
construction process has to wait for materials
4 Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability
while laborers are idle and successful partnership
with all members in the supply chain requires the
electronic data interchange (EDI) system (p. 207).
For construction projects to be successful, a
range of critical success factors (CSF) are essen-
tial. Sanvido et al. (1992)dene CSFs as those
factors predicting success on projects(p. 97).
According to Milosevic and Patanakul
(2005)critical success factors are characteristics,
conditions, or variables that can have a signicant
impact on the success of the project when properly
sustained, maintained, or managed(p. 64). From
various literature identied through Milosevic and
Patanakuls(2005) study, critical success factors
include support from senior management, skilled
designers, skilled project managers, troubleshoot-
ing, project team motivation, commitment of all
project participants, strong/detailed plan effort in
design and construction, adequate communication
channels, effective control such as monitoring and
updating plans, effective feedback and adequate
nancial budget(p. 65).
Case Studies
There are several examples of construction pro-
jects that are a success. Two examples are pre-
sented here, one from England and the other from
Australia.
The Eden project in Cornwall, England, is a
good example and its success can be seen by
number of visitors, local regeneration, and deliv-
ery on budget and being completed ahead of
schedule (Connaughton et al. 2006).
Connaughton et al. (2006) identied factors that
exemplify all the principles that underpin effec-
tive project management and delivery as
identied:
Purpose the vision and objective of the pro-
ject remained constant throughout the project.
Appraisal the basic concept was tested using
various options and design and was based on
realistic assessments of visitor numbers and
income projections.
Precedent since the scheme had no direct
precedent in terms of business proposition or
design and construction, the result was a sig-
nicant effort focused on active risk
management to reduce uncertainty associated
with the project. Later phases of the project
seemed to have beneted from lessons learned
through staff continuity and formal knowledge
capture.
Management strong visionary leadership
backed up by a clear project management
structure was a key to the projects success.
Important issues like stakeholder management
were addressed in the project
management plan.
People the project team became highly inte-
grated and were wholly focused on resolving
the technical challenges represented by the
project and on its successful delivery.
Procurement the project was procured using
the New Engineering Contract (NEC) form
based on guaranteed maximum price and com-
pensation events were linked to the risk register
that provided complete clarity regarding allo-
cation of risk exposure.
Design quality the project has a commitment
to innovation, quality, and sustainability
including the efcient use of materials and
design.
Cost management budgets were realistic and
market-tested, therefore delivering on the pro-
ject efciently. The scope of the project was
reduced at an early stage without disruptions to
the project if the funds were insufcient. With
GMP (guaranteed maximum price) and active
risk management strategy in place, it enabled
the contingency to be retained through the
project.
Communications close-control project man-
agement kept the team informed of progress
and actions required to meet targets which
included a close-knit, colocated team with a
decisive hands-on client.
Risk management the formal risk manage-
ment processes registered were regularly
updated and integrated into the contract. This
ensured the ownership of risks was clear and
that actions were taken to mitigate potential
risk exposure.
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability 5
People are at the heart of a successful project
and are the most important component in deter-
mining its success. It is the dynamics between
people and how well they work together that
often determines the success of a project.
From a traditional construction approach, the
project also had some notable sustainability consid-
erations. The Eden project sourced materials
responsibly, supporting some of the SDGs. The
project utilized Heineken beer bottles as green
tiles in the oor, the entrance mats are made from
recycled truck tyres, and the cafe oor is made of
reclaimed wood. The project worked closely with
Rio Tinto to source the copper for the roof of the
core and this marked a new approach in the mineral
supply chain that pioneered single-source traceabil-
ity. The project also used glulam (glue-laminated
layers of timber) from Forest Stewardship Council
certied red spruce to create the beams in the ceiling
of the core (Eden Project n.d.). The walls of the
dome are super-insulated by using Warmcel made
from recycled newspaper (Eden Project n.d.). The
design features of the lobby reduce heat loss at the
front door and underground tubes warm the air
before it enters the building (Eden Project n.d.).
Photovaltaic panels were used to provide a fraction
of the electricity used in the building. Automatic
taps were used to save water. The project chose to
use Portland cement because the producers were
committed to the ongoing reduction of CO
2
in the
manufacturing process and because the cement
could be delivered by rail (Eden Project n.d.).
They sourced a recycled aggregate to make up the
remaining 90% of the concrete (only 10% is
cement). The aggregate used was local China clay
industry waste (Eden Project n.d.).
Another example is the Southbank Education
and Training Precinct, which was Queenslands
(Australia) rst PPP (public private partnership)
and was delivered under the Queensland govern-
ments PPP policy and Value for Money frame-
work for AUD 542 million (net present value,
June 2005 dollars). The project included 11 new
buildings and refurbishment of four buildings
resulting in a 2990 m
2
of student accommodation
and serviced apartments (DIT 2010). Under the
PPP contract, Axiom Education Queensland
(ABN AMRO, John Holland and Spotless
Facilities Management) designed, constructed,
and nanced the project. The project was judged
as the Best Global Projectat the prestigious
Public Private Finance Awards in London on
22 May 2007 (DIT 2010). Successes of the project
include a completion time 7 weeks ahead of
schedule.
Summary of the key project insights included
governance and management that promoted
accountability and responsibility throughout the
decision-making structure, the interactiveten-
dering process with the private sector reducing the
risk of the private sector misinterpreting project
scope or output specications, maintaining strong
relations and communications with Axion to
ensure that issues were resolved in a timely man-
ner, undertaking a review of the Value for Money
framework following its rst PPP project, making
improvements to the policy and the evaluation,
and contract nalization processes were
conducted in accordance with the Queensland
Governments PPP policy (DIT 2010).
Value for Money (VfM)
Value for Money framework (VfM) is a method of
procurement used in private public partnerships
(PPP) for large complex projects. According to
MacDonald et al. (2013), the VfM framework
model is designed to be of use to all parties
involved in the delivery of project alliances,
including owners, constructors, design consul-
tants and other non-owner participants (NOPs),
and it is intended to inform all participants mutu-
ally of the issues that are critical to VfM through-
out the whole lifecycle of a project(p. 281).
The link between value and project success is
important in assessing the criteria of success in the
delivery of the project. For example, MacDonald
et al. (2013) state that a project may be delivered
successfully but may not create signicant value
to justify the resources being deployed to deliver
it(p. 281). This is where a VfM plays an impor-
tant role. However, there is a lack of literature on
the denition of a Value for Money framework in
the construction industry. MacDonald et al.
(2013)nd the general lack of consistency in the
6 Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability
denition of VfM in the literature striking
(p. 281). Cited in Ameyaw et al. (2015),
Rintamaki et al. (2007) in their contribution
towards the debate of value suggest that value
has to do with economic issues (relating to
price), function (connected to functional require-
ments), emotion (showing experiential needs),
and symbolism (showing self-expression needs)
(p. 270). The VfM framework model is designed
to be of use to all parties involved in the delivery
of project alliances, including owners, construc-
tors, design consultants and other non-owner par-
ticipants (NOPs), and it is intended to inform all
participants mutually of the issues that are critical
to VfM throughout the whole lifecycle of a pro-
ject(MacDonald et al. 2013, p. 281).
Table 1shows a comparison of the VfM model
in selected countries. A mix of developed and
developing countries have been chosen to show
differences and similarities that drive the VfM,
which in turn drives the supply chains. The table
starts by looking into key assessment criteria of
VfM assessment for selected countries and con-
ducts a comparison of the variables, namely
assessment, appraisal, drivers, barriers, and con-
cepts. The VfM key assessment criteria form the
basis for the comparisons and consist of afford-
ability, risk sharing, and competition. As some of
the terms such as affordability and risk sharing are
subjective, they need attention. According to
Takim et al. (2009), affordability means the
appropriate allocation of resources, cost distribu-
tion and within the budget, risk sharing is referred
to the optimum allocation of risk between private
and public sectors and competition means
contestability in the market (i.e., in the building
process and once the contract is concluded and in
operation)(p. 106).
Conclusion and the Way Forward
The construction supply chain (CSC) plays an
important role in ensuring sustainable
construction practices support the SDGs in
achieving sustainability and addressing climate
change. However, various considerations need to
be reconciled. The rst of this is the project budget
itself common to building and construction pro-
jects. To consider sustainability underpinnings in
projects, the full cycle cost needs to be considered.
It is not unusual to have a higher project cost up
front but more modest operating costs when con-
sidering the life of a project. Along with the bud-
get are other considerations such as procurement
and the social considerations of procurement,
especially where global supply chains are
involved as it is hard to determine some of the
social impacts such as child labor in a different
country.
Therefore, companies need to make an ethical
choice as far as procurement is concerned. This is
where the VfM is most useful. The framework
assists companies to procure affordable resources
for construction projects but may not necessarily
take in to account the SDGs and sustainability. As
can be observed from the Eden project case study,
it was completed 6 months in advance. These
success criteria may be replicated in other con-
struction projects. Construction companies can
utilize such practices within their own projects to
implement the SDGs and enhance the sustainabil-
ity agenda. Supply chains are the backbone of
construction projects. If success criteria are
dened and agreed to in advance and all stake-
holders commit to work in collaboration to meet
the goals of the project, the outcomes benet
everyone. When considering the future, tradi-
tional supply chains that use virgin materials are
increasingly being questioned due to the environ-
mental impact associated with the production of
the building materials and products. New supply
chains, where materials and products already in
the system can be given a second life and become
raw materials for remanufacture of new products
and materials, are currently being explored in
some parts of the world.
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability 7
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability, Table 1 Comparison of the VfM for selected
countries (Source: Authors)
Variables
UK VfM Model
(Grimsey and
Lewis 2005;
Pitt and Collins
2006)
Australia
VfM Model
(Partnership
Victoria
2006)
Japanese
VfM Model
(Mori 2006;
Kajita 2007)
Vietnamese VfM
Model (Atmo and
Dufeld 2014;
Hang 2016;La
2016)
Ghanian VfM Model
(Ameyaw et al. 2015)
Key assessment
criteria
Affordability Affordability Affordability Transferred risk
variables
Qualitative and
quantitative
techniques
Risk sharing Risk sharing Risk sharing Endogenous
variables
Use of Public Sector
Comparator (PSC),
though this is
sometimes described
differently
Competition Competition Competition Exogenous
variables
Risks assessment
Public Sector
Comparator
(PSC)
Public Sector
Comparator
(PSC)
Public Sector
Comparator
(PSC)
Competitive
neutrality
VFM
assessment
Public
Interest Test
(PIT)
Full cost-benet
analysis
Assessing the cost of
service delivery to the
government
Comparing private
alternatives
Conrming the
viability of the
chosen project
VFM
apparaisal
Financial (net
present value)
Financial
(net present
value)
Financial (net
present
value)
Financial Qualitative (literature
survey)
Qualitative
(merit based)
Qualitative
(merit based)
Qualitative
(merit based)
Qualitative
Barriers Subjective Inaccuracy Complexity
of procedures
High risk relying
on the private
sector
Design change
Simplistic Omitted risks Bureaucracy Few schemes
have actually
reached the
contract stage
Conditions imposed
by the higher
authorities for
approval of the
project
Unquantiable Manipulation Not
disclosing
information
High
participation
costs
Movement of
construction costs
Risk High cost Lack of a
transparency
High project costs Change in
developmental
policies
Incomplete No consesus
on discount
rate
A great deal of
management time
spent on contract
transaction
Change in PPP
(public private
partnership)
guidelines
(continued)
8 Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability, Table 1 (continued)
Variables
UK VfM Model
(Grimsey and
Lewis 2005;
Pitt and Collins
2006)
Australia
VfM Model
(Partnership
Victoria
2006)
Japanese
VfM Model
(Mori 2006;
Kajita 2007)
Vietnamese VfM
Model (Atmo and
Dufeld 2014;
Hang 2016;La
2016)
Ghanian VfM Model
(Ameyaw et al. 2015)
No public
sector
alternative
Excessive
restrictions on
participation
Change client
requirements
Lengthy delays in
negotiation
Frequent changes in
clients requirements
Policy change
Change in FM
services
VFM drivers Risk allocation Denable
and
measurable
service
output
Government
support
Investment
environment
Risk allocation
Output
specication
Whole life
costing
Deregulation
and opening
market to
private sector
Risk transfer Competition
Competition Integration of
design,
operation
and
maintenance
Private sector
capability
and expertise
Competition Output specication
Contract
duration and
scope
Opportunity
for
innovation
Proper
contract
conditions
Whole-life
consideration
Contract duration and
scope
Bid cost Risk transfer Private
companies
willing to
accept risk
Innovation Performance
measurement
Innovation Greater asset
utilization
Capacity of
nancial
markets
Third-parties
asset utilisation
Contract exibility
Borrowing cost Market
capability
Private sector
skills utilisation
Building cost
Private and
client
management
skills
Technical innovation
Performance
measurement
Client mngt skill
Contract
exibility
Affordability
Government support
Stable macro
economic condition
Shorten process &
keep to timelines
Favourable legal
framework
(continued)
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability 9
Cross-References
Addressing local and global sustainability in
the age of sustainable development goals
Assessment of Resilience in Complex Urban
Systems
Climate Change Adaptation: Infrastructure and
Extreme Weather
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in
Sustainability
Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustain-
able Development Goal 9
Cradle-to-Cradle Front-End Innovation: Man-
agement of the Design Process
Development of New Skills: Innovation and
Sustainability in Industry 4.0
Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability, Table 1 (continued)
Variables
UK VfM Model
(Grimsey and
Lewis 2005;
Pitt and Collins
2006)
Australia
VfM Model
(Partnership
Victoria
2006)
Japanese
VfM Model
(Mori 2006;
Kajita 2007)
Vietnamese VfM
Model (Atmo and
Dufeld 2014;
Hang 2016;La
2016)
Ghanian VfM Model
(Ameyaw et al. 2015)
Economically viable
project
Minimize political
debate
Stakeholder
consultations
Strong and good
private consortium
Commitment and
responsibility of
public and private
sectors
Close supervision of
construction process
by consultants
Private sector
management
Measurable value
testing
Fair price adjustment
proportional to
requirement change
Comprehensive
VFM concepts
Economy Economy Economy Economy
Efciency Efcient Efcient Effective
Effectiveness Effectiveness Effectiveness Efcient
Achieving
optimal risk
transfer
Achieving
optimal risk
transfer
Achieving
optimal risk
transfer
Efciency of
public services
Efcient of
public
services
Efcient of
public
services
Innovative
design
Innovative
design
Innovative
design
Leveraging the
private sector
Leveraging
private sector
Leveraging
private sector
10 Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability
Digital Vulnerabilities and the Sustainable
Development Goals in Developing Countries
Employment and Stability
Green Building
Green Infrastructure: Networks for a Biodi-
verse Future
Green infrastructure: The new paradigm for
resilient cities
Green Path Development and Green Regional
Restructuring for Sustainable Development
Impact of Climate Change on Infrastructure
Industrial Symbiosis: Unlocking Synergies to
Achieve Business Advantages and Resource
Efciency
Industry 4.0 Supporting Sustainable
Development
Infrastructure Life Cycle and Circular Econ-
omy in Construction: A European Approach
Infrastructure Resilience: Assessment, Chal-
lenges and Insights
Life Cycle Assessment in Contaminated Sites
Remediation
Life cycle management of infrastructures
Linkages between Climate Change Adaptation
and Development
Natural Capitals Role in Sustainable
Development
Natural Hazards: Impacts on Building Resilient
Infrastructure and Sustainable Industrialization
Open Access Publications and their Impact on
Sustainability Development Goals
Open Data: Towards Achieving and Measuring
Sustainable Development Goals
Research and Development, Innovations and
Sustainability: A Theoretical Perspective
Residual Value of Infrastructures
Resilient Cities in a Sustainable World
Responsible Research and Innovation
Rethinking Technology Sharing for Sustainable
Growth and Development in Developing
Countries
Risk-based infrastructure management
approach to Sustainable Development
Role of Design Thinking and Biomimicry in
Leveraging Sustainable Innovation
Scalability and Commercialisation in Support
of Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Architecture and Construction
Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Denition and
Types
Sustainable Infrastructure Project Evaluation
Sustainable Infrastructure, Industrial Ecology
and Eco-innovation: Positive Impact on Society
Sustainable Supply Chain Analytics
System Transitions for Sustainable Develop-
ment Goal 9
Towards circular economy in sewage treatment
plants for sustainable cities
Towards nearly zero energy building in Europe:
challenges of vocational education
Transfer of Knowledge in the Age of Sustain-
able Development
Transition to Green economy
Vulnerability Assessments for Evaluating the
Sensitivity of Infrastructure to Environmental
Change
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12 Construction Supply Chains and Their Role in Sustainability
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
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