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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed the existence of the new states of the authors of the "plasma quantum condensate" and connecting symptoms normal fluid and ionized plasma. The theoretical foundation of plasma condensate formed was given. It is shown that the phase transformation of up to 1 MJ/g latent heat t properties of energy allocation in the formation of non of specific ionized conglomerate, pulse energy output, in which the plasma's liquid becomes a l (or razer), spontaneous generation of magnetic field, self plasma, etc. The calculations of energy allocation when plasma quantum condensate formation was shown; the possibility of its application in science Corpuscular radiation generation process is designed in quantum non modes: acceleration on the front of the MHD quantum condensate is source is environmentally friendly, does not pollute the atmosphere of the planet; his use of cleanses the environment. Copyright©2017, Kulakov and Tyutyunnik. This is an open use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
NEW APPROACH TO THE PLASMA QUANTUM CONDENSATE, AS A NEW STATE OF MATTER
1
Kulakov
1Expert-Analytical
Center
2
International Information Nobel Centre (IINC)
ARTICLE INFO
ABSTRACT
Theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed the existence of the new states of m
the authors of the “plasma quantum condensate” and connecting symptoms normal fluid and ionized
plasma. The theoretical foundation of plasma condensate formed was given. It is shown that the phase
transformation of up to 1 MJ/g latent heat th
properties of energy allocation in the formation of non
of specific ionized conglomerate, pulse energy output, in which the plasma’s liquid becomes a la
(or razer), spontaneous generation of magnetic field, self
plasma, etc. The calculations of energy allocation when plasma quantum condensate formation was
shown; the possibility of its application in science,
Corpuscular radiation generation process is designed in quantum non
modes: acceleration on the front of the MHD
quantum condensate is
source is environmentally friendly, does not pollute the atmosphere of the planet; his use of cleanses
the environment.
Copyright©2017, Kulakov and Tyutyunnik. This
is an open
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
INTRODUCTION
Status of liquefied plasma (quantum condensate) is a
completely new state of matter that combines in itself the signs
of normal fluid (fluidity, surface tension, internal correlations)
and ionized plasma in the usual sense. Theoretical notions
about this c
ondition are based on quantum theory of exchange
forces in condensed mediums (Kulakov
1988; Kulakov et al., 1990; Kulakov
and
2015).
The main feature of such forces is their collective
(unpaired) character, which makes it ultimately far in the order
of the interatomic interactions. Generally molecular force and
especially the forces behind a distant order, have a purely
quantum nature.
The main idea is that the electron shells in
liquefied plasma (e.g. plasma discharge) overlap,
overlap that has through-
stripes character, i.e. the overlap of
diffraction peaks and dips of the wave function, however,
effectively leads to quantum f
orces of attraction between ions
of the discharge.
Quantum forces are the natural fact because
experimenters, dealing with discharges, have repeatedly seen
this on experience. Exchange interaction of electrons under
these conditions leads to ion gravitatio
n towards each other;
its binding energy becomes a negative.
Such status often
*Corresponding author: Tyutyunnik, V. M.
International Information Nobel Centre (IINC)
ISSN: 0975-833X
Article History:
Received 10th December, 2016
Received in revised form
24th January, 2017
Accepted 19th February, 2017
Published online 31st March, 2017
Key words:
A new state of matter, Plasma quantum
condensate, Non-ideal pinching plasma,
energy output, Razer, generation of
corpuscular radiation, Acceleration on the
front of the MHD-shock waves,
Acceleration in plasma focus, Alternative,
Renewable and sustainable energy.
Citation: Kulakov, A. V. and Tyutyunnik, V. M. 2017.
of Current Research, 9, (03), 47699-47703
RESEARCH ARTICLE
NEW APPROACH TO THE PLASMA QUANTUM CONDENSATE, AS A NEW STATE OF MATTER
Kulakov
, A. V. and *,2Tyutyunnik, V. M.
Center
of the Ministry of Education and Science
of RF, Moscow
International Information Nobel Centre (IINC)
ABSTRACT
Theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed the existence of the new states of m
the authors of the “plasma quantum condensate” and connecting symptoms normal fluid and ionized
plasma. The theoretical foundation of plasma condensate formed was given. It is shown that the phase
transformation of up to 1 MJ/g latent heat that exceeds the heat the most efficient fuels. Seven basic
properties of energy allocation in the formation of non
-
ideal pinching plasma were founded: formation
of specific ionized conglomerate, pulse energy output, in which the plasma’s liquid becomes a la
(or razer), spontaneous generation of magnetic field, self
-
similarity of process in laser and pinching
plasma, etc. The calculations of energy allocation when plasma quantum condensate formation was
shown; the possibility of its application in science,
engineering and technology was described.
Corpuscular radiation generation process is designed in quantum non
modes: acceleration on the front of the MHD
-
shock waves; acceleration in plasma focus. Plasma
quantum condensate is fundamentally new, alternative, renewable and sustainable energy source. This
source is environmentally friendly, does not pollute the atmosphere of the planet; his use of cleanses
the environment.
is an open
access article distributed under the Creative Commons Att
ribution License, which
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Status of liquefied plasma (quantum condensate) is a
completely new state of matter that combines in itself the signs
of normal fluid (fluidity, surface tension, internal correlations)
and ionized plasma in the usual sense. Theoretical notions
ondition are based on quantum theory of exchange
and Rumyantsev,
and
Rantsev-Kartinov,
The main feature of such forces is their collective
(unpaired) character, which makes it ultimately far in the order
of the interatomic interactions. Generally molecular force and
especially the forces behind a distant order, have a purely
The main idea is that the electron shells in
liquefied plasma (e.g. plasma discharge) overlap,
and this
stripes character, i.e. the overlap of
diffraction peaks and dips of the wave function, however,
orces of attraction between ions
Quantum forces are the natural fact because
experimenters, dealing with discharges, have repeatedly seen
this on experience. Exchange interaction of electrons under
n towards each other;
Such status often
spontaneously
implemented in nature. Quantum forces due to
successive overlapping electronic shells belonging to
neighboring atoms or ions. This overlap creates the effect of a
first-
order with respect to the de Broglie wavelength between
ion destinations. If in substa
nces that are in the normal phase
condition, overlapping also exists, but exponentially decreases
with increasing distances between atoms, that in the plasma
(because the spectrum of quantum energy states is continuous)
effect of reducing the intensity cei
growth slowing considerably of inter
significantly is slows down and describes the power
dependence.
The result is this picture of mutual coupling of
particles, which corresponds to a chain of sequentially
overlap
ping electron clouds, and each of the branches of the
chain covers a distance of the order of escape radius.
the chain spans the entire plasma: plasma ions, "captured" in
this chain, attracted to each other,
transformation of
plasma. The transition to a new state
accompanied by energy allocation, equal to the heat of
transformation. At the indicated concentrations, quantum forces
provides strong adhesion of particles, i.e. create attraction, and
binding energy between them beco
overlapping electronic membranes leads to the effective
coupling, well known from the theory of the chemical bond.
Shall refer to the Heitler-
London classical theory of molecular
forces, in which such forces are detected when
Available online at http://www.journalcra.com
International Journal of Current Research
Vol. 9, Issue, 03, pp.47699-47703, March, 2017
Kulakov, A. V. and Tyutyunnik, V. M. 2017.
“New approach to the plasma quantum condensate, as a new state of matter
z
NEW APPROACH TO THE PLASMA QUANTUM CONDENSATE, AS A NEW STATE OF MATTER
of RF, Moscow
Theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed the existence of the new states of m
atter, called
the authors of the “plasma quantum condensate” and connecting symptoms normal fluid and ionized
plasma. The theoretical foundation of plasma condensate formed was given. It is shown that the phase
at exceeds the heat the most efficient fuels. Seven basic
ideal pinching plasma were founded: formation
of specific ionized conglomerate, pulse energy output, in which the plasma’s liquid becomes a la
ser
similarity of process in laser and pinching
plasma, etc. The calculations of energy allocation when plasma quantum condensate formation was
engineering and technology was described.
Corpuscular radiation generation process is designed in quantum non
-ideal plasma, flowing in two
shock waves; acceleration in plasma focus. Plasma
fundamentally new, alternative, renewable and sustainable energy source. This
source is environmentally friendly, does not pollute the atmosphere of the planet; his use of cleanses
ribution License, which
permits unrestricted
implemented in nature. Quantum forces due to
successive overlapping electronic shells belonging to
neighboring atoms or ions. This overlap creates the effect of a
order with respect to the de Broglie wavelength between
nces that are in the normal phase
condition, overlapping also exists, but exponentially decreases
with increasing distances between atoms, that in the plasma
(because the spectrum of quantum energy states is continuous)
effect of reducing the intensity cei
lings of membranes with
growth slowing considerably of inter
-particle distances
significantly is slows down and describes the power
The result is this picture of mutual coupling of
particles, which corresponds to a chain of sequentially
ping electron clouds, and each of the branches of the
chain covers a distance of the order of escape radius.
In general
the chain spans the entire plasma: plasma ions, "captured" in
this chain, attracted to each other,
and going to phase
plasma. The transition to a new state
accompanied by energy allocation, equal to the heat of
transformation. At the indicated concentrations, quantum forces
provides strong adhesion of particles, i.e. create attraction, and
binding energy between them beco
mes a negative. The fact that
overlapping electronic membranes leads to the effective
coupling, well known from the theory of the chemical bond.
London classical theory of molecular
forces, in which such forces are detected when
calculating the
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL
OF CURRENT RESEARCH
“New approach to the plasma quantum condensate, as a new state of matter
”, International Journal
simplest molecules based on variations. Variational methods in
physics refer to the category of intuitive, a posteriori.
Consistently heuristic can be only theory based on direct solution
of the fundamental equations of quantum theory that is the
Schrödinger equation. Perturbation theory taking into account
exchange forces (Pauli principle), common to the class of
conditions of continuous spectrum, which is being implemented
in respect of states of electrons in the plasma, allowed to explain
already observed features of plasma phase, as well as predict the
properties of this phase, that can and should be used with modern
equipment and technology (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988;
Kulakov et al., 1990).
In today's plasma physics virtually all research effort focused
on high-temperature plasma. While the emphasis is on “hot”
fusion, difficulties which are well known in the Earth
conditions. At the same time, there are plasma-phase power
sources defined by the collective nature of particle interactions,
most clearly manifested in sufficiently dense plasma (with the
concentration of particles n= 1019-1021sm–3) in the low
temperature area (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988). This
plasma is obtained much easier than plasma, intended for
nuclear fusion. One way to obtain such plasma is compression
with pulsed electric discharge. Plasma becomes imperfect at
relatively low temperature, because the energy of Coulomb
interaction of particles in such plasma turns out to be
comparable with the energy of the thermal background.
However, the main feature of such plasma, and this
circumstance is the principal, is that her condition significantly
determined by the emerging quantum forces in it. In
accordance with the usual classification, plasma is not
degenerate, at the same time the average inter-electrons
distance is several times longer than the de-Broglie wavelength
of thermal electrons, characterizing quantization of particle
systems and inter-atoms distance satisfies the following
inequality (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988; Kulakov et al.,
1990):
r< 10 < r, (1)
i.e. the escape radius the order exceeds the Debye radius.
Such conditions occur (and often is) in gas discharges,
however, are not monitored and investigated by virtue of
uncontrollability and lack of understanding of the processes
occurring in them. Quantum forces create plasma effect forces
driving order, which are known to cause phase transformation
in substance. Exchange the clutch between the electron-ion
complexes increases sharply with increasing concentrations of
plasma, so that plasma formed a kind of condensate, where the
degree of ionization is preserved, but at the same time manifest
the properties inherent in liquid phase state, going to phase
transformation. The latter, as in normal phase transitions in
substances, accompanied by allocation of energy, which,
however, turns out to be significantly higher than in normal
phase processes.
Specific energy (per one complete of electron-ion),
corresponding to latent heat of phase transformation, is the
following amount (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988):
E=10ze
n|/m, (2)
where: e= 4.8 10
cgs the charge of an electron, z the
degree of ionization of atoms,m ion mass.
Believing n =10
, for evaluation z=2,m= 2 ·
10
,we getE=10
erg/g=1 MJ/g, that exceeds the most
effective allocation of energy fuels (except, of course, nuclear
materials). Energy sources of the type have a number of
properties that should determine particular attention here to the
physical phenomenon:
1. The allocation of energy is not connected with nuclear
transformations or chemical reactions, but with the
formation of specific ionized conglomerate, which has
properties inherent to light liquid, in particular surface
tension increased its resistance to decay.
2. The allocation of energy in pinching plasma comes in
the form of intense light or x-ray radiation. Possible
energy pulse output, in which the liquid plasma
becomes a laser (or razer).
3. Phase transformation in plasma focus accompanied by
spontaneous generation of magnetic field in our plasma
modification (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988).
Energetically advantageous turns out to be such a
condition, in which the orbital (and hence magnetic)
electron orbital moments of origin are oriented in the
same direction.
Intensity of the magnetic field will evaluate by formula
(Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988):
H=4πnμ=~10-10gs. (3)
Here:μ~10
 orbital magnetic moment of the plasma
electrons.
Generates a pretty intense radiation at the formation of these
fields.
4. The formation of quantum non-ideal plasma is auto-
modeling and implemented as plasma values specified
above, and in laser’ and pinching plasma.
5. In the natural state plasma modification resulting from
the phase transitions is implemented, for example, in
ball lightning (b.l.) (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1991).
Energy output in it is determined by the formula (1),
which should be considered z=1, as the temperature of a
b.l. substance is unlikely to exceed one to two thousand
degrees. We get the top rated power output from a b.l.
in the order of 100 KJ, that is in good agreement with
observation data.
The State of the plasma was analyzed here, appears to be
relatively common in space and stellar conditions. While
transitions in modification of quantum not ideality lead, in our
opinion, to the cataclysms of the type of solar flares, explosive
phenomena in the atmosphere and the internal layers of the
stars.
6. To the state of not ideality the closest plasma,
containing ions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and other
elements belonging to the middle groups of
D.I.Mendeleev table. While not essential, what
connection is composed of the members of the seed
material: it is only important to ensure a sufficient
degree of ionization of the elements. It follows that, as
the source material for the realization of phase
transformation processes can use waste industries,
mining dumps, landfills, etc. This is a radical ecological
47700 Kulakov and Tyutyunnik, New approach to the plasma quantum condensate, as a new state of matter
importance! Considered by the phenomena can initiate
the creation of a new industry to obtain useful
(including rare) materials with desired physical and
chemical properties by chemical transformations in the
process of “phase” plasma processing.
7. Plasma ribbons in the state of liquid modifications
relatively easy to generate a magnetic field and,
obviously, in turn, effectively controlled by external
magnetic fields. This makes the plasma should be used
as a coolant in MHD-generators, when trying to create
difficulties of this plan.
Various studies have obtained experimental proof of the
existence of quantum plasma condensation: in pinching plasma
achieved the necessary compression of plasma at intermediate
between adiabatic and isothermal modes (Kulakov and
Rantsev-Kartinov, 2015), aspects of non-ideal quantum plasma
are effects in gases (Bashkin et al., 1986; Petrov et al., 2013).
Note that exchange linking is proportional to the cube of the
charge of ions, therefore, binding and release of energy is
implemented only in the case of plasma formed lot-chargers
ions.In the case of one-charging, for example ionization of
alkali atoms, gain in energy proves to be less than the decrease
of energy, resulting in chemical reactions or during the
formation of complexes, associates of ions and atoms. That is
why, so far, has not been experimentally detected examined
here phenomenon: experiments were carried out mainly on
alkaline chemical compounds. Phase transition (a type of phase
transition of the first kind in ordinary substances) in the
condensed state of such plasma turns possible at temperatures
of several thousand degrees, ions concentration
n~10
andpressuep the order of several tens of
atmospheres. The ionization, compressing and heating energy
is spent (per 1 g of substance) equal
W=
+
(), (4)
where: z≤6 ion charge,m its weight,Ι – ionization
energy in one electron per, k – Boltzmann constant, T –
temperature. Believing for evaluation T~10°,m=
10
,I=10
erg,getW≈ 3 ·10

,(γ 53
).
Energy that meets latent heat of phase transformation and
made by cooling (regular or random) plasma, when its
parameters are such that the inequality (1), is negative and
equal to (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988; Kulakov et al.,
1990):
W=-πze
n
Λ/m, (5)
where: e=4,8·10
sgc the charge of an electron,Λ~ a few
units is logarithm of Coulomb type. Believing n~10
,
z=6,Λ=4, find W2 = 6·1013 erg/g. This is almost an order
exceeds the specific energy yield during the combustion of
gasoline. The resulting energy can be used in a variety of
ways: for heating, lighting, a transformation by photocells or
MHD-movements into electrical energy. RatioW2 /W1=20 is
determines a sufficient stock to use excess energy for
demonstration and industrial aspects. This means that a plasma
with certain composition can “burn” (as in chemical process)
and to provide energy of the “combustion”. Of course, this
energy is continuous origin: here the plasma behaves as a
single molecule or unitary medium.
Define the energy emitted in some ball volume when switching
the plasma discharge in the new state of actions quantum
collective forces (1):
E=
e
nR, (6)
where: z – the charge of ions, n – their concentration, R the
radius of the sphere covering the plasma.
Adopt for evaluations T()=2000(T=4·10
);n~3 ·
10
;r= 10; z = 10(plasma containing easily
ionized elements).
Energy that can be obtained for R =10sm, is equal to:
E = 10·2· 10·10·3·10
·10=3·10=6·10
 =
6MJ.
This is much energy, comparable with the energy of nuclear
fusion in one liter of sea water. However, they do not require
implementing a thermonuclear reaction. The allocation of
energy can be continuous (progressive) or pulse, depending on
phase transformation. The allocation of energy from plasma
ball can occur relatively slowly due to the flashing. When the
ball with tempo radiates energy determined by luminance.
When this ball emits energy with speed defined luminosity:
L=4πR
σстТ()
, (7)
where:σст ≈ 0,5.10
cgs – Stephen constant;
believingТ=2000К,get: L~10
erg/sec=10kW.
Therefore, the duration of radiation:
τ=Е
=600 sec. (8)
You can implement the conditions under which into the scope
of the discharge (into the “firebox” discharge) serves all new
portions of the hot dense gas. Then the process will be
continuous. Note that the energy spent on heating (creation of
discharge), less than producing energy, if:
 · Т()
.e
, (9)
that is typically done.
Similar phenomena (while in “unmanaged” form and when the
random circumstances) are observed in the laboratory and
other conditions. For example, such a glow emanating from
some clots were found in submarines, near aircraft when flying
in the air, in experiments with high voltages. These phenomena
are sometimes described by eyewitnesses, explained them as
annoying interference. Fluid (and conductive current) plasma
easily controlled by magnetic field and can form closed loops
and jets that can be sent in a working part of MHD-generator
and determine the pumping jet energy into the electromagnetic
energy. Plasma, apparently, will be chemically fairly inert, that
would remove many of the technological problems. The
resulting product is a liquid (but with a relatively low density)
and represents a particular chemical compound, other than
material which is loaded into a power generator. In this sense,
the thermodynamic closed loop absent (the ashes of burnt
firewood should not turn back into firewood). But exhaust
47701 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 9, Issue, 03, pp.47699-47703, March, 2017
material may have a special interest, such as in chemical
technology. Plasma state analyzed here are implemented, and,
apparently, a relatively common in space environment. While
transitions in modification of quantum non-ideality lead (in our
view) to the cataclysms of the type of solar flares, to the
explosive phenomena in the atmosphere and the internal layers
of the stars.
Corpuscular radiation generation in quantum non-ideal
plasma
Plasma with a temperature of 3÷10·1030C and the
concentration of n~10÷10
 has special quantum
properties associated with consistent overlap of electronic
shells when the de Broglie wavelength of electrons is not more
than an order of magnitude less than the average distances
between ions;it forms condensate with a large release of
energy in excess of the costs of its ionization and compression.
The initial ionization of such plasma can be achieved in three
ways:
1) adiabatic compression of gas with increased pressure in
10-20 times from initial atmospheric; This gas may be
CO2 or other compounds with admixtures of oxygen,
nitrogen, silicon, calcium, magnesium and other
elements that contain a sufficient number of electrons in
the valence shell;
2) compression with pulsed electric discharge using units
of type Z- and ϑ-pinches. In pinching plasma achieved
the required compression ratio in the interim between
adiabatic and isothermal modes;
3) ionization of liquid medium (type of liquid carbon
disulfide or other fluids containing the above chemical
elements); while additional compression is not required.
In the laboratory the fact of spontaneous acceleration of
charged particles when the hydrodynamic plasma compression
installed at Filippov’s articles (Filippov, 1983). Processes of
particle acceleration recorded on the installations, designed to
study the so-called plasma focus in pinching plasma. Total
energy consumed for compressing of plasma was 10-20 kJ. It
was found that particle acceleration occurs at the reflected
waves of impact type. Surely detected particles are ions and
electrons with energy of 100-300 KeV. Also detected x-ray
quanta, daytons, moving toward the cathode, as well as
neutrons with the same characteristic energies that are specified
above. Generation of high energy particles using MHD-shock
turbulence had been researched in article (Kulakov and
Rumyantsev, 1979). The fronts of the MHD-shock waves
formed in the pinch are unstable, that manifests itself at the
stage of reflection (after collapse of pinching plasma) and leads
to the formation of the chaotically moving shock fronts
conglomerate with smaller Mach numbers, which is
experiencing, crossing each other. It is formed of the shock
turbulence that contributes to the acceleration of charged
particles. Particles from Maxwell “tail” involved in
acceleration (no-injection way) it is on the periphery of the
pinch particles, originally having the energy of the order of ten
times the heat energy.
1. Acceleration on the front of the MHD-shock waves
Acceleration of particles on the front of the MHD-shock waves
occurs with tempo (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988):
ε̇=puω, (10)
where: p – the momentum of a particle, u – front speed, ω
Larmor frequency. If denote the number of particles with
energy ε through n(ε), the quasi-stationary process takes place
ratio:
ε(ε)
ε
̇=(ε)
τ. (11)
where:τ= 
/υr time for diffusion of particles to the
periphery of the pinch,υ –particles speed,  − linear
(transverse) scale for accelerating field, r−Larmor the
radius of the particles. Integration of (10) leads to the decision
defines the energy spectrum of the accelerated particles:
n(ε) =constελ (12)
λ=ττ
δ

Δ .
Here: δ the thickness of the fronts of the chaotic shock
waves, ΔHamplitude change of magnetic tension on them,
– fraction of particles, not returning to the front, i.e. leaving the
pinching plasma. The particles create the x-ray background
radiation, its spectral density can be determined on the basis of
the theory of braking processes; we have the following formula
for this value (9):
=

ℏc

ℏΛ()
. (13)
Here: r0~ 3·10-13sm classical electron radius, ɛ0 – initial
energy of the accelerated particles, z·e – the charge of ions,
= 
 
, m – electron mass, the concentration
of electrons, notation ne() = ℏ
ℏ .
Here is some numerical evaluation. Let the particle
concentration in the plasma n=10
 (meets the primary
pressure 1 Torr.), magnetic field strength H~1Ke (at the
currentΙ~200),~ 100sm the length of the pinch; when
this characteristic duration of particle acceleration and
diffusion are accordingly equal 3.10и10,indicator
=3.Initial energy о~ 10Kev, the number of particles
involved in the process ~10÷10
, and the number of
particles, the energy of which reaches the magnitude of ε ~ 1
Mev, will be10
÷10
. Amount limit pace accelerating α
can be obtained from the following considerations. Let is
radius of pinch in original state, r – its radius at the moment of
maximum compression. Maximum limit energy, such as
electrons, accelerated on the fronts of the shock waves is
determined by the equality ()= 
=,moreover,
H=2Ιcr
. The desired value of α is equal in this2Ι
=
10Мэв/. Assuming the compression of a plasma/ = 30,
then the value =
~30
 when= 10.
2. Acceleration in plasma focus
Plasma is compacted in the point of shock waves, reaching
concentrations of 10
, and temperature of Т
1К. Plasma origin of this type have a needle shape
and called a plasma focus. Attention to these entities is
47702 Kulakov and Tyutyunnik, New approach to the plasma quantum condensate, as a new state of matter
determined by the fact that they are generating fast charged
particles (Trubnikov, 1990; Airapetyan et al., 1988). Usually
there is considered the phenomenon of the current breakage,
resulting in arise of Faraday electrical fields that accelerate the
particles. However, all these mechanisms meet with
considerable difficulties (it is not clear how breakage occurs of
the current, which leads to spontaneous violation of its
continuity, because this requires external influences, etc.).
Consider the mechanism of quantum type not associated with
any artificial assumptions. According to the theory, developed
in the work of the (Kulakov and Rumyantsev, 1988), the
plasma in focus is an analogue of liquid substances. The status
of this non-ideal plasma is determined by quantum forces,
arising from overlapping fixing electronic shells of electrons,
related by Coulomb’s forces with atomic nuclei and ionic parts.
The result is formed a specific plasma-liquid condensate and
energy is allocated. While plasma is magnetized;the resulting
magnetic moment due to mutual orientation of the orbital
moments of electrons. Induction of fieldis equals:
B=4πnμ, (14)
where:~10
cgs – orbital magnetic moment of the plasma
electrons (Bohr magneton). Intensity of the electric field,
arising under the law of induction, equal to E=υ
H, whereυ
plasma compression speed. Believing υ=3·10sm/sec,
H=3·10G, get E =3·10s.
The energy of the particles, accelerated this field is
proportional to focal length and equal ε = eE.When =
1getε=10erg≈ 1.Energy spectrum (the number of
particles n(ε) with energy ε) can be calculated as follows. On
the particles acts accelerating force eE, at the same time,
particles, drifting across the spotlight needle radius r, leave the
region accelerate over time τ = r ϑ
,whereϑ drift speed.
Balance equation in stationary conditions have the form:
ε̇(ε)
ε=-(ε)
τ (15)
By integrating this equation, for example in the case of
electrons (its speedυ ≈ c), get finally:
n(ε) = nexp(-εeBr)
(16)
Believing here r= 0,1sm,B=3·10,find n(ε) = nexp
(-ε ε
);ε= 0,15 ·10erg≈ 0.1.
The particles are accelerated in the so-called “runaway” mode,
when the electric field strength exceeds the energy of particles,
i.e., when running the following inequality eEι > =
ε
Δ
orε >
~3· 10(whereCoulomb
logarithm).
Such energy particles are generated on shock fronts. Therefore,
the primary role of the shock fronts is the preliminary
acceleration of particles, i.e. injection of particles into the main
phase of acceleration in quantum zone of plasma focus. Thus,
we have developed a fundamentally new direction in the theory
and technology of the non-ideal plasma. Researchers have
made it possible to predict, then experimentally in the
laboratory to detect the existence of fundamentally new states
of matter, that is the quantum plasma condensate, which
combines the signs inherent in normal fluid (fluidity, surface
tension, inner correlations), and signs characteristic of ionized
plasma in normal understanding. Theory, developed in our
research, based on direct solution of the Schrödinger equation
and widespread to the state class of continuous spectrum
(perturbation theory taking into account exchange forces),
allowed to explain already observed features of plasma phases,
that can and should be used with modern equipment and
technology (Kulakov and Tyutyunnik, 2016). Described studies
have predicted and confirmed the existence of fundamentally
new, alternative, renewable and sustainable energy source on
the planet Earth, there is plasma quantum condensate. This
source is the only ecological clean, does not deplete and not
polluting the Planet, and its use clears the surrounding medium
of Planet Earth.
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47703 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 9, Issue, 03, pp.47699-47703, March, 2017
*******
... However the focus is on "hot" fusion, the difficulties in implementing it in Earth conditions are well known. In the meantime, there exist plasma phase sources of energy determined by the collective nature of interactions of particles, which most clearly manifest themselves in sufficiently dense plasma (with a particle concentration of n = -) in the low temperature region [1,7,8]. This plasma can be generated in a much simpler way than that designed for fusion. ...
Pinches' release mechanism of the stellar flares allocation of energy
  • V S Airapetyan
  • V V Ivanov
  • T A Rozanov
Airapetyan, V.S., Ivanov V.V., Rozanov T.A. 1988. Pinches' release mechanism of the stellar flares allocation of energy // Journal of Technical Physics, Vol.58, No.4. -P.658-662.
Experimental confirmation of the existence of quantum plasma condensation // Proceedings of the Russian Academy of
  • A V Kulakov
  • V A Rantsev-Kartinov
Kulakov A.V. and Rantsev-Kartinov V.A. 2015. Experimental confirmation of the existence of quantum plasma condensation // Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Power Engineering, No.1.
Spontaneous magnetization of plasma with quantum origin
  • A V Kulakov
  • A A Rumyantsev
Kulakov A.V. and Rumyantsev A.A. 1988. Spontaneous magnetization of plasma with quantum origin // Journal of Technical Physics, Vol.58, issue 4. -P.657-660.
High energy particle generation with the help of MHD shock turbulence
  • A V Kulakov
  • A A Rumyantsev
Kulakov A.V. and Rumyantsev, A.A. 1979. High energy particle generation with the help of MHD shock turbulence // Journal of Technical Physics, Vol.49, issue 10. -P.2127-2132.
Introduction to physics of nonlinear processes
  • A V Kulakov
  • A A Rumyantsev
Kulakov A.V. and Rumyantsev, A.A. 1988. Introduction to physics of nonlinear processes. -Moscow: Nauka.
Fireball both as the quantum condensate
  • A V Kulakov
  • A A Rumyantsev
Kulakov A.V. and Rumyantsev, A.A. 1991. Fireball both as the quantum condensate // Doklady. Physics, Vol.320, No.5. -P.1103-1106.
Plasma quantum condensate // Science and business: Development path
  • A V Kulakov
  • V M Tyutyunnik
Kulakov A.V. and Tyutyunnik V.M. 2016. Plasma quantum condensate // Science and business: Development path, No.7(61). -P.13-22.
Quantum exchange forces in condensed mediums
  • A V Kulakov
  • E V Orlenko
  • A A Rumyantsev
Kulakov A.V., Orlenko E.V., Rumyantsev A.A. 1990. Quantum exchange forces in condensed mediums. -Moscow: Nauka.