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Medicinal plant vasaka could be a therapeutic option for the management of COVID-19 symptoms

Authors:
  • Agriculture Victoria

Abstract and Figures

Introduction: Corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak is a current pandemic that causes acute respiratory syndrome with huge mortality worldwide. The chief clinical features of COVID-19 is the presence of respiratory symptoms, with severe cardiovascular and renal complications in some patients. This study explores the potentiality of Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees) in the prevention and management of symptoms associated with COVID-19. Vasaka is a well-known natural shrub in Ayurveda system of medicine which has a beneficial effects, particularly in respiratory disorders. Methods: First, we reviewed various researches on Vasaka, and its use in the management of respiratory system related diseases, viral diseases and other diseases in various journals and Ayurveda classical texts. Second, a survey based study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Vasaka in the prevention and management of respiratory related problems. Results: The literature review revealed that Vasaka has been widely studied for its pharmacological activities. It has various action like antiviral, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antitubercular and antioxidant. The survey results of the study indicated that only 15% of the sampled respondents used Vasaka in the treatment of respiratory related diseases. Nevertheless, among the respondents who used the plants, 97% stated that the use of Vasaka was useful in the treatment of diseases. Interestingly, 36.4% of the sampled respondents reported that they were completely recovered from the respiratory related diseases. Conclusions: Due to Vasaka multi-modal therapeutic effects and the findings from the survey-based research indicate the potentiality of its use in the management of COVID-19 symptoms.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2020; 8(5): 44-48
ISSN (E): 2320-3862
ISSN (P): 2394-0530
NAAS Rating: 3.53
www.plantsjournal.com
JMPS 2020; 8(5): 44-48
© 2020 JMPS
Received: 13-07-2020
Accepted: 23-08-2020
Dr. Hari Khanal
PG Scholar, PG Department of
Kayachikitsa, National Institute
of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan,
India
Dr. Uttam Khanal
PhD, Agriculture Victoria,
Horsham, VIC 3400, Australia
Jyoti Koirala
B. Pharmacy, Little Buddha
College of Health Science,
Minbhavan, Kathmandu, Nepal
Corresponding Author:
Dr. Hari Khanal
PG Scholar, PG Department of
Kayachikitsa, National Institute
of Ayurveda, Jaipur, Rajasthan,
India
Medicinal plant vasaka could be a therapeutic
option for the management of COVID-19
symptoms
Dr. Hari Khanal, Dr. Uttam Khanal and Jyoti Koirala
Abstract
Introduction: Corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak is a current pandemic that causes acute
respiratory syndrome with huge mortality worldwide. The chief clinical features of COVID-19 is the
presence of respiratory symptoms, with severe cardiovascular and renal complications in some patients.
This study explores the potentiality of Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica Nees) in the prevention and management
of symptoms associated with COVID-19. Vasaka is a well-known natural shrub in Ayurveda system of
medicine which has a beneficial effects, particularly in respiratory disorders.
Methods: First, we reviewed various researches on Vasaka, and its use in the management of respiratory
system related diseases, viral diseases and other diseases in various journals and Ayurveda classical texts.
Second, a survey based study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Vasaka in the prevention and
management of respiratory related problems.
Results: The literature review revealed that Vasaka has been widely studied for its pharmacological
activities. It has various action like antiviral, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory,
cardioprotective, antitubercular and antioxidant. The survey results of the study indicated that only 15%
of the sampled respondents used Vasaka in the treatment of respiratory related diseases. Nevertheless,
among the respondents who used the plants, 97% stated that the use of Vasaka was useful in the
treatment of diseases. Interestingly, 36.4% of the sampled respondents reported that they were
completely recovered from the respiratory related diseases.
Conclusions: Due to Vasaka multi-modal therapeutic effects and the findings from the survey-based
research indicate the potentiality of its use in the management of COVID-19 symptoms.
Keywords: Ayurveda; Corona Virus; Medicinal plants; Respiratory syndrome; Vasaka, Adhatoda
vasica, Justicia adhatoda.
1. Background
The widespread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is unique and unprecedented threat for human
health all over the globe. Corona viruses (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV2) is a single stranded,
enveloped, positive sense RNA viruses which belong to family Coronaviridae, [1]. Despite the
huge effort and investment, there are no standard medicine developed to treat the disease. Due
to its high rate of transmission and unavailability of specific medicine and vaccine for its
treatment WHO declared it as a pandemic disease [2]. Coronaviruses have been the cause
behind severe acute respiratory diseases in human [3]. This study provides an empirical
investigations on the potential and possibilities of Ayurveda based medical system in the
management of the disease symptoms.
Ayurveda is the world’s oldest medical system and is equipped with varieties of treatment
modalities to handle various type of deadly diseases. According to Ayurveda the Sareera
(Body) is composed of Dosha (humours like Vata, Pitta and Kapha), Dhatu (Tissues like Rasa,
Rakta, Mamsa etc.) and Mala (waste products like fecal matter, Urine and Sweat) [4]. Ayurveda
describes health as a state of equilibrium of Dosha, Dhatu, Mala and normal function of Agni
(Digestive fire) along with well-being of mind, sense organs and soul [5] and in other hand
disequilibrium of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala leads to the disease [6]. Ayurveda focuses on treating
different disease by balancing these three pillars of life. The general causes for diseases are
Asatmyendriyartha samyoga (Abuse of senses), Pragyaparadha (abuse of intellect) and
Kala/Parinama (Seasonal variation) [7]. The diseases generally classified as Nija (endogenous)
and Agantuja [8] (exogenous) which can be compared with Communicable and Non-
Communicable diseases respectively according to Ayurveda.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies http://www.plantsjournal.com
The therapeutic potential of alternative medicine is not really
being considered during this crisis and global search for
effective preventive and treatment measures. In Ayurveda
different treatment principles for communicable disease are
described in detail. Specific measures like Sthana parityaga
(change of place of living), Homa-Dhupana (Fumigation)
Niyama (observing rules and regulations), Panchakrma,
therapy (body purification), Rasayana chikitsa (Rejuvenation)
and Aushadha (Medicine) has been mentioned which are
useful in communicable disease and in Janapadodhwamsa
Janya Vyadhi (epidemic condition) [9]. Along with other
measures Aushadha (Medicine) mainly prepared from a
medicinal plants play a key role in the management of
different disease. Different medicinal plants are described in
Ayurveda for the treatment of such type of pandemic disease
among them Vasaka is one of them. In the present study, we
have chosen Vasaka as herbal medicine which has been used
since the vedic period in the treatment of different respiratory
system related disease, This study further explores the
potentiality of this plant parts in the management of COVID-
19 related symptoms.
2. Materials and Methods
This study followed two approaches. First, we conducted a
systematic review of literature published in peer reviewed
journals and Ayurveda classical texts. The literature was
explored through online internet searches, including database
such as Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Science direct and
CrossRef. The main keywords used for searching articles
included: Adhatoda vasica, Justicia adhatoda, Vasaka,
Coronavirus, SARS coV 2, CoVID-19 and Antiviral.
Second, a survey based study was conducted to assess the
effectiveness of Vasaka plant parts in the prevention and
management of respiratory related problems such as common
cold, cough, and difficulty in breathing. The study was
undertaken in the Tanahun district of Nepal. Ward number 1
of the Myagde rural municipality in the Tanahun district was
purposively selected due to two reasons. First, the principal
investigator of this study is originally from the respective area
so that it is easier to contact local leaders and then the
potential respondents of the study. Second, the principal
investigator is aware that Vasaka plant is widely found in the
area.
The selection of respondents from the study area was by
means of systematic random sampling. First, we obtained the
list of people living in the study site. This was obtained from
the Nepal government website
(http://www.election.gov.np/election/np/voter-list.html)
where there is a list of voters for the previous election. From
the total of 2391 individuals in the list, we selected every fifth
person by following the systematic random sampling
procedure. This yielded 478 individuals. Out of the total 478
selected persons, we were able to make contact via phone to
257 respondents. The phone numbers were obtained from
local leaders in respective villages. Among those 257, we
were able to get information from 215 individuals. The
information was collected through phone interviews using a
structured set of questions (Table 1). The interviews were
conducted from 10 to 25 June, 2020. On average, an interview
took 5 minutes to complete.
Table 1: Questions used in the interview
1. What gender do you identify as?
Male… Female…
2. How old are you?
… years
3. What is your education level?
… years
4. Are you employed?
Employed… Not
employed…
5. What is the distance from your home to the nearest hospital in minutes by commonly used means of
transportation
… minutes
6. Have you ever used medicinal plants in the treatment of any diseases?
Yes… No…
7. Have you ever used Vasaka (Asuro) plant parts to treat any respiratory diseases such as common cold,
cough, bronchitis, difficulty in breathing etc?
Yes… No…
8. How effective was the use of Vasaka plant parts in the treatment of above diseases?
Negative effect…
No improvement in the
symptoms…
Little improvement …
Moderate improvement …
Very effective…
Completely recovered…
3. Results
3.1 Review results
Plant description
Vasaka is an evergreen shrub of 4-8 feet in height with many
long opposite branches. Leaves are 3-8 inches in length and
lance-shaped, opposite and estipulate. Stem is herbaceous
above and woody below. Flowers are spikes, small irregular
zygomorphic, bisexual, and hypogenous. The flowers are
either white or purple in colour. It has four seeded fruits with
capsule [10].
Plant classification
Kingdom: Plantae; Order: Lamiales; Family: Acanthaceae;
Genus: Adhatoda; Species: Vasica; Common name:
Adhatoda, Vasaka, Vasa; English Name: Malabar nut; Nepali
Name: Asuro
Ayurveda Properties of Vasaka (Justicia adhatoda L.)
As per the description available in Ayurveda classics,
therapeutic effect of medicinal plants depends upon certain
pharmacodynamics properties. These pharmacodynamics
properties are Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka, Prabhava etc.
Properties of Vasaka [11]:
Rasa: Tikta, Kasaya
Guna: Rukshya, Laghu
Veerya: Shita
Vipaka: Katu
Doshakarma: Kapha Pitta Samaka, Jwaraghna, Swashahara,
Kasahara, Shlesmahara, Raktastambhaka, Mutrajanan.
Adhatoda vasica commonly known as Vasaka, is found in
many regions of Nepal, India and throughout the world.
Adhatoda leaves, root and flowers have been used extensively
in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of Tamak swasa
(Bronchial Asthma), Rajayakshma (Pulmonary tuberculosis),
Jwara (Fever), Atisara (diarrhea), Pravahika (dysentery),
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies http://www.plantsjournal.com
Kustha roga (skin diseases), chhardi (vomiting), Pratisyaya
(Common cold), Pinas (Sinusitis), Mutradaha (Burning
micturition), Hridayarog (Heart disease), etc. [12].
Chemical Composition
The main chemical component found in Adhatoda vasica
Nees is a bitter quinazoline alkaloid called vasicine which is
present in the leaves, roots and flowers. Besides vasicine, the
leaves contain several alkaloids such as Vasicinone,
Vasicinol, Adhatodine, Adhatonine, Adhvasinone, Anisotine
and Hydroxypeganine, betaine, steroids and alkanes [13].
Therapeutic action
One animal study shows that aqueous and methanol extract of
Adhatoda vasica has potent anti-viral agents against herpes
simplex viruses [14]. In another study Chavan et.al has suggest
that aqueous and methanolic extracts of Justicia adhatoda
have strong anti-influenza virus activity that can inhibit viral
attachment and viral replication. It was possibly by blockage
of viral attachment through inhibition of viral HA protein, by
blocking the viral absorption to cells, by synergistically
binding to the free virus particles or by blocking the sialic
acid receptors to prevent virus entry into the cells and by
inhibiting the replication of influenza virus or virus budding
from the infected Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells
[15].
Vasaka has the antibacterial activity against Gram positive
and Gram-negative bacteria. The extract of Vasaka revealed
higher activity against different clinical pathogens like
Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus valgaris, Staphylococcus
aureus, Streptococcus Pyogens and Pseudomonas aeroginosa
[16]. One study showed that leaf extract (methanolic) of
Adhatoda Vasica and Vitex negundo was effective against
Salmonella typhi [17].
The study suggested that the methanolic, diethyl ether and
chloroform extracts of leaves of Adhatoda vasica have a
immunomodulatory properties [18]. Another animal study
suggested that Ethyl acetate extract of Adhatoda vasica has
potent hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 - induced liver
damage [19].
The main chemical constituent of Adhatoda vasica, vasicine
showed bronchodilatory activity both in vitro and in vivo
study [20]. Similarly the antitussive activity of Vasaka extract
was evaluated in anaesthetized guinea pigs, rabbits and in
unanaesthetized guinea pigs and it was found that it have a
good antitussive activity [21]. In another experimental study
ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda
vasica shows significant improvement in SO2 gas induced
cough [22].
Semi-synthetic derivatives of vasicine from the
herb Adhatoda vasica, have a pH-dependent growth-
inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis [23]. In
another study chemical constituent’s vasicine and vasicinone
have shown significant cardial depressant effect [24].
3.2. Survey results
The survey results show that 73% of the respondents have
used medicinal plants in the treatment of some diseases.
However, only 15% reported that they have used Vasaka plant
parts in treating respiratory related diseases (Table 2).
Table 2: Use of medicinal plants by respondents' characteristics
Respondent characteristics
Overall (n=215)
Vasaka plants
Used (n=157)
Not used (n=58)
Used (n=33)
Not used (n=182)
Gender (Male %)
42.3
33.1
67.2
36.4
43.4
Age (Years)
49.7
51.2
45.8
52.5
47.2
Education (Years)
8.1
8.2
7.1
8.4
8.1
Employment status (Employed %)
68.8
69.1
66.5
69.7
68.7
Distance to hospital (Minutes)
63.1
63.4
62.9
67.7
62.3
Survey results show that 42.3% of the sampled respondents
are male. Among the users of medicinal plants, 33.1% are
male and among the non-users of medicinal plants, 67.2% are
male. Similarly, among the Vasaka plant users 36.4% are
male whereas among the non-users of Vasaka plants, 43.4%
are male. The average age of the respondents is 49.7. The age
of medicinal plants users is significantly higher than that of
non-users (P < 0.01). Similarly, the age of Vasaka plants users
is significantly higher than that of non-users (P<0.05). On
average, respondents have attained 8 years of education.
68.8% of the respondents were employed. We do not find
significant difference between the users and non-users of
medicinal plants and Vasaka plants in relation to education
and employment status. On average, it takes 63.1 minutes to
reach the nearest hospital from respondent’s home. There is
no significant difference between users and non-users of
medicinal plants in relation to distance from home to hospital.
However, this distance is significantly (P<0.01) higher in the
case of Vasaka plants users in comparison to non-users. This
result indicates that those who live farther away from hospital
are more likely to use Vasaka plants.
When asked about the effectiveness of Vasaka plant parts in
the treatment of respiratory disorders, 36.4% reported that
they were completely recovered from the diesase by the use of
Vasaka plant parts (Figure 1). Similarly, 30.3% of the
respondents who used Vasaka plants in the treatment of
respiratory diseases stated that the use of plant parts was very
effective in the treatment of the disease. Moreover, 21.2% and
9.1% said the use of the plant parts resulted moderate and
little improvement respectively, in the disease symptoms. A
few respondents (3%) reported that the plant parts was not
effective in the treatment of the diseases. We also asked if the
use of Vasaka plant parts had caused any negative effects on
them, however, none of the respondents reported negative
effects of the use of the plant parts. (Figure 1.)
Fig 1: Respondents’ experience on the effectiveness of Vasaka
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies http://www.plantsjournal.com
4. Discussion
An outbreak of pneumonia in December, 2019 in Wuhan,
China, has now been determined to be caused by a novel
coronavirus. Due to its severe effect in respiratory system it is
named as severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
(SARSCoV-2) [25]. Vasaka is a well-known shrub in Ayurveda
systems of medicine. The classical Ayurvedic medicine
prepared from the Vasaka plant is used in many respiratory
system related disease like Tamak Swasa (Bronchial Asthma),
Pratishaya (Rhinitis), Pinas (Sinusitis), Rajakshma
(Pulmonary tuberculosis), Kasa (Cough) and Swasa
(Breathing disorder) since vedic period. Numerous clinical
trials have shown that Vasaka has been beneficial in the
management of various diseases like pulmonary disease,
inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic
diseases, liver diseases, neurological diseases. Vasaka leaves
decoction has a soothing effect on irritation in the throat and it
acts as an expectorant [26].
The literature survey revealed that Vasaka has been widely
studies for its pharmacological activities. It has vasicine,
vasicinone and vasicolone as a major chemical constituents.
These primary alkaloids are well established as a therapeutical
respiratory agents. Previous experimental and clinical trials
demonstrated that Vasaka has antiviral action. It has shown
antiviral action against different viruses indicating that it
could be a therapeutic option for the management of COVID-
19 related symptoms.
The survey results of the study indicate that only 15% of the
sampled respondents used Vasaka plants in the treatment of
respiratory related diseases. Nevertheless, among the
respondents who used the plants, 97% stated that the use of
plant parts was useful in the treatment of diseases.
Interestingly, 36.4% of the sampled respondents reported that
they were completely recovered from the respiratory related
diseases with the use of Vasaka plant parts. The findings of
this study indicate that Vasaka plant parts can be potentially
utilized in the treatment of respiratory related diseases.
However, there are several limitations of this study. First, the
survey was conducted in only one district of Nepal. Second,
we do not know the intensity of the plant parts used in the
treatment. Thus, we recommend, further detail studies on the
potentiality and effectiveness of Vasaka plant parts.
Nevertheless, this study provides an evidence on the
usefulness of Vasaka plant parts in the treatment of
respiratory related diseases.
One of the challenges with medicinal plants is that such plants
can be produced only in specific environmental conditions
and requires intensive care in growing. This is linked with the
high cost of producing associated drugs. Thus, economics of
producing medicinal plants in adequate quantity is a concern.
However, Vasaka plant’s distribution in wide range of
climatic conditions indicates the potentiality of large-scale
production.
5. Conclusion
Due to Vasaka multi-modal therapeutic effects, we
hypothesize that Vasaka could be effective in the prevention
and Management of COVID-19 symptoms. Existing literature
and the findings from the survey-based research indicate the
potentiality of Vasaka plant parts in the management of
COVID-19 symptoms. However, there is no standard
formulation regarding the use of the plant parts, this is
limiting its wider use. In this context, we recommend
translational research in order to provide scientific evidences
for the efficacy and to establish the standard formulation of
Vasaka in the management of COVID-19 systems.
Acknowledgments
Authors are thankful to all the participants for their necessary
support during this work.
Conflicts of interest
There are no any conflicts of interest.
Funding
None.
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... Naturopathy and ethno-phamacology are gaining importance due to their insignificant or neligible adverse drug reactions. The proposed efficacy of bioactive components of Vasaka against COVID-19 unfurled a world of magical bioactive molecules (Bag & Bag, 2020;Khanal, Khanal & Koirala , 2020). This can help us to overcome the consequences of serious illnesses that has the capacity to spread like a wildfire and turn into global pandemic. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Viral diseases have been a threat to mankind since time unknown. Currently, the entire world is witnessing fatal viral pandemic & no specific medicine has yet been recognized for the same. Lack of proper antiviral medicines add up to the fatality of viral diseases. Some of the most potential and aggressive viral diseases are HIV, COVID 19, Influenza , Ebola, Zika, Dengue etc., Some viral infections like polio myletis have been controlled by virtue of vaccine but some others remain unbeatable due to hurdles in developing specific effective vaccine and due to lack of availability of proper antiviral medicine. Some of the conventional antiviral formulations which are in use exhibit limited effectiveness and pronounced side effects. Whereas, antiviral formulations from plant sources are known to be more effective and are better choice always as they come with minimum or tolerable or no side effects . Adhatoda vasika commonly known as Vasaka is a common plant found in Indian subcontinent and its neighboring countries. It has been in use as an antiviral agent from ancient time in Ayurveda and folk medicine. The phytochemicals isolated from this plant are also known to be potential antibacterial, anti fungal, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer agents and antioxidants also.Vasaka is known to be widely used in daily folk medicine specially against cold infection and cough. Leaves, stem and roots of the plant contains various medicinal phytochemicals which are known to be effective antiviral agents. The plant grows easily even from stem cutting and needs minimum care. We aim to sum up the story of antiviral phytochemicals known and recognized from Adhatoda vasika till date in this chapter.
... Naturopathy and ethno-phamacology are gaining importance due to their insignificant or neligible adverse drug reactions. The proposed efficacy of bioactive components of Vasaka against COVID-19 unfurled a world of magical bioactive molecules (Bag & Bag, 2020;Khanal, Khanal & Koirala , 2020). This can help us to overcome the consequences of serious illnesses that has the capacity to spread like a wildfire and turn into global pandemic. ...
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Plants are a remarkable collection of organisms that have ruled the planet for 400 million years. They’ve gone through a series of evolutionary changes to fit in with their surroundings during evolution. These evolutionary changes included not only morphological changes to adapt to different climates, but also sophisticated physiological changes to synchronize with the former and strengthen adaptability. These physiological changes in the plant subsequently proven to be highly beneficial to humans, who appeared between 6 million and 2 million years ago. Plants’ physiological and biochemical evolution, which coincided with the emergence of various taxa, led to the formation of innumerable biochemical pathways that produced a large number of secondary metabolites, the primary goal of which was to protect the plants from herbivores and insects. Secondary metabolites, on the other hand, have shown to be extremely useful to humans since antiquity, who have unintentionally relied on plants for food and medicine since prehistoric times. Humans became aware of the chemical constituents of plants in the last hundred years or so and began researching their varied useful effects. Agricultural activities evolved in tandem with human civilization, and as the population grew, improved yields and crop protection from disease attacks became a requirement. Protection of plants from pathogens rapidly became a priority in the last fifty years and people and initially chemical methods were adopted to protect the plants from pathogen attack which later proved to be disadvantageous from an environmental point of view. Thus the scientific community delved further in search of biological agents which can prevent infection of plant pathogens. This paved the way for biocontrol agents and consequent development of bio fungicides, biopesticides, and bioinsecticides with fewer side effects on humans and animals but with a more green approach towards fertility enhancement. In this book, an attempt is made to emphasize the usage pattern of plants as a source of food and medicine. The book also covers the role of various microbes which can act as pathogen control and also disease management. Thus ‘Plant - A valuable resource of sustainable agriculture, food and medicine’ provides information related to the mentioned theme. The main purpose of the book is to provide relevant information to the readers on aspects largely cantered on plants. The book is divided into five sections namely Phytodiversity, agriculture and sustainable development, natural resource, and usage pattern, microbes and role in agriculture and disease management, plants as sources of medicine, exploration, and conservation of the genetic resource. Selected chapters in relevance to the sections have been accommodated to provide an overview. The first section deals with plant diversity, and agricultural practices in rural Bengal. This section culminates in the impact of urbanization on agriculture which is of high relevance at present. The second section illustrates the usage of indigenous patterns of plants as food and also the conservation of plants from religious aspects through the concept of sacred groves. The third section contains selected chapters on bioprospection of microbes for agricultural sustainability, disease management, and mitigation of stress. The fourth section contains selected chapters on the uses of plants as medicines and herbal excipients and highlights the usage of herbal remedies for the cure of physical ailments. The book concludes with the fifth section containing a chapter on the importance of field gee banks for the conservation of genetic resources of agricultural importance. Within each chapter of the book, various tables provide a clear and methodical description of the issue being explored. The book is an academic endeavor that will assist the scientific community as well as readers with an interest in plant sciences. Publisher link: http://www.absbooksindia.com/shop/art-humanities/agriculture/plant-a-valuable-resource-of-sustainable-agriculture-food-and-medicine
... It has anti-in ammatory, antiviral, antitussive and antioxidants properties. 16 Bhumiamla (Phyllanthus fraternus), another component of NOQ19 was previously used in the treatment of viral infections such as hepatitis and u. 17 Bhunimba (Andrographis paniculata), also present in NOQ19, is known for its antithrombotic properties and prevents blood clotting, which is a severe clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. 18 Haridra (Curcuma longa), a well-known therapeutic compound, can inhibit the cytokine release and therefore aid the clinical improvement in u and other infectious diseases. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the human coronavirus SARS CoV-2, has led to millions of deaths across the globe. Not only is the SARS CoV-2 virus highly infectious, it also mutates very easily. This creates additional challenges for development of robust therapeutic solutions. Along with modern system of healthcare, there is a definite need for exploring natural plant based antiviral compounds directed against the SARS CoV-2 virus. Objective The present observational study investigates the efficacy of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation of 19 ingredients, NOQ19, in the management of COVID-19. Methodology A single arm, single centric, open label study design was adopted for this feasibility study. 161 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The enrolled participants were provided the Ayurvedic intervention, 2 tablets of NOQ19, thrice daily along with the standard of care treatment. Follow up COVID-19 RT- PCR tests were conducted on Day 5, Day 10 and Day 14, or until the patient turned negative. The time required for testing negative on the RT-PCR test or becoming asymptomatic was noted. Results A subjective analysis demonstrated that 74% of patients turned RT-PCR negative within 5 days of taking NOQ19. Additionally, 98% of the subjects turned RT-PCR Negative on Day 10 after taking NOQ19 in addition to the standard of care treatment of Vitamin C, Zinc and antipyretic (as necessary). None of the participants reported any adverse or side effects to the medication. Conclusion NOQ19 Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation can be an effective and safe option for the symptomatic management of COVID-19.
... It has anti-in ammatory, antiviral, antitussive and antioxidants properties. 16 Bhumiamla (Phyllanthus fraternus), another component of NOQ19 was previously used in the treatment of viral infections such as hepatitis and u. 17 Bhunimba (Andrographis paniculata), also present in NOQ19, is known for its antithrombotic properties and prevents blood clotting, which is a severe clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. 18 Haridra (Curcuma longa), a well-known therapeutic compound, can inhibit the cytokine release and therefore aid the clinical improvement in u and other infectious diseases. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the human coronavirus SARS CoV-2, has led to millions of deaths across the globe. Not only is the SARS CoV-2 virus highly infectious, it also mutates very easily. This creates additional challenges for development of robust therapeutic solutions. Along with modern system of healthcare, there is a definite need for exploring natural plant based antiviral compounds directed against the SARS CoV-2 virus. Objective: The present observational study investigates the efficacy of an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation of 19 ingredients, NOQ19, in the management of COVID-19. Methodology: A single arm, single centric, open label study design was adopted for this feasibility study. 161 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The enrolled participants were provided the Ayurvedic intervention, 2 tablets of NOQ19, thrice daily along with the standard of care treatment. Follow up COVID-19 RT- PCR tests were conducted on Day 5, Day 10 and Day 14, or until the patient turned negative. The time required for testing negative on the RT-PCR test or becoming asymptomatic was noted. Results: A subjective analysis demonstrated that 74% of patients turned RT-PCR negative within 5 days of taking NOQ19. Additionally, 98% of the subjects turned RT-PCR Negative on Day 10 after taking NOQ19 in addition to the standard of care treatment of Vitamin C , Zinc and antipyretic (as necessary). None of the participants reported any adverse or side effects to the medication. Conclusion: NOQ19 Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation can be an effective and safe option for the symptomatic management of COVID-19.
... [35] Few other ingredients like Haridra (Curcuma longa), Bhumiamla (Phyllanthus fraternus) and Vasaka (Adhatoda vasica) are known for their antiin ammatory properties, and can assist in reducing the symptoms of immune response like edema and pneumonitis. [36][37][38] Also, none of the hamsters in NOQ19 treatment group reported any adverse events after the NOQ19 inoculation. This demonstrated the safety of the NOQ19 among the hamster model. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people around the world and the resulting disease burden has challenged the already stressed healthcare systems globally. Amidst the increasing morbidity rate of SARS-CoV-2, the scientific community is vigorously researching possible remedies targeted against the virus. Natural herbs have a great potency to cure infectious diseases and are vastly unexplored. The present study aims to investigate Ayurvedic herbs in a unique polyherbal formulation, NOQ19, against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in an animal model. A total of 19 female Syrian hamsters were infected with the virus cell culture through intranasal route. 4 out of 19 animals were mock controls, 5 were infection controls, 4 were treated with remdesivir and acted as positive controls and remaining 6 were treated with NOQ19. The hamsters were observed to note body weight reduction and adverse events followed by sacrifice on day 4 after inoculation with the virus. The lung pathology and viral load was studied in each hamster. Results showed a significant reduction of 78.2% in the viral load for the NOQ19 arm, as compared to the infection control. Gross examination of the lung histology of the NOQ19 arm suggested an improvement in edema and congestion compared to the infection control. Also, no adverse events were noticed in NOQ19 hamster group. Therefore, the authors propose NOQ19 formulation as a potential option to be tested further for its efficacy and efficiency against COVID-19.
... It has antiin ammatory, antiviral, antitussive and antioxidants properties. 16 Bhumiamla (Phyllanthus fraternus), another component of NOQ19 was previously used in treatment of viral infections like hepatitis and u. 17 Bhunimba (Andrographis paniculata), is known for its antithrombotic properties and prevents blood clotting, which is a severe clinical presentation in COVID-19 patients. 18 Haridra (Curcuma longa), a very well known therapeutic compound can inhibit the cytokine release and therefore correlates with clinical improvement in u and other infectious diseases. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The ongoing pandemic caused by human coronavirus SARS CoV-2 has led to millions of death across the globe. Not only the virus is highly infectious, it is also mutates very easily. Currently there are no approved drugs for the therapeutic cure of COVID-19. The world is in search for an alternative that has antiviral properties directed against virus. Objective: The present study investigates an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation of 13 herbs, named NOQ19, targeted against various viral proteins of COVID-19. Methodology: The study is a single arm, single centric, open label study of 161 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 patients. The enrolled participants were given the ayurvedic intervention, 2 tablets, thrice daily, to be consumed along with the standard care. Follow up COVID-19 RT- PCR was done on Day 5, Day 10 and Day 14 or until the patient turned negative. The time required for turning RT-PCR negative or become asymptomatic was noted. Results: Subjective analysis demonstrated that 98% of patients turned asymptomatic within 5 days of NOQ19 intake. Also 74% of the subjects turned RT-PCR Negative on Day 5 after taking NOQ19 along with the standard care provided. Also, none of the participant reported any adverse effect or side effect to the medication. Conclusion: NOQ19 Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation is an effective as well as safe alternative and adjunct treatment for the symptomatic management of COVID-19.
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that has affected millions of people worldwide. Apart from measures taken to reduce the transmission of virus and provide symptomatic relief to patients, a potent drug targeted against the virus is required to manage the disease. Traditional medicines with an array of phytochemicals and potent anti-viral properties, can provide alternate solution in the therapeutic cure of COVID-19. Objective: The present study investigates the efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation, NOQ19, on the rate of recovery and clinical improvement among moderate-severe COVID-19 infected patients who were not on a ventilator or in intensive care unit. Methods: A placebo controlled randomized study design, with 1:1 ratio between the intervention and placebo arms was adopted. The participants were provided their respective intervention along with the standard of care treatment. A follow up was conducted on Day 7 and Day 10 to assess the rate of recovery and clinical improvement. Rate of recovery was the primary outcome measured and was determined by a negative result on the RT-PCR test. The secondary outcomes included clinical improvement among patients and were measured using blood biomarkers. Results: The NOQ19 arm had a higher percentage of population who turned RT-PCR negative on Day 7 (23%) when compared to the placebo arm (11%). Further subgroup analysis demonstrated that for both moderate and severe patients, there were a greater percentage of population who were RT-PCR negative in the NOQ19 arm compared to the placebo arm at Day 7: (NOQ-19: 22.22%, Placebo: 14.29% for moderate patients), (NOQ19: 23.08% Placebo: 0% for severe patients). By Day 10, both populations depicted an almost similar percentage of the population who were RT- PCR negative. Both the groups demonstrated an improvement in blood biomarkers, although the improvement was greater in the NOQ19 arm. None of the patients in the intervention arm reported any adverse events. Conclusion: The results of this pilot RCT indicates that NOQ19 along with standard of care treatment can be considered as an effective therapy for COVID-19 and aid early recovery from the disease.
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Typhoid activity is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella typhi.in present study the methanolic leafs extract of Vitex negundo and Adhatoda vasica were analyzed for anti-typhoid activity against Salmonella typhi. The leave sample was subjected to phytochemical analysis. The concentration of all the phytochemicals studied was higher in Vitex negundo than Adhatoda vasica, except alkaloids which was higher in Adhatoda vasica (11.3 ± 0.1mg/g) than Vitex negundo (8.6 ± 0.00 mg/g). Tannins were highest in both the plants, 61.3 ± 0.8 mg/g in Adhatoda vasica and 93.9 ± 0.8 mg/g in Adhatoda vasica. The antioxidant activity was determined and compared with BHA and reducing power was compared with Ascorbic acid. Both the samples had high antioxidant and reducing power activity. Several studies reported the loss of antioxidant system during infection of Salmonella typhi. The leaf extracts of Adhatoda vasica and Vitex negundo showed considerable antioxidant activity which can used as remedy against antioxidant system collapse and thus promises to be effective antioxidant supplement for typhoid patients. Besides antioxidant activity the leaves of both plants inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity of both leaf extracts were compared with gentamycin. The results of present shows that leaf extracts of Vitex negundo and Adhatoda vasica confer anti-typhoid activity against Salmonella typhi.
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Emerging and reemerging pathogens are global challenges for public health. For the third time in as many decades, a zoonotic coronavirus has crossed species to infect human populations. Given the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreak in 2002 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in 2012, 2019-nCoV is the third coronavirus to emerge in the human population in the past 18 years-an outbreak that has raised great hue and cry globally as it has sickened thousands of people across the world. This novel coronavirus was named as COVID-19 which stands for Corona Virus Disease 2019. The 2019-nCoV originated from Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. The World Health Organization declared it as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. At that point, there were 9826 confirmed cases globally, with 213 deaths. Of these, 9720 cases were in China; outside of China, health authorities reported 106 confirmed cases in 19 countries. As of February 2, the WHO updated the count, reporting 14 557 confirmed cases from 24 countries-14 411 of them in China. In this review we focus our attention on Covid-19 and how different this epidemic is from the previous two outbreak caused by coronavirus.
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The influenza viruses are major etiologic agents of human respiratory infections, and inflict sizable health and economic burden. The present study reports the in vitro antiviral effect of Justicia adhatoda crude extracts against influenza virus by Hemagglutination (HA) reduction in two different layouts of simultaneous and post treatment assay. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were used for antiviral activity in the non-cytotoxic range. Methanolic extract showed 100% reduction in HA in the simultaneous and post treatment assays at the concentration of 10mg/ml. The aqueous extracts at concentrations of 10mg/ml and 5mg/ml reduced the HA to 33% and 16.67%, respectively, in the simultaneous assay. These results suggest that extracts have strong anti-influenza virus activity that can inhibit viral attachment and/or viral replication, and may be used as viral prophylaxis.
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Herpesviruses are important human pathogens that can cause mild to severe lifelong infections with high morbidity. Alternate drugs such as ayurvedic drugs are now a day’s used for management of HSV infections due to the emergence of resistant strains.The aqueous and methanol extract from leaves of Justicia adhatoda, were used to study the cytotoxicity effect on Vero cell line by using MTT assay. The methanolic extract at 10mg/ml significantly inhibited formation of plaques in Vero cells infected with 100 pfu of HSV1 and 2 by 100%. Similarly, the aqueous extract at 10mg/ml inhibited the plaque formation by 100% and 86% for HSV1 and 2.These results suggest that this herbal extract has potent anti-viral agents against herpes simplex viruses that can be exploited for development of an alternative remedy for HSV infections
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Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation. Therefore, there is a need to have effective antitussive agent which do not have respiratory depressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate antitussive activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica using a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. The effect of the ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Adhatoda vasica on SO 2 gas induced cough in experimental animals have very significant effects at the level of p<0.01 in inhibiting the cough reflex at a dose of 800 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body wt. p.o., in comparison with the control group. Mice showed an inhibition of 35.62%, in cough on treatment with Glycyrrhiza glabra and 43.02% inhibition on treatment with Adhatoda vasica within 60 min of the experiment. The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine sulphate (10, 15, 20 mg/kg body wt.), a standard anti-tussive agent. Codeine sulphate, as a standard drug for suppression of cough, produced 24.80%, 32.98%, and 45.73% inhibition in cough at a dose of 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively, whereas, codeine sulphate (20 mg/kg) showed maximum 45.73% (p<0.001) inhibition at 60 min of the experiment. INTRODUCTION: A cough (Latin: tussis) is a sudden and forceful expiration of air from the lungs caused by an involuntary contraction of the muscles controlling the process of breathing. It is a protective reflex that removes foreign material and secretions from the bronchi and bronchioles. The cough reflex consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis 1 . Ayurveda (Ayur-life, Veda-knowledge), is the knowledge of healthy living and is not merely confined to the treatment of illness. Ayurvedic medicines are largely based on herbal and herbo-mineral preparations and have specific diagnostic and therapeutic principles 2 .
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Methanolic, chloroform and diethyl ether extracts of leaves of Indian medicinal plant Adhatoda vasica Linn. were pharmacologically validated for its immunomodulatory properties in experimental animals. Oral administration of extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg in adult male Wister rats significantly increased the percentage neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers (P<0.001). It extracts were also found to induce Delayed Type Hypersensitivity reaction by sheep erythrocytes (P< 0.001). The observed results at different doses were significant when compared to control groups. These findings suggested that the extracts of this plant, A. vasica Linn positively modulates the immunity of the host.
Article
Emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019, has caused a large global outbreak and a major public health issue. As of February 11, 2020, data from the WHO has shown that more than 43,000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with more than 99% of the cases being detected in China. On January 30, 2020, WHO has declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24-3.58. Among the patients with pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground glass opacity was the most common finding from computerized tomography images of the chest. Although the one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the United States responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.