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Marteloscopes – a key instrument for fact-based learning, understanding, and the exchange of knowledge on forests and their management

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... As results of these interventions are 585 immediately available, they stimulate and objectify discussions between participants. The main focus of exercises to date has been on providing insight to stand structures and stand dynamics while at the same time evaluating individual trees in terms of wood quality, economic and nature conservation values (Schuck et al., 2020). A typical example is to investigate the development of habitat values against that of achievable revenues. ...
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What is Closer to Nature Forest Management? Closer-to-Nature Forest Management is a new concept proposed in the EU Forest Strategy for 2030, which aims to improve the conservation values and climate resilience of multifunctional, managed forests in Europe. Building on the latest scientific evidence, this report attempts to define the concept based on a set of seven guiding principles. It also outlines a framework/checklist for flexible European-wide implementationof the concept. The 7 principles of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management are: 1. Retention of habitat trees, special habitats, and dead wood 2. Promoting native tree species as well as site adapted non-native species 3. Promoting natural tree regeneration 4. Partial harvests and promotion of stand structural heterogeneity 5. Promoting tree species mixtures and genetic diversity 6. Avoidance of intensive management operations 7. Supporting landscape heterogeneity and functioning This report analyses the current pressures on forest biodiversity as well as on the health of, and resilience in, managed forests. It examines existing nature-oriented forest management approaches in Europe and analyses their ability to support biodiversity, their stability and adaptability to uncertain future conditions. It proposes a definition, a set of guiding principles and a framework for flexible European-wide implementation of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management. Finally, it evaluates barriers and enablers for implementation and presents a list of existing networks that can be used to assist the dissemination of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management throughout Europe. How can we implement this new concept? 1. Different regions need different management approaches: While the general principles of Closer-to- Nature Forest Management should be similar across all regions, varying but related management approaches should be used in different regions of Europe. This reflects the variation in forest types across the continent, differences in the intensity and scale of natural disturbance regimes, and the ways forests have been used in the past and will have to be managed in the future. 2. Learn from the past and consolidate existing networks and demonstrations: There is a long European tradition of nature-based forest management concepts, and there are many opportunities to learn from existing practices. Because the wider adoption of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management will require a substantial effort in knowledge transfer, it is very important to consolidate existing networks of trials and demonstrations. Such a knowledge transfer network should cover all major regions and forest types found in Europe and could be linked to others seeking to preserve traditional and sustainable management methods, cultural landscapes and their associated biocultural diversity. This will be invaluable in the ongoing social learning process and in helping to convince forest managers and other stakeholders of the benefits of this approach. 3. Use adaptive management as a way to tackle uncertainties: We need to regularly monitor forest responses to management interventions, evaluate these responses and adjust management strategies accordingly. A similar adaptive approach is urgently required to evaluate the impact of policy measures and support mechanisms proposed to encourage adoption of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management. 4. Not a quick-fix, long-term measures are needed: The introduction of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management is not a ‘quick-fix’ and policy makers must provide long-term and consistent support measures to encourage forest managers and other stakeholders to adopt this strategy. Support for forest owners for training and application of the strategy is key. 5. Review existing subsidy and taxation regimes for private owners: Convincing private owners to follow this approach will require the creation of schemes that reward them for providing ecosystem services. Closer-to- Nature Forest Management has the potential to support biodiversity, adapt forests to climate change and provide ecosystem services to a higher level than conventional forest management. There is an urgent need to review existing subsidy and taxation regimes affecting private forestry, and to consider how these might be changed to further the uptake of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management. 6. Develop and use new technologies and tools: There is a need to harmonize monitoring systems and to develop and use new technologies and tools (GIS, GPS and remote sensing) to ease management of these more diverse and structure-rich forests. Finally, there are still some uncertainties about the effect of certain elements of Closer-to-Nature Forest Management on biodiversity conservation and ecosystem health, and how they will affect other ecosystem services including wood production under different management conditions throughout Europe. This calls for more collective learning, experimentation and research.
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