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In operational flood defense, it is common practice to use sandbag systems. However, their installation is time-consuming as well as material- and labor-intensive. Sandbag replacement systems (SBRSs) can be installed in significantly shorter time and with less effort. However, owing to the lack of confidence in their functionality, they are only used to a limited extent. Testing and certifying such innovative systems according to defined criteria is supportive in promoting their use in flood defense. In order to test SBRSs and as a first step toward systematic tests, the Institute for Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering of the Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Germany (IWA) has set up a test facility in which defined test series can be carried out with different SBRSs on an underlying surface of turf. The focus of the test series is on installation time, possible water head, system stability, and seepage rates when in use. A conventional sandbag dam was used as reference in order to compare the test results with the different SBRSs. Test series show that damming with SBRSs has a clear advantage over the use of sandbags in terms of the time it takes to put them in place and comparable values of seepage rates and water heads. In order to professionally promote the spread of SBRSs in operational flood protection, it is recommended to introduce the certification of SBRSs, since they are technical systems whose functional capability must be proven before their use in an emergency. Together with existing international certification schemes, the test series that were carried out deliver a basis for developing a specific testing scheme for SBRSs.
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Mobile flood protection systems provide a standardized flood protection method with high reliability. A comprehensive test site for mobile flood wall was established with the support of real applications, which provided opportunities to perform various tests. The anchor plate installation, seepage characteristics, and stress behavior of mobile flood protection systems were investigated through a process test, a water impounding test, and a post loading/unloading test. Test results indicated that installing anchor plates either by direct fixing or by preopened slots and eyes satisfy the construction and normal work requirements. However, the former is preferable over the latter. The mobile flood protection wall leaks when filled with water, and the leakage changes exponentially with the level. The leakage accelerates when the water level exceeds 1.5 m, thus registering 300 L/h at the 1.7 m level. In the post loading test (0–100 kN), concrete plastic deformation was first observed. Then, residual displacement was developed in the posts. The stressing process indicated that the failure process in the post, anchor plate, and base concrete system propagates from the concrete on both sides of the anchor plates toward the water side.
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The Moldova is facing an increased incidence of floods. For these reasons, the involvement of state in flood protection is rising. Despite the fact that the Moldova is not a member of the European Union, its government follows legislation on prevention, risk assessment and flood protection which is closely connected with landscape. The article deals with the possibilities of using mobile flood barriers in this territory as possible protection of the community.
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Flooding is a burning issue in Hungary because of its geographical conditions. The topic of this article is to describe the mobile flood protection methods, which are able to accomplish the criteria of environment and sustainability. Mobile flood wall is a new solution in flood protection which is used in populated area. The design of mobile flood walls must focus on surveying water levels, determination of loads and limitation of leaking water. The main types of loads on the structure are hydrostatic, hydrodynamic and impact loads. The DIN 1055 German standard is used to determine the loads.
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The paper presents a review of structural mea- sures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.
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The drainage basin of the Upper Tisa is considered to be one of the most flood hazardous areas of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Climate changes in the past decade made a significant impact on the course of hydrological processes, including streamflow. The studies of the processes at global and regional levels are of great importance for grounding of flood protection operations as well as arrangement of measures for adaptation to climate change. The study considers approaches to evaluation of changes of hydrologic balance elements of the investigated drainage basin in the period of the 20th century. A retrospective analysis of the changes is provided in order to find out relationship between the streamflow and the climate aspects which influence it. A statistical analysis of a series of long-term observations was performed in order to test their steadiness and homogeneity. Inter-row connections were determined between changes in precipitation regime, air temperature of the surface and streamflow in the modern period (1991–2012) compared to the period of the climatic norm (1961–1990). The closest interconnection between mentioned variables is observed for the warm period. For the cold period such dependencies are satisfactory. Consequently, an equation was derived for conversion of the expected influence of climate change on the streamflow. Results of the regional model REMO-ESNAM5 were used to perform forecast evaluation of hydrological consequences of climate change. The projection of changes of climatic aspects for the drainage basin of the Upper Tisa for the time period 2021–2050 as well as А1B sustainable development scenario was created. The evaluation of possible changes of average, seasonal and annual streamflow in the basin is presented up to the middle of the 21st century. Annual redistribution is clearly registered. Forecast evaluations were performed of the maximum streamflow changes, floods frequency and their recurrence throughout the year.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.10286
Кліматичні зміни в регіоні українських Карпат на початку ХХІ століття та їх вплив на біотичне різноманіття. Наукові основи збереження біотичної різноманітності
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Канарський Ю.В. Кліматичні зміни в регіоні українських Карпат на початку ХХІ століття та їх вплив на біотичне різноманіття. Наукові основи збереження біотичної різноманітності. 2016. Т. 7 (14), № 1. С 15-36.
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Салюк, М. Р., Мельничук В. П., Микита М. М. Аналіз несприятливих метеорологічних явищ на Закарпатті. Науковий вісник Ужгородського університету : Серія: Географія. Землеустрій. Природокористування. -Ужгород : Говерла, 2013. Вип. 2. С 32-42.
Klimatychni zminy v rehioni ukrainskykh Karpat na pochatku khkhi stolittia ta yikh vplyv na biotychne riznomanit-tia
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Kanarskyi Yu.V. (2016). Klimatychni zminy v rehioni ukrainskykh Karpat na pochatku khkhi stolittia ta yikh vplyv na biotychne riznomanit-tia. Naukovi osnovy zberezhennia biotychnoi riznomanitnosti, 7 (14), 15-36. [in Ukrainian].