ResearchPDF Available

Expedition report: Forest flagship: Researching & conserving critically endangered Sumatran tigers in Rimbang Baling Wildlife Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia (July-September 2017)

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Abstract Biosphere Expeditions and WWF Indonesia ran their third joint expedition with citizen scientists in and around Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve (BRBBWR), Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, from 30 July to 1 September 2017. The expedition study was a follow-up of the two previous studies in 2015 and 2016, with the tiger and its habitat as the focal point, including prey species and species that contribute to information on tiger habitat quality, or human disturbance of these. In an effort to support tiger conservation in BRBBWR, the objectives of this activity continued to be (1) to conduct long-term tiger and habitat monitoring in locations of high human disturbance along the Subayang river and (2) to involve and engage with local communities in order to raise their awareness of and support for tiger and habitat conservation. Detection-nondetection surveys for tigers and prey species were conducted on foot or by boat, covering BRBBWR along the Subayang river, which served as a convenient travel route and access point for survey teams. The methods employed to record species (mammals and large birds) involved recording species presence-absence and frequency of individuals in a grid of 2x2 km cells by means such as signs, sightings and calls. Seventeen camera traps were also employed to record species presence. The study was designed to compare the presence of species in cells with and without households (herein coded as village and non-village cells) in order to investigate whether proximity to villages had any influence on species distribution in the forest. To this end, the team surveyed target cells using a standardised datasheet for camera trapping and sign detection. In addition, we also interviewed villagers about tiger and other key wildlife species presence and interaction. We surveyed fourteen cells (three village and eleven non-village), recording fourteen wildlife species (including water buffalo Bubalus bubalis) in four mammal genera, plus two large bird species. Except for the wild boar Sus scrofa, the sun bear Helarctos malayanus and the water buffalo, all species occurred rarely (≤ 5 of presence in cells), hampering any further analysis. The water buffalo and wild boar were found to be evenly distributed in village and non-village cells. No tiger signs were recorded. We recorded three main tiger prey species: barking deer Muntiacus muntjak, pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina and wild boar. The highest number of camera trap RAI (relative abundance index) of species was wild boar (15.70) followed by pig-tailed macaque (8.26) and long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis (3.31), which is not considered a tiger prey species. RAI for barking deer, a large tiger prey species, was 1.65.The Endangered (EN) gibbon Hylobates agilis and the siamang Symphalangus syndactylus were present in four and eight cells respectively, but we did not capture either species in camera traps as they are arboreal. We also recorded secondary prey species such as the common porcupine Hystrix brachyura, the great argus pheasant Argusianus argus, both at low rates (RAI 0 and 2.48 respectively). The presence of all these species is typical of good tiger habitat, although no tiger signs were recorded. We interviewed 14 villagers, 8 of whom reported having seen tigers and tiger tracks. Most villagers (n=12, 86%) said they were scared of tigers, nine of whom felt the presence of tigers had a detrimental effect on the area. However, all but one interviewee understood that tigers were protected in Indonesia and eleven interviewees (79%) agreed that this should be so. We found 25 incidences of tiger threat, including two prey species snares in two cells. Illegal logging was very common (10 cells, 71%) and we also encountered people with firearms. The majority of threats occurred in the buffer zone of the reserve. Finally, we visited four elementary schools in three villages, involving 68 pupils in presentations as well as talks about tiger and general conservation. Abstrak Biosphere Expeditions dan WWF Indonesia atas izin BBKSDA Riau kembali melakukan ekspedisi gabungan untuk ketiga kalinya bersama dengan sukarelawan global di Suaka Margasatwa Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling (SMBRBB) dan sekitarnya, Provinsi Riau, Sumatera, Indonesia, dari 30 Juli hingga 1 September 2017. Studi ekspedisi ini merupakan tindak lanjut dari dua studi sebelumnya pada tahun 2015 dan 2016, dengan harimau dan habitatnya sebagai focal point, termasuk satwa mangsa dan spesies lain yang berkontribusi pada informasi kualitas habitat harimau, atau gangguan manusia terhadap hal tersebut. Kegiatan ini dilakukan dalam upaya mendukung pelestarian harimau di SMBRBB dengan melanjutkan tujuan kegiatan sebelumnya yaitu (1) melakukan pemantauan harimau dan habitat jangka panjang di lokasi-lokasi yang memiliki tingkat gangguan manusia tinggi di sepanjang sungai Subayang dan (2) melibatkan dan melibatkan masyarakat lokal dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan kesadaran dan dukungan mereka terhadap konservasi harimau dan habitatnya. Survei deteksi-non-deteksi untuk harimau dan spesies mangsa dilakukan dengan berjalan kaki atau dengan perahu, meliputi kawasan SMBRBB utamanya di sepanjang sungai Subayang, yang berfungsi sebagai jalur perjalanan dan titik akses yang nyaman bagi tim survei. Metode yang digunakan untuk mencatat spesies (mamalia dan burung besar) melalui pencatatan keberadaan-ketiadaan spesies dan frekuensi individu dalam sel pengamatan berukuran 2x2 km dengan mencatat temuan seperti tanda, penampakan dan suara satwa. Tujuh belas kamera penjebak juga digunakan untuk merekam keberadaan spesies. Penelitian ini dirancang untuk membandingkan keberadaan spesies dalam sel dengan dan tanpa keberadaan desa (selanjutnya dikodekan sebagai sel desa dan non desa) untuk mengetahui apakah kedekatan dengan desa berpengaruh terhadap distribusi spesies di hutan. Untuk tujuan ini, tim tersebut mensurvei sel target menggunakan lembar data standar untuk survei kamera penjebak dan deteksi tanda. Selain itu, kami juga mewawancarai penduduk desa tentang keberadaan dan interaksi harimau dan spesies satwa liar utama lainnya. Kami mensurvei empat belas sel (tiga desa dan sebelas non-desa), mencatat empat belas spesies mamalia yang berbeda (termasuk kerbau Bubalus bubalis) dalam empat genera mamalia, ditambah dua spesies burung besar. Kecuali babi hutan Sus scrofa, beruang madu Helarctos malayanus dan kerbau, semua spesies jarang ditemukan (≤ 5 keberadaan dalam sel), sehingga menghambat analisis lebih lanjut. Kerbau dan babi hutan ditemukan tersebar merata di sel desa dan non desa. Tidak ada tanda-tanda harimau yang dijumpai. Kami mencatat tiga spesies utama mangsa harimau: kijang Muntiacus muntjak, kera ekor babi Macaca nemestrina dan babi hutan. Jumlah RAI (indeks kelimpahan relatif) kamera penjebak tertinggi adalah babi hutan (15,70) diikuti oleh monyet ekor babi (8,26) dan kera ekor panjang Macaca fascicularis (3,31), yang tidak termasuk jenis mangsa harimau. Kijang sebagai spesies mangsa harimau besar memiliki RAI adalah 1,65. Jenis owa yang terancam punah (EN) Hylobates agilis dan siamang Symphalangus syndactylus dijumpai di masing-masing empat dan delapan sel, tetapi kami tidak merekam salah satu spesies tersebut di kamera penjebak karena mereka adalah satwa arboreal. Kami juga mencatat spesies mangsa sekunder seperti landak umum Hystrix brachyura, burung kuau raja Argusianus argus, keduanya memiliki kelimpahan rendah (RAI 0 dan 2,48 masing-masing). Keberadaan semua spesies tersebut menjadi ciri khas bahwa habitat harimau masih baik, meskipun tidak ada tanda-tanda harimau yang tercatat. Kami mewawancarai 14 penduduk desa, 8 di antaranya melaporkan pernah melihat harimau dan jejak harimau. Sebagian besar penduduk desa (n = 12, 86%) mengatakan bahwa mereka takut pada harimau, sembilan di antaranya merasa keberadaan harimau berdampak buruk bagi kawasan tersebut. Namun, semua kecuali satu orang yang diwawancarai memahami bahwa harimau dilindungi di Indonesia dan sebelas orang yang diwawancarai (79%) setuju bahwa seharusnya demikian. Kami menemukan 25 keberadaan ancaman harimau, termasuk dua jerat mangsa harimau dalam dua sel berbeda. Penebangan liar sangat umum (10 sel, 71%). Mayoritas ancaman terjadi di zona penyangga suaka margasatwa tersebut. Terakhir, kami mengunjungi empat sekolah dasar di tiga desa, melibatkan 68 siswa dalam presentasi serta berdiskusi tentang harimau dan konservasi secara umum.
Content may be subject to copyright.
EXPEDITION REPORT
Expedition dates: 30 July 1 September 2017
Report published: December 2020
Forest flagship:
Monitoring & conserving critically
endangered Sumatran tigers in Bukit
Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve,
Sumatra, Indonesia
in partnership with
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
1
Batu Dinding
Community Group
EXPEDITION REPORT
Forest flagship:
Monitoring & conserving critically endangered
Sumatran tigers in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling
Wildlife Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia
Expedition dates:
30 July – 1 September 2017
Report published:
December 2020
Authors:
Febri Anggriawan Widodo
WWF Indonesia
Marcelo Mazzolli (editor)
Projeto Puma
Matthias Hammer (editor)
Biosphere Expeditions
Cover picture by M. Clavin
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
2
Abstract
Biosphere Expeditions and WWF Indonesia ran their third joint expedition with citizen scientists in
and around Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve (BRBBWR), Riau Province, Sumatra,
Indonesia, from 30 July to 1 September 2017.
The expedition study was a follow-up of the two previous studies in 2015 and 2016, with the tiger
and its habitat as the focal point, including prey species and species that contribute to information
on tiger habitat quality, or human disturbance of these. In an effort to support tiger conservation
in BRBBWR, the objectives of this activity continued to be (1) to conduct long-term tiger and
habitat monitoring in locations of high human disturbance along the Subayang river and (2) to
involve and engage with local communities in order to raise their awareness of and support for
tiger and habitat conservation.
Detection-nondetection surveys for tigers and prey species were conducted on foot or by boat,
covering BRBBWR along the Subayang river, which served as a convenient travel route and
access point for survey teams. The methods employed to record species (mammals and large
birds) involved recording species presence-absence and frequency of individuals in a grid of 2x2
km cells by means such as signs, sightings and calls. Seventeen camera traps were also
employed to record species presence. The study was designed to compare the presence of
species in cells with and without households (herein coded as village and non-village cells) in
order to investigate whether proximity to villages had any influence on species distribution in the
forest. To this end, the team surveyed target cells using a standardised datasheet for camera
trapping and sign detection. In addition, we also interviewed villagers about tiger and other key
wildlife species presence and interaction.
We surveyed fourteen cells (three village and eleven non-village), recording fourteen wildlife
species (including water buffalo Bubalus bubalis) in four mammal genera, plus two large bird
species. Except for the wild boar Sus scrofa, the sun bear Helarctos malayanus and the water
buffalo, all species occurred rarely (≤ 5 of presence in cells), hampering any further analysis. The
water buffalo and wild boar were found to be evenly distributed in village and non-village cells. No
tiger signs were recorded.
We recorded three main tiger prey species: barking deer Muntiacus muntjak, pig-tailed macaque
Macaca nemestrina and wild boar. The highest number of camera trap RAI (relative abundance
index) of species was wild boar (15.70) followed by pig-tailed macaque (8.26) and long-tailed
macaque Macaca fascicularis (3.31), which is not considered a tiger prey species. RAI for
barking deer, a large tiger prey species, was 1.65.The Endangered (EN) gibbon Hylobates agilis
and the siamang Symphalangus syndactylus were present in four and eight cells respectively, but
we did not capture either species in camera traps as they are arboreal. We also recorded
secondary prey species such as the common porcupine Hystrix brachyura, the great argus
pheasant Argusianus argus, both at low rates (RAI 0 and 2.48 respectively). The presence of all
these species is typical of good tiger habitat, although no tiger signs were recorded.
We interviewed 14 villagers, 8 of whom reported having seen tigers and tiger tracks. Most
villagers (n=12, 86%) said they were scared of tigers, nine of whom felt the presence of tigers
had a detrimental effect on the area. However, all but one interviewee understood that tigers
were protected in Indonesia and eleven interviewees (79%) agreed that this should be so.
We found 25 incidences of tiger threat, including two prey species snares in two cells. Illegal
logging was very common (10 cells, 71%) and we also encountered people with firearms. The
majority of threats occurred in the buffer zone of the reserve.
Finally, we visited four elementary schools in three villages, involving 68 pupils in presentations
as well as talks about tiger and general conservation.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
3
Abstrak
Biosphere Expeditions dan WWF Indonesia atas izin BBKSDA Riau kembali melakukan ekspedisi
gabungan untuk ketiga kalinya bersama dengan sukarelawan global di Suaka Margasatwa Bukit Rimbang
Bukit Baling (SMBRBB) dan sekitarnya, Provinsi Riau, Sumatera, Indonesia, dari 30 Juli hingga 1
September 2017.
Studi ekspedisi ini merupakan tindak lanjut dari dua studi sebelumnya pada tahun 2015 dan 2016, dengan
harimau dan habitatnya sebagai focal point, termasuk satwa mangsa dan spesies lain yang berkontribusi
pada informasi kualitas habitat harimau, atau gangguan manusia terhadap hal tersebut. Kegiatan ini
dilakukan dalam upaya mendukung pelestarian harimau di SMBRBB dengan melanjutkan tujuan kegiatan
sebelumnya yaitu (1) melakukan pemantauan harimau dan habitat jangka panjang di lokasi-lokasi yang
memiliki tingkat gangguan manusia tinggi di sepanjang sungai Subayang dan (2) melibatkan dan
melibatkan masyarakat lokal dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan kesadaran dan dukungan mereka terhadap
konservasi harimau dan habitatnya.
Survei deteksi-non-deteksi untuk harimau dan spesies mangsa dilakukan dengan berjalan kaki atau
dengan perahu, meliputi kawasan SMBRBB utamanya di sepanjang sungai Subayang, yang berfungsi
sebagai jalur perjalanan dan titik akses yang nyaman bagi tim survei. Metode yang digunakan untuk
mencatat spesies (mamalia dan burung besar) melalui pencatatan keberadaan-ketiadaan spesies dan
frekuensi individu dalam sel pengamatan berukuran 2x2 km dengan mencatat temuan seperti tanda,
penampakan dan suara satwa. Tujuh belas kamera penjebak juga digunakan untuk merekam keberadaan
spesies. Penelitian ini dirancang untuk membandingkan keberadaan spesies dalam sel dengan dan tanpa
keberadaan desa (selanjutnya dikodekan sebagai sel desa dan non desa) untuk mengetahui apakah
kedekatan dengan desa berpengaruh terhadap distribusi spesies di hutan. Untuk tujuan ini, tim tersebut
mensurvei sel target menggunakan lembar data standar untuk survei kamera penjebak dan deteksi tanda.
Selain itu, kami juga mewawancarai penduduk desa tentang keberadaan dan interaksi harimau dan spesies
satwa liar utama lainnya.
Kami mensurvei empat belas sel (tiga desa dan sebelas non-desa), mencatat empat belas spesies
mamalia yang berbeda (termasuk kerbau Bubalus bubalis) dalam empat genera mamalia, ditambah dua
spesies burung besar. Kecuali babi hutan Sus scrofa, beruang madu Helarctos malayanus dan kerbau,
semua spesies jarang ditemukan (≤ 5 keberadaan dalam sel), sehingga menghambat analisis lebih lanjut.
Kerbau dan babi hutan ditemukan tersebar merata di sel desa dan non desa. Tidak ada tanda-tanda
harimau yang dijumpai.
Kami mencatat tiga spesies utama mangsa harimau: kijang Muntiacus muntjak, kera ekor babi Macaca
nemestrina dan babi hutan. Jumlah RAI (indeks kelimpahan relatif) kamera penjebak tertinggi adalah babi
hutan (15,70) diikuti oleh monyet ekor babi (8,26) dan kera ekor panjang Macaca fascicularis (3,31), yang
tidak termasuk jenis mangsa harimau. Kijang sebagai spesies mangsa harimau besar memiliki RAI adalah
1,65. Jenis owa yang terancam punah (EN) Hylobates agilis dan siamang Symphalangus syndactylus
dijumpai di masing-masing empat dan delapan sel, tetapi kami tidak merekam salah satu spesies tersebut
di kamera penjebak karena mereka adalah satwa arboreal. Kami juga mencatat spesies mangsa sekunder
seperti landak umum Hystrix brachyura, burung kuau raja Argusianus argus, keduanya memiliki kelimpahan
rendah (RAI 0 dan 2,48 masing-masing). Keberadaan semua spesies tersebut menjadi ciri khas bahwa
habitat harimau masih baik, meskipun tidak ada tanda-tanda harimau yang tercatat.
Kami mewawancarai 14 penduduk desa, 8 di antaranya melaporkan pernah melihat harimau dan jejak
harimau. Sebagian besar penduduk desa (n = 12, 86%) mengatakan bahwa mereka takut pada harimau,
sembilan di antaranya merasa keberadaan harimau berdampak buruk bagi kawasan tersebut. Namun,
semua kecuali satu orang yang diwawancarai memahami bahwa harimau dilindungi di Indonesia dan
sebelas orang yang diwawancarai (79%) setuju bahwa seharusnya demikian.
Kami menemukan 25 keberadaan ancaman harimau, termasuk dua jerat mangsa harimau dalam dua sel
berbeda. Penebangan liar sangat umum (10 sel, 71%). Mayoritas ancaman terjadi di zona penyangga
suaka margasatwa tersebut.
Terakhir, kami mengunjungi empat sekolah dasar di tiga desa, melibatkan 68 siswa dalam presentasi serta
berdiskusi tentang harimau dan konservasi secara umum.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
4
Contents
Abstract
2
Abstrak
3
Contents
4
1. Expedition review
5
1.1. Background
5
1.2. Study site
6
1.3. Dates
7
1.4. Local conditions & support
7
1.5. Local scientist
8
1.6. Expedition leader
8
1.7. Expedition team
8
1.8. Expedition budget
9
1.9. Acknowledgements
10
1.10. Further information & enquiries
10
2. Robust baselines for effective reserve management
11
2.1. Introduction
11
2.2. Materials & methods
14
2.3. Results
16
2.4. Discussion and conclusions
23
2.5. Literature cited
25
Appendix I: Summary of expedition camera trapping effort 2017
27
Appendix II: Camera trapping example pictures
28
Appendix III: School visit pictures
29
Appendix IV: Database of species occurrence
31
Appendix V: Database of interview results
35
Appendix VI: Expedition diary and reports
49
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
5
1. Expedition review
M. Hammer (editor)
Biosphere Expeditions
1.1. Background
Biosphere Expeditions runs wildlife conservation research expeditions to all corners of the
Earth. Our projects are not tours, photographic safaris or excursions, but genuine research
expeditions placing ordinary people with no research experience alongside scientists who
are at the forefront of conservation work. Our expeditions are open to all and there are no
special skills (biological or otherwise) required to join. Our expedition team members are
people from all walks of life, of all ages, looking for an adventure with a conscience and a
sense of purpose. More information about Biosphere Expeditions and its research
expeditions can be found at www.biosphere-expeditions.org.
This project report deals with an expedition to the Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife
Reserve that ran from 30 July to 1 September 2017 with the aim of conducting a much-
needed survey of critically endangered Sumatran tigers in one of the last remaining forest
refuges left on one of Indonesia’s largest islands. Tiger prey animals such as various
species of deer, pig, bird and primate were recorded and general forest biodiversity
studied. Working together with WWF Indonesia and the local community, the expedition
also worked on mitigating the critical threat of poaching through education, capacity-
building and incentive creation for local people. Data collected by this expedition will be
crucial in identifying pockets of tiger habitat and viable strategies for tiger conservation
and recovery, all of which are vital if the species is to survive.
As its name implies, the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is endemic to Sumatra,
one of the largest islands in the Indonesian archipelago. It is the smallest of all the tiger
subspecies and is distinguished by heavy black stripes on its orange coat. Listed in
IUCN’s Critically Endangered category, there are probably fewer than 400 individuals left
in the wild. As a top predator, the tiger needs large joined-up forest blocks to thrive, and
used to roam across the whole island. It now occurs in isolated populations, its habitats
having been drastically reduced by clearing for agriculture, plantations and settlements.
This habitat destruction also forces the tiger into settled areas in search of food, where it is
more likely to come into contact and conflict with people. Next to habitat destruction,
poaching is another very potent threat. Studies have estimated that up to 78% of
Sumatran tiger deaths, consisting of about 40 animals per year, are as a result of
poaching, either as retaliatory killings or to feed the demand for tiger parts. Despite
increased efforts in tiger conservation – including law enforcement and anti-poaching
capacity – a substantial market remains in Sumatra and the rest of Asia for tiger parts and
products.
Today many wild Sumatran tigers are found in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra’s
largest national park (791 km2), situated in central Sumatra, which has been identified as a
‘Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape’ because it harbours a globally important
tiger population and includes other important facets of Asian biodiversity, including four
other cat species (e.g. clouded leopard and golden cat). Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling
Wildlife Reserve, the expedition study site, forms one of the core tiger refuges inside this
area that plays a vital role in maintaining connectivity among other key tiger landscapes in
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
6
central Sumatra. Although the outlook for tigers may often sound bleak, there are success
stories too. In well-managed areas with effective tiger patrols and where local communities
benefit from tiger presence, there are clear signs of recovery. It is therefore of critical
importance that tiger populations are monitored regularly to effectively safeguard the
populations that still exist and that local communities play a key role in, and benefit from,
tiger conservation. WWF Indonesia has been at the forefront of these efforts since the end
of the last millennium and has asked Biosphere Expeditions for assistance with tiger
monitoring as well as to act as a showcase for how responsible, low-impact tiger tourism
activities can generate local jobs and build capacity.
1.2. Study site
Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,000 islands, only 8,000 of which
are inhabited. It encompasses 34 provinces with over 238 million people, making it the
world's fourth most populous country. Sumatra is one of the biggest islands of the
archipelago. Indonesia's size, tropical climate and archipelagic geography support the
world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil) and Indonesia is second only to
Australia in terms of total endemic terrestrial species.
Figure 1.2a. Indonesia, Sumatra, the expedition study site and assembly point. An overview of Biosphere Expeditions’
expedition sites, assembly points, base camp and office locations can be found at Google Maps.
Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve, the expedition’s study site, was established
in 1984 and currently measures 1,360 km2, comprising highland and mountain tropical
rainforest ecosystems. There are various slopes between 25% and 100% and the highest
elevation is 1,070 m. The reserve is a biodiversity hotspot and a known Sumatran tiger
breeding area. As such it has been classified by WWF and others as an all-important
global priority tiger conservation area.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
7
1.3. Dates
The project ran from 30 July 11 August | 20 August 1 September 2017, divided into
two-week slots, each composed of a team of international citizen scientists, professional
scientists and an expedition leader.
Team members could join for multiple slots (within the periods specified). Dates were
chosen to be in the dry season for ease of working.
1.4. Local conditions & support
The study was a collaboration between the organisations Biosphere Expeditions, WWF
Indonesia and Batu Dinding Community Group.
Expedition base
The expedition was based at WWF Indonesia’s Subayang Field Station, a large wooden
house on the banks of the Subayang River in a remote part of the forest about 30 minutes
by boat from the end of the road and nearest village. The field station has a single large 20
x 20 m common room, a kitchen, toilets and showers. Electricity at 110/220 V was
provided by a generator. Expedition participants slept either in the large common room,
dome tents or hammocks, all dotted around the site. All meals were prepared by the
expedition cook.
Weather
The weather during the expedition was generally warm and humid as the expedition
period fell between the rainy season and dry season. Temperatures ranged from a low of
22ºC to a high of 35ºC with high humidity. River water levels were medium to start with,
but low towards the end of the expedition, causing some problems with the ability to move
around the study site in boats.
Field communications
There was no mobile or radio coverage at base or around the study site. The expedition
leader had a satellite phone, as did WWF staff, and all survey groups carried an
Emergency Position Indicating Radiobeacon (EPIRB) into the field on their surveys. The
expedition leader posted a diary with multimedia content on Wordpress and excerpts of
this were mirrored on Biosphere Expeditions’ social media sites such as Facebook.
Transport & vehicles
Team members made their own way to the Pekanbaru assembly point in time. From there
onwards and back to the assembly point all transport, vehicles and boats were provided
for the expedition team, for expedition support and emergency evacuations.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
8
Medical support and incidents
The expedition leader was a trained first aider and the expedition carried a comprehensive
medical kit. Further medical support was provided by a small hospital in Gema village
(about 4 km from the expedition base) and EKA hospital in Pekanbaru town (about 100 km
from the expedition base). All members were required to carry adequate insurance. Safety
and emergency procedures were in place and had to be invoked for two medical incidents,
one involving a hookworm infection and the other an inflammation following a cut. Both
were treated successfully at Gema hospital and the patients recovered.
1.5. Local scientist
Febri A. Widodo is WWF’s tiger research programme coordinator. His BSc, majoring in
nature forest conservation, is from Gadjah Mada University in his native Indonesia. As
WWF Indonesia’s tiger research coordinator, he organises tiger research mainly by
capture-mark-recapture methods in various landscapes throughout Sumatra. He is a
member of the HarimauKita Sumatran tiger conservation group and has experience in
jungle survival, search and rescue, and ecotourism.
1.6. Expedition leader
Ida Vincent grew up in Sweden and lived in Australia for ten years before moving to
Seattle in the USA. Ida studied Marine Biology at the University of Queensland and
Environmental Science at Murdoch University (both in Australia), finishing with BSc and
Masters degrees, respectively. Ida has worked as a marine scientist and aquatic ecologist
in Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Australia and the Pacific Northwest in
the USA. She is also a qualified PADI divemaster, Reef Check trainer, as well as a
climbing leader and instructor, with the North Cascade Mountains as her backyard. Ida
also enjoys photography, painting and writing. She has published both scientific and
magazine articles, as well as a novel.
1.7. Expedition team
The expedition team was recruited by Biosphere Expeditions and consisted of a mixture of
ages, nationalities and backgrounds. They were (in alphabetical order and with country of
residence):
30 July 11 August 2017: Garry Allen (USA), Neil Citterio (Italy), Malte Clavin**
(Germany), Katja Grabienski (Australia), Peter Harnacker (Austria), Frits Meijst**
(Netherlands), Ahmad Ainun Najib* (Indonesia), Pamela Patek (USA), Karen Reinermann
(Germany), Martyn Smith (Australia), Veerle Witte** (Netherlands), Yusuf Zulhairi*
(Indonesia)
20 August 1 September 2017: Sandip Chakraborti (USA), Clare Howells (UK), Torsten
John (Germany), Matthew Kaller (USA), Paul Lacey (UK).
*Placement kindly supported by the Friends of Biosphere Expeditions
**Press
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
9
1.8. Expedition budget
Each team member paid towards expedition costs a contribution of £1,980 per person per
two-week slot. The contribution covered accommodation and meals, supervision and
induction, special tiger habitat monitoring equipment and all transport from and to the team
assembly point. It did not cover excess luggage charges, travel insurance, personal
expenses such as telephone bills, souvenirs etc., or visa and other travel expenses to and
from the assembly point (e.g. international flights). Details on how this contribution was
spent are given below.
Income
£
Expedition contributions
23,872
Expenditure
Expedition base
includes all board & lodging, and extra food & meals
2,715
Transport
includes team transfers, boat rides, fuel
1,737
Equipment and hardware
includes study materials & gear etc. purchased in Indonesia & elsewhere
89
Staff
includes local community & Biosphere Expeditions staff salaries, travel expenses
6,344
Administration
includes miscellaneous fees, permits & sundries
8,171
Team recruitment Sumatra
as estimated % of annual PR costs for Biosphere Expeditions
4,432
Income Expenditure
384
Total percentage spent directly on project
98%
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
10
1.9. Acknowledgements
We are grateful to the volunteers, who not only dedicated their spare time to helping, but
also, through their expedition contributions, funded the expedition. Thank you also to
Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry, especially the head and staff of
BBKSDA (Natural Resource Agency) of Riau in Pekanbaruand to the local people in and
around Rimbang Baling. We are also grateful to WWF Indonesia (Nurchalis Fadhli, Gianini
Souvenile, Elmadia Achmad, Sunarto, Heri Irawan, Rianto, Riza Sukriana, Zulfahmi, Eka
Septayuda, Efendi Panjaitan, Kusdianto, Rahmad Adi, Tugio, Syamsidar, Suparman,
Fendi, T. Budi Aulia, Adi Purwoko). Many thanks to Batu Dinding Community Group (Ian,
Masrizal, Amrin, Sapri, Anto, Elsi Susanti and friends), science volunteer Irfan Nur Arifin,
placement volunteers and to all those other people who provided assistance and
information for this expedition. Biosphere Expeditions would also like to thank members of
the Friends of Biosphere Expeditions and donors for their sponsorship. Finally, thank you
to Batu Dinding Community Group, Tanjung Belit and Aur Kuning villagers for being such
excellent hosts and making us feel at home in the field as well as at WWF’s Subayang
Field Station.
1.10. Further information & enquiries
More background information on Biosphere Expeditions in general and on this expedition
in particular including pictures, diary excerpts and a copy of this report can be found on
the Biosphere Expeditions website www.biosphere-expeditions.org.
Enquires should be addressed to Biosphere Expeditions at the address given on the
website.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
11
2. Robust baselines for effective reserve management
A third report of Sumatran tiger habitat monitoring in the
Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Landscape, Riau, Sumatra
Febri Anggriawan Widodo
WWF Indonesia
Marcelo Mazzolli (editor)
Projeto Puma
Matthias Hammer (editor)
Biosphere Expeditions
2.1. Introduction
Conserving the last surviving Sumatran tigers in the wild needs robust baseline
information to support the global recovery goal of increasing wild tiger numbers in all TCLs
(Tiger Conservation Landscapes) on the Island of Sumatra. To this end, the expedition in
2017 surveyed for tigers in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve (Rimbang Baling
for short hereafter). The area is cited as an important tiger habitat with TCL status of long-
term priority tiger habitat (Dinerstein et al. 2006). However, the area faces serious human
impact threats, empowered by an almost total lack of law enforcement, such as poaching
of tigers and their prey, as well as habitat degradation and fragmentation (Kinnaird et al.
2003, Linkie et al. 2003, Widodo et al. 2017).
Robust monitoring results can inform conservation management. The management
authority of Rimbang Baling (Balai Besar Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, BBKSDA /
Natural Resource Conservation Agency Riau) is planning to have a new management and
spatial plan document for the next 10 years, as commissioned by The Director General of
Natural Resource Conservation at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, who signed
the document (Balai Besar Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Riau, 2018) in 2018.
Surveys by WWF and others since 2012 have shown that Rimbang Baling harbours the
highest tiger density in Central Sumatra with 1.52 ± SE 0.55 individuals/100 km2 (Widodo
et al., 2017). Expedition results in 2015 and 2016 (Widodo et al. 2016a and 2017)
corroborate this, showing that tigers coexist with traditional human communities along
Rimbang Baling’s main river, the Subayang. This information was used to develop the
management and spatial plan document, and now the reserve authority together with its
stakeholders are implementing the document on the ground. However, the situation is fluid
and dynamic, so continued monitoring is required so that implementation can beadjusted
as necessary.
To this end, the WWF and Biosphere Expeditions citizen science collaboration focuses on
tiger, prey and habitat studies, including people’s perception and acceptance of tigers
along the Subayang river. The expedition followed those in 2015 and 2016 (Widodo et al.
2016a and 2017), followed up on a previous tiger publication with three different sampling
blocks in the reserve (Widodo et al. 2017), and was expected to compile and complete
essential information along the Subayang river, namely:
conduct tiger and habitat monitoring in locations with relatively high human impact
along the Subayang river
obtain information about tigers, people and habitat
involve and engage local communities to raise their awareness of, and support for,
tiger and habitat conservation in their daily activities
fill a tiger camera trapping information gap (Widodo, et al. 2016b)
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
12
Study area
We conducted studies in Rimbang Baling and surrounding areas in Riau Province (Fig.
2.1b). The reserve is managed by BBKSDA Riau (Nature Resource Conservation Agency
of Riau) and the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF), and covers
141,226.25 ha (based on Forestry Minister Decree No. SK.3977/Menhut-VII/KUH/2014,
year 2014). In 2016, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry inaugurated the reserve as
a Conservation Forest Management Unit (CFMU, based on Environment and Forestry
Minister Decision Letter No. SK.468/Menlhk/Setjen/PLA.0/6/2016). The Forest
Management Unit covers 142,156 ha, and is located across two districts of Riau Province:
Kampar and Kuantan Singingi. The designation as a CFMU indicates an improvement in
the management of the conservation area, allowing the area to be managed by a special
management body with specially allocated government budgets and facilities (Widodo et
al. 2017).
The reserve itself is a unique area dominated by hills with slopes mainly ranging from 25%
to 100% inclination (see cover page and Fig. 2.1a) and the highest elevation is at 1070 m.
Acacia, rubber and palm oil plantations, coal mining, and community lands surround it. It is
also a water catchment area for lower areas in central Sumatra and supplies fresh water
to the Koto Panjang hydropower station in the north. WWF Indonesia is now working to
conserve the catchment area under the Freshwater Programme together with the reserve
authority and several key community stakeholders. The tiger population is one of the key
performance indicators in the programme.
There are 12 villages inside the reserve, inhabited by about 3,000 people, whose
livelihoods are mostly dependent on rubber plantations and other natural resource
extractions, such as non-wood forest products, but much logging and hunting exist as well.
At least 22 concessionaires for both oil palm plantation and pulp and paper around the
reserve have been identified. WWF Indonesia is supported by useful information from the
expedition work with the Better Management Practices (BMP) scheme to support tigers
outside the core area in the landscape.
Figure 2.1a. Rimbang Baling landscape © M. Clavin.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
13
Figure 2.1b. Rimbang Baling Wildlife Reserve and surrounding area. The red polygon shows the area surveyed by the expedition.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
14
2.2. Materials and methods
Surveys and site selection
Surveys along the Subayang were conducted on foot or by boat, covering Bukit Rimbang
Bukit Baling along the Subayang River (Fig. 2.1b). Fourteen standardised 2x2 km grid
cells to monitor tigers in Central Sumatra (Sunarto et al. 2012) were surveyed, three of
them containing households (village cells). We followed trails originating from the river to
target grid cells for activities and selected cells with and without villages to investigate
whether the presence or absence of villages had any effect on the presence of species
and to quantify human impact on wildlife and habitat. Local people were involved in
activities by providing boats and supplies, and were involved in grid cell selection also. We
chose cells to fill gaps in baseline data (especially to support management in the buffer
zone) from previous studies and for practicality of reaching them with a citizen science
expedition.
We recorded mammals, including potential tiger prey species, as well as large birds. Our
capture methods included camera trapping, direct sightings, sign and call surveys, all
recorded on standardised datasheets. We used track identification by van Strien, N. J.
(1983) as the reference.
For camera trapping, we used seventeen Bushnell single station camera traps, in ten non-
village and one village cells along the Subayang river, as a primary tool to record elusive
animals (Sanderson & Trolle 2005, Sunarto et al. 2013). As in previous expeditions, high
human disturbance along the main river, hilly and rugged terrain made placing camera
traps difficult.
GIS and mapping
We used grid cells of 2x2 km in land cover and topographic GIS layers of WWF Indonesia
(datum WGS 84), as well as forest cover maps 2011 and 2012, available from WWF
Indonesia (Setiabudi 2015, published at http://maps.eyesontheforest.or.id). The entire
Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling landscape is covered by 416 such 2x2 km cells (Fig. 2.1b).
The expedition focused on 14 cells along the Subayang river, of which three were village
and eleven non-village cells.
We used the program TrackMaker® (Geo Studio Tech, MG) to upload grid cells with their
respective codes to GPS units (eight Garmin® eTrex 20 and one Garmin 78s) to help with
navigation and data collection, and also to download GPS features collected in the field.
We used Arc-GIS (ESRI) to prepare survey maps, as well as to analyse and produce the
final mapping results. We also recorded point coordinate information on every single
datasheet.
Database and data analysis
We combined animal presence data from sightings, signs and calls with camera trapping
data to describe species distribution (cell presence/absence) and abundance following the
Biosphere Expeditions methodology described in Mazzolli & Hammer (2013). After
retrieving presence surveys from the field, the expedition team inputted all recorded
information into a standardised database system on Microsoft Excel®.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
15
We used the CameraSweet automatic camera trap database and analysis software to
handle and store camera trap photos. We used the Relative Abundance Index (RAI) of
camera trapping success rate to derive abundance of those species that are generally
difficult to identify individually for capture-recapture analysis (O'Brien et al. 2003, Sunarto,
et al. 2013, Widodo et al. 2017). We calculated the index as the number of independent
records for each species multiplied by 100 and divided by the total number of camera trap
nights. We followed the definition of independent pictures as (1) consecutive photographs
of different individuals of the same or different species, (2) consecutive photographs of
individuals of the same species taken more than 30 minutes apart, (3) non-consecutive
photos of individuals of the same species. We also used prey species RAI to describe
habitat quality and people RAI to illustrate the human disturbance levels in grid cells used
for camera trapping. We compared village and non–village grid cell records to understand
the human impact on surveyed species and habitat, following Widodo et al. (2017).
Following Sunarto et al. (2013), we calculated effort as the number of trap nights (trap
days) of sampling multiplied by the number of camera stations, minus any days when all
cameras at a station malfunctioned, applying both time information from camera trap
datasheets and automatic camera identification as supplied by CameraSweet. We then
compared the results of this expedition to those of 2015 and 2016.
Outreach and interviews
Following previous expeditions, we conducted semi-structured interview surveys in
villages and plantations along the Subayang river. We designed interviews to understand
how villagers perceive and react to the presence of tigers and other wildlife as well as
habitat, to know the extent of human-tiger interaction, to gather information on recent tiger
sightings or signs to improve the expedition's ability to record them, and for other
conservation purposes. The interviews were also used as a tool to increase awareness
and to collect threat observation mainly focused on tiger poaching (snares and gunshots),
as well as prey species poaching and the logging of forest trees along the main river.
We also visited four villages and their schools to deliver tiger and conservation educational
materials and to conduct activities such as games, presentations and showing videos of
animals.
Training of participants
We conducted training of participants during the first 1.5 days of each expedition group
following methods described in Widodo et al. (2016a & 2017). Training comprised lectures
and teaching sessions to introduce the tiger and its habitat, the social situation,
conservation activities and issues, as well as local problems and challenges. We also
trained participants in the use of survey equipment, data collection and safety aspects
such as safety and rescue.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
16
2.3. Results
We surveyed 14 cells in total during the expedition (eleven non-village and three village
cells) and set 17 single camera trap stations in eleven cells: ten non-village cells, resulting
in 159 trap nights, and in one village cell, resulting in 20 trap nights (Fig. 2.3a, Appenidx I).
The total area covered was 56 km2 (defined by total grid cell size) on foot or by boat and
23 km2 for effective trapping area (ETA), calculated via a minimum-convex polygon of
camera trap stations.
Across all capture methods, we recorded 14 mammal species from four genera
Artiodactyla (four species), Aves (one species), Carnivora (three species), Primata (four
species) and Rodentia (two species). Seven species recorded are protected by
Indonesian Law (PP No.7/1999), with two vulnerable and two endangered species by
IUCN (Table 2.3a).
Over 179 camera trap nights, 3,198 images were captured, yielding 42 independent
images of wildlife of eight different mammal species from four mammal genera (Table
2.3a, Appendix II).
We conducted interview surveys with 14 villagers (eleven males, three females) in five
villages (Tanjung Belit, Muarabio, Batusanggan, Koto Lamo and Duo Sepakat) to
understand people’s perception of tigers and their conservation, and discuss results (see
Appendix VI) below.
We engaged four elementary schools, two in their villages and two came to the expedition
base. The total number of students engaged was 68 and details of activities are discussed
below.
We recorded 28 incidences of threats to tigers such as illegal logging, snares, armed
people, etc. and details are also discussed below.
Species occurrence
We recorded wild boars Sus scrofa in almost all grid cells (n=13), indicating that this
species had the largest distribution along the main river. Next in detection frequency was
Malayan sun bear Helarctos malayanus, which we recorded by its claw marks in six cells.
We also recorded water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, as a livestock species in six cells.
We calculated camera trap RAI of wild boar as 15.7, followed by pig-tailed macaque
Macaca nemestrina at 8.26 and the long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis at 3.31. The
barking deer Muntiacus muntjac, as one of large prey species for tigers, RAI we calculated
as 1.65.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
17
Figure 2.3a. Surveyed cells and villages in which interviews were conducted during the expedition.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
18
Table 2.3a. Mammal and human disturbance (as measured by people presence) recorded during the expedition by various capture methods.
Taxon
Global
status 1
Regional
status 2
Cell presence
RAI 5
Camera
traps
Sighting
Track
Scat
Other 3
Total 4
Artiodactyla
Mouse deer Tragulus sp.
LC
P
1
0
1
0
0
2
0.83
Barking deer Muntiacus muntjac
LC
P
1
0
2
0
0
2
1.65
Water buffalo Bubalus bubalis
-
-
0
2
6
2
1
6
0
Wild boar Sus scrofa
LC
NP
5
4
9
1
12
13
15.7
Aves
Great argus Argusianus argus
NT
P
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
Carnivora
Banded palm civet Hemigalus
derbyanus
NT
NP
1
0
0
0
0
1
0.83
Leopard cat Prionailurus bengalensis
LC
P
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
Malayan sun bear Helarctos malayanus
VU
P
0
1
0
0
9
10
0
Primata
Agile gibbon Hylobates agilis
EN
P
0
0
0
0
4
4
0
Long-tailed macaque Macaca
fascicularis
LC
NP
3
5
3
0
2
8
3.31
Pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina
VU
NP
5
0
0
0
1
6
8.26
Siamang Symphalangus syndactylus
EN
NP
0
0
0
0
8
8
0
People
Rodentia
Common porcupine Hystrix brachyura
LC
P
1
0
0
0
5
6
2.48
Rat Rattus sp
-
-
1
0
0
0
0
1
0.83
Total
20
12
21
4
43
83
35.54
1 IUCN Red List (with 6 Least Concern, 2 Near Threatened, 2 Vulnerable and 2 Endangered species), 2 Indonesian Law (PP No. 7/1999) P = protected, NP = not protected (with 7 protec ted and
5 not protected species), 3 burrows (porcupine), diggings (buffalo a nd wild boar), claw marks (bear), calls (primates and argus), 4 number of cells recorded, 5 RAI (Relative Abundance Index) as
trap success rate of animals caught by camera trapping and number of pictures, calculated as number of independent photos x 100 / total number of camera trap nights
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
19
Species activity patterns
For the nine species captured by camera trap, we derived activity patterns. Three
potential prey species of tigers (barking deer, long-tailed macaque and pig-tailed
macaque) were mostly diurnal. Only wild boar was captured both during day and
night. People were captured during the day by camera trap stations placed in cells
near villages (Fig. 2.3b).
Figure 2.3b. Species activity patterns based on camera trap results.
Community perception
In total, we interviewed 14 people in five villages along the Subayang River.
Interviewees were ten rubber farmers, who might interact with tigers and other
wildlife in their semi-wild rubber plantations, two teachers, one logger and one
housewife/shopkeeper. Six respondents said that they had never seen a tiger nor
signs, but eight of them had and two (14%) had seen tigers directly and recently. The
most recent encounter with a tiger was two years previously, in 2014, in a forest
patch inside a semi-wild rubber plantation.
Six (43%) respondents were scared of tigers and nine of them felt the presence of
tigers had a detrimental effect on the area. However, when asked whether tigers
were good for Indonesia”, eight (57%) confirmed this. On the other hand, half of
respondents disliked tigers.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
20
When asked about tiger numbers in all of Sumatra, twelve (86%) respondents said
they did not know. One person predicted 225 250 tigers. When asked about legal
protection, all but one knew that the tiger was a legally protected species and eleven
(79%) agreed that it should be protected.
When we asked about tiger behaviour, twelve (86%) respondents answered that
tigers reduced the number of large game animals such as deer or wild boars in the
area. Only six (43%) said tigers reduced the number of small animals such as mouse
deer. Nine (64%) respondents said tigers do not feed on domestic animals.
Figure 2.3c. Results of interview answers from 14 respondents in five villages along Subayang River.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
21
Figure 2.3d. Result of interview answers from 14 respondents in five villages along Subayang River.
Twelve (86%) respondents said that it would be good if the tiger attracted tourism
into the area with only one person (7%) saying this would be bad.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
22
Threats
We recorded a total of 25 threats with the majority of illegal activities located in the
buffer zone of the reserve. Logging was very common (10 cells, 71%). We also
collected two prey species snares in two cells. Other threats (11%) were new roads
coming to the village (Fig. 2.3e).
Figure 2.3e. Summary of threats found during the surveys from 14 surveyed cells along Subayang River.
Placement, school visits and community engagement
To support capacity-building, we involved two local students in the expedition as part
of the Biosphere Expeditions placement programme. We selected placements via a
written application followed by an interview and based on their interest or budding
careers in conservation. We also started to build a network with three placement
alumni from the 2015 and 2016 expeditions, returning in 2017 to help.
We visited two elementary schools in Muarabio and Batusanggan village and invited
two more to the expedition base, involving 68 pupils in total. We provided an
environmental education programme about tigers and habitat conservation, and
games. Many children expressed concern about tigers, wildlife and conservation,
and wished to make a positive impact. We also involved teachers and school staff
and provided materials to integrate conservation into the curriculum in the future.
Table 2.3b. Elementary schools visited during the expedition (also see photos in Appendix III).
School
Village
# pupils
SD Tanjung Belit 002
Tanjung Belit
9
SD 12 Batusanggan-Muarabio
Muarabio
10
SD Tanjung Belit 002
Tanjung Belit
9
SD Batusanggan
Batusanggan
40
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
23
2.4. Discussion and conclusions
Overall, our three expeditions from 2015 to 2017 produced varying survey efforts in
terms of area covered, number of survey days and number of citizen scientists and
staff involved (Table 2.4a.). The highest effort was produced by the 2015 expedition,
when a rush of citizen scientists to a new expedition on the Biosphere Expeditions
portfolio resulted in 45 citizen scientists spread over six groups (Widodo et al.
2016a). In 2016 this dropped to 18 citizen scientists in two groups (Widodo et al.
2017) and in 2017 there were 17 citizen scientists in two groups. The 2015 and 2016
expeditions largely surveyed areas along the main river inside the reserve and in
disturbed areas. In 2017, we concentrated on surveying the buffer zones areas in
order to fill information gaps on tigers and habitat in the northern part of the reserve.
Table 2.4a. Comparative results and survey efforts of the expeditions 2015-2017.
2015
2016
2017
No. of citizen scientists
45
18
17
No. of 2-wk expedition groups
6
2
2
Areas surveyed*
MRIR
MRIR
BZ
2x2 km cells covered
34
16
14
of which village cells
13
7
3
of which non-village cells
21
9
11
No. of camera trap nights
256
203
179
No. of camera trap images captured
2044
3707
3198
Mammal species recorded
19
13
14
Mammal genera recorded
6
4
4
Villagers interviewed
57
16
14
of whom reported tiger**
28
16
8
No. of schools visited
5
4
4
No. of pupils engaged
260
158
68
* MRIR = mainly along main river inside reserve, BZ = mainly in buff er zon e on the norther n edge of the r eserve
** via signs or sightings
In line with the survey effort, mammal species recorded dropped from 19 species in
six genera in 2015 to 13 species in four genera in 2016 and 14 species in four
genera in 2017. It is interesting to note that in 2017 we recorded roughly similar
numbers despite surveys concentrating on buffer zone areas with higher human
impact. We nevertheless found tiger prey species to be abundant in the buffer zone,
even though some larger prey such as sambar deer were not detected during the
third expedition.
Sunarto et al. (2012) and Widodo et al. (2017) have shown that tigers avoid roaming
along the Subayang river where human activity is more pronounced. The fact that
none of the expeditions directly recorded tigers corroborates this. However, all
expeditions provided circumstantial evidence of tigers through interviews.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
24
This also corroborates Sunarto et al. (2012) and Widodo et al. (2017) and suggest
that tigers mainly live deeper in the forest, away from human disturbance and
outside the reach of citizen science expeditions.
Despite not finding direct evidence of tigers, the expeditions provided useful data to
plug information gaps along the Subayang river and the northern edges of the
reserve. In addition, expedition results were also integrated with systematic camera
trapping surveys conducted by the monitoring team of WWF covering core areas in
the reserve (Widodo et al. 2017).
In conclusion we believe that the reserve study site is indeed an important habitat for
tigers because of its steep, rugged and forest-covered topography that inhibits
human occupation away from the major rivers, where there are human settlements,
disturbance and conversion of forest to either rubber tree plantations on the slopes
and/or oil palm plantations on the few flat areas that fringe the larger rivers in the
reserve.
However, there are significant threats to continued tiger presence in the study area.
These include an increasing human population with developing infrastructure,
concomitant with further forest encroachment and conversion, logging and other
illegal activities such as poaching, which are barely studied and quantified, let alone
contained by the authorities tasked with nature protection due to a severe shortage
in resources.
Understanding tigers within human-occupied landscapes is fundamental to
conserving tigers in areas such as along the main rivers in Rimbang Baling. The
expeditions have provided useful baseline insights into people’s perception upon
which further studies and community programmes can be built. Generally speaking,
environmental awareness is still lacking in the area and some villagers, therefore,
tend to ignore wildlife conservation issues.
The results of this study suggest that even areas occupied by humans can be
occupied by tigers and at least be used by the animals, for example for moving
through semi-wild rubber plantations and utilising the extant local prey base, whilst
migrating from one low impact area deeper in the forest to the next. As such, we
support Linkie et al. (2008) and suggest that maintaining semi-wild rubber
plantations as movement corridors is important. Also, and as mentioned in the
reserve’s management plan, plantation areas that allow human economic activities
as well as tiger movements are also needed to balance human and tiger needs and
encourage co-existence.
The absence of tiger poaching evidence recorded in 2017 is encouraging. The WWF
Tiger Protection Unit (TPU) did collect tiger snares in the area in 2017, but at least
they do not appear to be particularly widespread.
Finally, protecting tigers as umbrella species may protect entire habitats (Andelman
& Fagan 2000). In this context, the expedition studies over three years advanced
tiger protection, not only through research, but also through capacity-building and
community awareness.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
25
2.5. Literature cited
Andelman, S. J., & Fagan, W. F. (2000). Umbrellas and flagships: Efficient
conservation surrogates or expensive mistakes? PNAS Vo. 97 No. 11, 59545959.
Balai Besar Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam Riau, B. (2018). Management Plan of
Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve 2018 - 2027.
Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C., Heydlauff, A., Wikramanayake, E., Bryja, G., Forrest, J.,
Songer, M. (2006). Setting priorities for the conservation and recovery of wild tigers:
2005 - 2015. A user's guide. Washington, D.C - New York, WWF, WCS,
Smithsonian, dan NFWF-STF, 1-50.
Kinnaird, M. F., Sanderson, E. W., O'Brien, T. G., Wibisono, H. T., & Woolmer, G.
(2003). Deforestation trends in a tropical landscape and implications for endangered
large mammals. Conservation Biology Volume 17, 245-257.
Linkie, M., Haidir, I. A., Nugroho, A., & Dinata, Y. (2008). Conserving tigers Panthera
tigris in selectively logged Sumatran forests. Biological Conservation 141: 2410 -
2415.
Linkie, M., Martyr, D. J., Holden, J., Yanuar, A., Hartana, A. T., Sugardjito, J., &
Leader-Williams, N. (2003). Habitat destruction and poaching threaten the Sumatran
tiger in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra. Oryx, 37(1), 4148.
Mazzolli, M., & Hammer, L. A. (2013). Sampling and analysis of data for large
terrestrial mammals during short-term volunteer expeditions. Biosphere Expeditions,
UK.
O'Brien, T. G., Kinnaird, M. F., & Wibisono, H. T. (2003). Crouching tigers, hidden
prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal
Conservation 6, 131-139.
Sanderson, J., & Trolle, M. (2005). Monitoring Elusive Mammals: Unattended
cameras reveal secrets of some of the world’s wildest places. American Scientist,
Volume 93, 147 - 156.
Setiabudi (2015) Land use map 2011 of Sumatra. WWF-Indonesia, Jakarta,
Indonesia. http://maps.eyesontheforest.or.id (Accessed 27 January 2015).
Sunarto, Kelly, M. J., Klenzendorf, S., Vaughan, M. R., Zulfahmi, Hutajulu, M. B., &
Parakkasi, K. (2013). Threatened predator on the equator: multi-point abundance
estimates of the tiger Panthera tigris in central Sumatra. Fauna & Flora International,
Oryx, 47(2), 211–220.
Sunarto, S., Kelly, M. J., Parakkasi, K., Klenzendorf, S., Septayuda, E., & et al.
(2012). Tigers Need Cover: Multi-Scale Occupancy Study of the Big Cat in Sumatran
Forest and Plantation Landscapes. PLoS One 7(1): e30859.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030859.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
26
Sunarto, S., Sollmann, R., Mohamed, A., & Kelly, M. J. (2013). Camera trapping for
the study and conservation of tropical carnivores. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 28,
21-42.
van Strien, N. J. (1983). A guide to the tracks of mammals of western Indonesia.
School of Environmental Conservation Management - Ciawi, Bogor, Indonesia.
Widodo, F. A., Hanny, S., Utomo, E. H., Zulfahmi, Kusdianto, Septayuda, E.,
Sunarto. (2017). Tiger and prey in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling: abundance baseline
for effective wildlife reserve management. Journal of Forest Science (Jurnal Ilmu
Kehutanan) Vol 11 No.2, 118 - 129.
Widodo, F. A., Kusdianto, Zulfahmi, Batubara, R. A., Panjaitan, E., Septayuda, E.,
Budianti, I. (2016a). Keeping an Eye on the Tiger: An Operational Procedure for Full
Coverage Camera Trapping to Monitor Tiger and Other Key Wildlife in Bukit
Rimbang Bukit Baling Landscape, Sumatra. Balai Besar Konservasi Sumber Daya
Alam (BBKSDA) and WWF - Indonesia.
Widodo, F. A., Mazzolli, M., & Hammer, M. (2016b). Sumatran tiger conservation -
Forest flagship: researching & conserving critically endangered Sumatran tigers in
Rimbang Baling Wildlife Sanctuary, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biosphere Expeditions
report 2015. Norwich, UK. Available via www.biosphere-expeditions.org/reports.
Widodo, F. A., Mazzolli, M., & Hammer, M. (2017). Forest flagship: Monitoring &
conserving critically endangered Sumatran tigers in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling
Wildlife Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biosphere Expeditions report 2016. Norwich,
UK. Available via www.biosphere-expeditions.org/reports.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
27
Appendix I. Summary of expedition camera trapping effort 2017
Station
ID
Cell ID
Latitude*
Longitude*
Date installed**
Date removed**
Trap nights
BE02
AA130
11252081
19599
21/08/2017
31/08/2017
11
BE08
AA131
11251336
20972
01/08/2017
02/08/2017
1
BE03
AB131
11252783
20287
10/08/2017
31/08/2017
22
BE19
U128
11238875
14445
03/08/2017
06/08/2017
4
BE18
V128
11242223
14857
02/08/2017
23/08/2017
22
BE15
W128
11244240
14774
07/08/2017
29/08/2017
23
BE10
W129
11243748
16555
06/08/2017
19/08/2017
14
BE14
X129
11245665
17704
03/08/2017
-
0
BE16
X130
11246800
18328
07/08/2017
24/08/2017
18
BE07
Y130
11248133
19139
02/08/2017
24/08/2017
22
BE05
Z130
11249570
19252
08/08/2017
27/08/2017
20
BE17
Z131
11250344
20146
06/08/2017
27/08/2017
22
* UTM World Mercator, Datum WGS 84, ** day/month/year
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
28
Appendix II. Camera trapping example pictures
Wild boar
Barking deer
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
29
Appendix III. School visit pictures.
SD Tanjung Belit 002 visited the expedition base and water lab building at Subayang Field Station.
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Gove rning C ouncil & Global Mi nisteri al Envi ronmen t Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
30
SD 12 Batusanggan-Muarabio
SD Batusanggan
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
31
Appendix IV. Database of species occurrence by presence survey on foot and by boat in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling 2017.
No
Slot
Grid
Elev(masl)
Species
Day
Month
Year
Sighting
Track
Scat
Other
Remark
1
1
Z131
36
Water buffalo
31
7
2017
0
1
0
0
2
1
Z131
58
Wild boar
31
7
2017
0
1
0
0
3
1
Z131
62
Malayan sun bear
31
7
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
4
1
Z131
66
Agile gibbon
31
7
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
5
1
AA131
48
Water buffalo
1
8
2017
1
0
0
0
6
1
AA131
52
Wild boar
1
8
2017
0
1
0
0
7
1
AA131
48
Long tailed macaque
1
8
2017
1
0
0
0
8
1
AA131
70
Barking deer
1
8
2017
0
1
0
0
9
1
Y130
49
Siamang
2
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
10
1
Y130
68
Wild boar
2
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Dig hole
11
1
Y130
71
Malayan sun bear
2
8
2018
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
12
1
V128
82
Wild boar
2
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Wallow
13
1
V128
283
Agile gibbon
2
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
14
1
V128
283
Siamang
2
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
15
1
V128
284
Malayan sun bear
2
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
16
1
U128
88
Wild boar
3
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Dig hole
17
1
U128
128
Common porcupine
3
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Burrow
18
1
U128
210
Malayan sun bear
3
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
19
1
Z131
111
Water buffalo
6
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Wallow
20
1
Z131
Wild boar
6
8
2017
0
1
0
0
21
1
Z131
Pig tailed macaque
6
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
22
1
Z131
Malayan sun bear
6
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
23
1
W129
72
Siamang
6
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
24
1
W129
72
Agile gibbon
6
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
25
1
W129
76
Wild boar
6
8
2017
0
1
0
0
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
32
No
Slot
Grid
Elev(masl)
Species
Day
Month
Year
Sighting
Track
Scat
Other
Remark
26
1
W129
172
Long tailed macaque
6
8
2017
1
0
0
0
27
1
W129
259
Deer
6
8
2017
0
2
0
0
28
1
W129
230
Malayan sun bear
6
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
29
1
W128
58
Water buffalo
7
8
2017
0
1
0
0
30
1
W128
58
Wild boar
7
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Rooting
31
1
W128
58
Agile gibbon
7
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
32
1
W128
119
Siamang
7
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
33
1
X130
71
Wild boar
7
8
2017
1
0
0
1
Wallow
34
1
X130
Siamang
7
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
35
1
X130
68
Water buffalo
7
8
2017
0
1
0
0
36
1
X130
119
Malayan sun bear
7
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
37
1
X130
142
Common porcupine
7
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Burrow
38
1
Z130
51
Water buffalo
8
8
2017
1
0
0
0
39
1
Z130
51
Wild boar
8
8
2017
0
1
0
0
40
1
Z130
75
Siamang
8
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
41
1
Z130
95
Common porcupine
8
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Burrow
42
1
AB130
NONE
10
8
2017
0
0
0
0
43
2
AA131
76
Water buffalo
22
8
2017
0
1
1
0
44
2
AA131
61
Wild boar
22
8
2017
0
1
1
1
Dig hole
45
2
AA131
242
Siamang
22
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
46
2
AA131
148
Common porcupine
22
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Burrow
47
2
AA131
71
Long tailed macaque
22
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
48
2
Y130
47
Siamang
23
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
49
2
Y130
63
Wild boar
23
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Rooting
50
2
Y130
101
Malayan sun bear
23
8
2017
0
0
0
1
51
2
Y130
131
Mouse deer
23
8
2017
0
1
0
0
52
2
X129
6
Wild boar
24
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Rooting
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
33
No
Slot
Grid
Elev(masl)
Species
Day
Month
Year
Sighting
Track
Scat
Other
Remark
53
2
X129
96
Common porcupine
24
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Burrow
54
2
X129
120
Malayan sun bear
24
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
55
2
V128
80
Water buffalo
23
8
2017
0
1
0
0
56
2
V128
57
Long tailed macaque
23
8
2017
1
0
0
0
57
2
V128
57
Agile gibbon
23
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
58
2
V128
246
Malayan sun bear
23
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
59
2
X130
95
Malayan sun bear
24
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
60
2
X130
51
Wild boar
24
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Rooting
61
2
Z130
51
Water buffalo
27
8
2017
0
1
1
0
62
2
Z130
51
Wild boar
27
8
2017
0
1
0
0
63
2
Z130
108
Long tailed macaque
27
8
2017
1
2
0
0
64
2
Z130
88
Malayan sun bear
27
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
65
2
Z131
44
Long tailed macaque
27
8
2017
0
1
0
0
66
2
Z131
44
Wild boar
27
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Wallow
67
2
Z131
44
Water buffalo
27
8
2017
0
1
0
0
68
2
Z131
86
Malayan sun bear
27
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
69
2
U128
65
Wild boar
28
8
2017
1
0
0
0
70
2
U128
103
Long tailed macaque
28
8
2017
1
0
0
1
Calling
71
2
T128
89
Wild boar
28
8
2017
1
1
0
1
Rooting
72
2
T128
85
Malayan sun bear
28
8
2017
1
0
0
0
2 sun bears
73
2
T128
78
Leopard cat
28
8
2017
0
0
1
0
S 00 07' 42.9" E 100 57' 31.0"
74
2
W129
56
Wild boar
28
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Rooting
75
2
W129
56
Long tailed macaque
28
8
2017
0
1
0
0
76
2
W129
106
Malayan sun bear
28
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
77
2
W128
152
Malayan sun bear
29
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Claw marks
78
2
W128
152
Agile gibbon
29
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
79
2
W128
98
Siamang
29
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
34
No
Slot
Grid
Elev(masl)
Species
Day
Month
Year
Sighting
Track
Scat
Other
Remark
80
2
W128
58
Wild boar
29
8
2017
0
1
0
1
Wallow or saltlick
81
2
AA130
40
Wild boar
31
8
2017
1
0
0
1
Rooting
82
2
AB131
45
Wild boar
31
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Rooting
83
2
AA130
Siamang
31
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
84
2
AB131
Great argus
31
8
2017
0
0
0
1
Calling
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
35
Appendix V. Database of interview results in Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling 2017
No
Slot
Day
Month
Year
Time
Place
Occupation
Age
Place_birth
Sex
Livestock_type
1
1
2
8
2017
15:33
Tanjung Belit
Rubber farmer
25
Tanjung Belit
Male
3 Cows
2
1
3
8
2017
Duo Sepakat
Rubber farmer
32
Ludai
Male
8 chickens
3
1
31
7
2017
Tanjung Belit
Rubber farmer
55
Tanjung Belit
Male
5 chickens
4
1
3
8
2017
13:05
Koto Lama
Rubber farmer
45
Koto Lama
Male
5 chickens
5
1
3
8
2017
10:55
Koto Lama
Rubber farmer
35
Koto Lama
Male
No
6
1
6
8
2017
Tanjung Belit
Rubber farmer
47
Tanjung Belit
Female
No
7
1
6
8
2017
15:30
Tanjung Belit
Teacher
38
Tanjung Belit
Female
15 chickens
8
1
6
8
2017
15:00
Tanjung Belit
Rubber farmer
51
Gema
Male
No
9
1
8
8
2017
8:00
Muarabio
Rubber farmer
48
Muarabio
Male
Chicken
10
1
9
8
2017
11:35
Muarabio
Housewife and shop keeper
29
Batusanggan
Female
8 chickens
11
2
22
8
2017
Tanjung Belit
Rubber farmer
30
Tanjung Belit
Male
No
12
2
22
8
2017
Tanjung Belit
Logger
44
Tanjung Belit
Male
No
13
2
28
8
2017
13:00
Duo Sepakat
Teacher
38
Duo Sepakat
Male
No
14
2
30
8
2017
11:00
Batusanggan
Rubber farmer and brick maker
50
Batusanggan
Male
No
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
36
No
Slot
Name
Seen_tigers
When
Where
What
How_feel
1
1
Anonymous
No
2
1
Anonymous
Yes, sign
2 years
ago
3 hours from the village
Paw
Scared
3
1
Anonymous
Yes, seen
70's
Rubber plantation behind the hill
harvesting rattans
Scared
4
1
Anonymous
No
5
1
Anonymous
Yes
2004.
tracks 2017
Near the river
Crossed the river
Not really scared
6
1
Anonymous
No
7
1
Anonymous
No
8
1
Anonymous
Yes, seen signs
80's
Behind the village
Scared
9
1
Anonymous
Yes, seen tigers
2008
Sungai Sidu
Crossing the track
Scared, but tried to
be brave
10
1
Anonymous
No, never seen a tiger and signs
11
2
Anonymous
No, never seen a tiger and signs
12
2
Anonymous
Yes, seen a tiger and signs
3 years
ago
Koran hill
Real tiger
Scared
13
2
Anonymous
Yes, seen signs
5 years
ago
closed to ngungun village
14
2
Anonymous
Yes, seen signs
10 years
ago
Forest far away from the village
Paw
Scared
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
37
No
Slot
Name
When
Where
How_feel
Location
Impact
Good_country
1
1
Anonymous
Detrimental
Good
2
1
Anonymous
Detrimental
Good
3
1
Anonymous
Beneficial
Good
4
1
Anonymous
Detrimental
Good
5
1
Anonymous
2017
Medium
scared
About 12 min by boat from
the village upstream
Beneficial
Good
6
1
Anonymous
Detrimental
Bad
7
1
Anonymous
Detrimental
Bad
8
1
Anonymous
Detrimental
Good
9
1
Anonymous
Good
10
1
Anonymous
Beneficial
Bad
11
2
Anonymous
Beneficial
Good
12
2
Anonymous
Detrimental
Bad
13
2
Anonymous
Detrimental
Bad
14
2
Anonymous
Detrimental
Bad
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
38
No
Slot
Name
Tell_impact
Feel_tigers
Like_tigers
Attack_people
What_makes
Suggestions
1
1
Anonymous
He believes the myth if
you hear the sound of
the tiger they maybe is
in danger. Heard
sounds in 2008
My opinion between
tiger, it is equal.
When you take good
care of yourself, you
can take good care of
the environment
Like
No
2
1
Anonymous
Not sure
Scared when he goes
to the forest
sometimes
Neutral
No
Capture and move to other
areas
3
1
Anonymous
The tiger is the top
predator so it can
maintain ecosystem
Not scared
Neutral
Yes
Because people
enter tiger habitat
Local wisdom - sign tiger will
attack
4
1
Anonymous
Don't know
He is scared, tigers
scare people going
into the jungle to
collect rubber
Dislike
Yes
They have a myth:
if someone does
something bad then
a tiger attacks him
No
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
39
No
Slot
Name
Tell_impact
Feel_tigers
Like_tigers
Attack_people
What_makes
Suggestions
5
1
Anonymous
We have to protect
the village
Neutral
Yes
Don't know exactly
As long as we dont bother
them, they dont bother us
6
1
Anonymous
Only in the forest, far
away from the village
Scared because if
she saw tigers in the
plantation, would be
scared
Dislike
No
7
1
Anonymous
Tigers are their
ancestors. Tigers can
judge someone who
doing something wrong.
So, tiger presence
means someone is
doing something wrong
Scared
Dislike
Yes
Don't know, it was a long time ago
8
1
Anonymous
Not sure
Scared if tige near
village/ possibly as a
threat
Dislike
Yes
Because of
proximity to people
Increase awareness
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
40
No
Slot
Name
Tell_impact
Feel_tigers
Like_tigers
Attack_people
What_makes
Suggestions
9
1
Anonymous
If do something bad
Good things
Like
Yes
If you have a sign on the back troath
10
1
Anonymous
They belive tigers are
ancestors and tigers do
protect the village from
disasters
In general, she is
scared
Neutral
No
11
2
Anonymous
Respect to tigers
Believe tigers are
anchestors
Like
No
Tiger population has reduced,
less human contact
12
2
Anonymous
He works in the forest.
He is scared tigers
Scared about tigers
Dislike
Yes
His grandfather was attacked by a tiger in the 80's.
People enter tiger habitat
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
41
No
Slot
Name
Tell_impact
Feel_tigers
Like_tigers
Attack_people
What_makes
Suggestions
13
2
Anonymous
Tigers can scare
them to do their work
in the jungle
Dislike
No
No experience
14
2
Anonymous
Tigers scare local people whilst working in the
forest
Dislike
No
Tigers attacked people in the 80's, not anymore
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
42
No
Slot
Name
Frequent
How_many
Protected
Legally_
Potected
Tell_more
Reduce_
Large
If_yes
If_no
1
1
Anonymous
225 - 250
Yes
Yes
If the goverment
protects tigers and
elephants, they have to
cooperate wirh local
people in well
No
Because in
Tanjung
Belit, the
forest
offers so
much more
2
1
Anonymous
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Yes
Eating or hunting
3
1
Anonymous
Don't know
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Yes
Tigers eat them
4
1
Anonymous
No
2
Yes
Yes
They protect our
ecosystem
Yes
Don't know why
5
1
Anonymous
Yes
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Yes
Too many wild boars, if it is
not enough they would
attack humans, but there
are plenty of wild boars
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
43
No
Slot
Name
Frequent
How_many
Protected
Legally_
Potected
Tell_more
Reduce_
Large
If_yes
If_no
6
1
Anonymous
Dont know
Yes
No
Because they are
scared animal.
Sometimes scaring
people in plantations
Yes
Hunting them
7
1
Anonymous
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Tigers should be
protected
Yes
Hunting them
8
1
Anonymous
Yes
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Yes
9
1
Anonymous
Don't know
Dont know
Yes
Yes
No
10
1
Anonymous
Dont know
Yes
Don't know
She doesn't know
anything about the
protection of tigers
Yes
For food
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
44
No
Slot
Name
Frequent
How_many
Protected
Legally_
Potected
Tell_more
Reduce_
Large
If_yes
If_no
11
2
Anonymous
Don't know
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Believe tigers are their
legacy
Yes
Tigers eat them
12
2
Anonymous
Yes
Dont know
No
No
Tigers can kill livestock
and people
Yes
Tigers eat them
13
2
Anonymous
No
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Because they scared to
capture and the
government protects
tigers
Yes
Eat and kill
14
2
Anonymous
Dont know
Yes
Yes
Tigers are rare animals
Yes
Eat
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
45
No
Slot
Name
Reduce_small
If_yes
If_no
Feed_domestic
If_yes_livestocktype
1
1
Anonymous
Yes
Because there are a lot of mouse deer
No
2
1
Anonymous
No
Dont know
Yes
But this was a long time
ago
3
1
Anonymous
No
Not enough of meat
No
4
1
Anonymous
No
Because they eat wild boars
No
5
1
Anonymous
Yes
Eat it as prey species
Yes
Buffalo and goats, 20 yeras
ago
6
1
Anonymous
Yes
Eating small animals
Yes
A long time ago
7
1
Anonymous
No
Too small, not enough food for a tiger
No
8
1
Anonymous
Yes
Tigers hunt them
No
9
1
Anonymous
No
Not enough
Yes
Buffalo
10
1
Anonymous
No
No
11
2
Anonymous
No
Too small, not enough food for a tiger
No
12
2
Anonymous
Yes
Eating small animals
Yes
Cattle, buffalo, goat
13
2
Anonymous
Yes
Eating small animals
No
14
2
Anonymous
No
Too small
No
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
46
No
Slot
Attract_tourist
Poach_Tigers
How_why
Tourists
Influence_tigers
Discussion
1
1
Good
No
Good
It can be good for local people, especially
the local economy. Also, Tanjung Belit can
be a good place for tourists and visitors to
this place
His friend's story, They have seen
tigers outside Tanjung Belit two days
aaway from the village by walking
2
1
Good
Prey
poaching
With dogs, for food
Good
Not sure
3
1
Good
No
Because only in Indonesia you can see
tigers
4
1
Neutral
No
Good
Tourists are interested in seeing a tiger
because they are going to get extinct
5
1
Good
No
Good
6
1
Bad
Prey
poaching
Yes because of
crop raiding, wild
boar is a pest
animal
Bad
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
47
No
Slot
Attract_tourist
Poach_Tigers
How_why
Tourists
Influence_tigers
Discussion
7
1
Good
Prey
poaching
For consumption
Good
Because tiger is only in Sumatra so that
can attract tourist
Tigers should be protected as a rare
species and only a few left in the wild
8
1
Good
No
Don't know
Good
Because they are many in Indonesia
9
1
Good
Barking deer
for food
Good
Good for economy
10
1
Good
Only tiger
prey such as
barking deer
Snare trap and sell
meat for food,
many people are
bushmeat because
it is much cheaper
Good
Because most people love tigers
The main livelihood is from rubber and
they are not concerned about tigers
11
2
Good
No
Because tigers are charismatic animals
12
2
Good
Only tiger
prey such as
barking deer,
pigs
Nylon trap, eat
beef, use hunting
dogs
Good
It is positive to the villagers
He doesnt agree to the protection of
tigers. He wants the reserve to be
plantation area
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, Fran ce, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union fo r the Conservation of Nature
48
No
Slot
Attract_tourist
Poach_Tigers
How_why
Tourists
Influence_tigers
Discussion
13
2
Good
Only tiger
prey
Protect plantation,
place traps (nylon)
opportunistically
and occassionally
Good
Because foreigners do not have tigers and
to prove they exist
Believe tigers take the bad people
14
2
Good
No
Good
No idea
No
© Bios phere Expediti ons, an in ternational no t-for-profit conservation organisation registered in England, Germany, France, Australia and the USA
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the United Nations Environment P rogramme's Governing Council & Global Ministerial Environment Forum
Offici ally acc redited membe r of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature
49
Appendix VI: Expedition diary and reports
A multimedia expedition diary is available at
https://biosphereexpeditions.wordpress.com/category/expedition-
blogs/sumatra-2017/.
All expedition reports, including this and previous expedition reports,
are available at www.biosphere-expeditions.org/reports.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Managing the critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) needs accurate information on its abundance and availability of prey at the landscape level. Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve in central Sumatra represents an important area for tigers at local, regional and global levels. The area has been recognized as a long-term priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Solid baseline information on tigers and prey is fundamentally needed for the management. The objective of this study was to produce robust estimate of tiger density and prey a vailability in the reserve. We used camera traps to systematically collecting photographic samples of tigers and prey using Spatial Capture Recapture (SCR) framework. We estimated density for tigers and calculated trap success rate (TSR; independent pictures/100 trap nights) for main prey species. Three blocks in the reserve were sampled from 2012 to 2015 accumulating a total of 8,125 effective trap nights. We captured 14 tiger individuals including three cubs. We documented the highest density of tigers (individuals/100 km 2) in southern sampling block (based on traditional capture recapture (TCR) : 1.52 ± SE 0.55; based on Maximum Likelihood (ML) SCR:0.51 ± SE 0.22) and the lowest in northeastern sampling block (TCR: 0.77 ±SE 0.39; ML SCR: 0.19 ± SE 0.16). The highest TSR of main prey (large ungulates and primates) was in northeastern block (35.01 ± SD 8.67) and the lowest was in southern block (12.42 ± SD 2.91). The highest level of disturbance, as indicated by TSR of people, was in northeastern sampling block (5.45 ± SD 5.64) and the lowest in southern (1.26 ± SD 2.41). The results suggested that human disturbance strongly determine the density of tigers in the area, more than prey availability. To recover tigers, suggested strategies include controlling human disturbance and poaching to the lowest possible level in addition to maintaining main prey availability.
Research
Full-text available
Abstract Biosphere Expeditions and WWF Indonesia ran their second joint expedition with volunteers in and around Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling Wildlife Reserve (BRBBWR), Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, from 17 July to 12 August 2016. The expedition study was a follow-up of the previous study in 2015, with the tiger and its habitat as the focal point, including prey species and species that contribute to information on tiger habitat quality, or human disturbance of these. In an effort to support tiger conservation in BRBBWR, the objectives of this activity were (1) to conduct long-term tiger and habitat monitoring in locations of high human disturbance along the Subayang river and (2) to involve and engage with local communities in order to raise their awareness of and support for tiger and habitat conservation. Surveys were conducted on foot or by boat, covering BRBBWR along the Subayang river, which served as a convenient travel route and access point for survey teams. The methods employed to record species (mammals and large birds) involved recording species presence-absence and frequency of individuals in a grid of 2x2 km cells by means such as signs, sightings and calls. Camera traps were also employed to record species presence. The study was designed to compare the presence of species in cells with and without villages in order to investigate whether village presence had any influence on species distribution in the forest. Sixteen cells were surveyed, seven were non-village cells and nine were village cells. In total, thirteen wildlife species (including water buffalo) in four mammal genera were recorded, plus two large bird species. Except for the wild boar Sus scrofa, the sun bear Helarctos malayanus and the water buffalo, all species had very low scores (≤ 5 of presence in cells). This hampered any further analysis. The water buffalo and wild boar were found to be evenly distributed in village and non-village cells. The sun bear, considered Vulnerable (VU) by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature), was the only species that displayed a noticeably higher presence value in non-village cells, suggesting a certain degree of avoidance of human presence. The number of independent pictures recorded by camera traps was ≥ 5 for humans (n=23), mouse deer Tragulus sp. (n=7), wild boars (n=6), pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina (n=11) and common porcupine Hystrix brachyura (n=9). The pig-tailed macaque, listed as Vulnerable (VU) by the IUCN, was camera-trapped more often in village cells (n=8), than in non-village cells (n=3). The Endangered (EN) gibbon Hylobates agilis and the siamang Symphalangus syndactylus were present, but infrequently recorded. The presence of these species suggests that villagers have a relatively high tolerance towards them and also towards other species such as the crop-rading wild boars and sun bears. Four recognised mammalian prey species for tiger were recorded during the expedition, namely the barking deer Muntiacus muntjak, the sambar deer Rusa unicolor, pig-tailed macaque and wild boar. The common porcupine and two birds, the crested partridge Rollulus rouloul and the great argus pheasant Argusianus argus, may occasionally be taken by tigers, and all of them were recorded at low rates. The presence of all these species, including known tiger prey, is thought to be beneficial to tiger presence, although none were recorded by the expedition. However, a large proportion of villagers interviewed (n=16) have reportedly seen tigers (25%) and tiger tracks (38%) during their lifetimes. Most villagers were scared (72%) or slightly scared (14%) of tigers and as a result a majority (69%) had a negative opinion of tiger presence. However, most interviewees recognised the importance of tigers for the country (61%) and for tourism (81%), and understood that they should be protected (>80%). During the survey, snares installed for tiger prey were found in 14% of 16 grid cells sampled and shotguns were heard. Four schools (three elementary schools and one junior high school) were visited, involving 158 pupils in presentations as well as talks about tiger and general conservation. Abstrak Biosphere Expeditions dan WWF Indonesia menyelenggarakan ekspedisi kedua mereka bersama para sukarelawan di Suaka Margasatwa Bukit Rimbang Bukit Baling (SMBRBB), Provinsi Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, dari tanggal 17 Juli hingga 12 Agustus 2016. Studi ekspedisi ini adalah sebagai sebuah tindak lanjut dari studi sebelumnya di tahun 2015 dengan harimau dan habitatnya sebagai poin utama termasuk satwa mangsa dan satwa lain yang berkontribusi pada kualitas habitat harimau atau gangguan manusia. Dalam sebuah usaha untuk mendukung upaya konservasi harimau di SMBRBB, tujuan dari studi ini adalah (1) melakukan pemantauan jangka panjang untuk harimau dan habitatnya di lokasi – lokasi dengan gangguan manusia tinggi sepanjang sungai Subayang dan (2) melibatkan masyarakat lokal untuk meningkatkan kesadartahuan mereka dan mendukung untuk upaya konservasi harimau dan habitatnya. Beberapa survai dilakukan dengan berjalan kaki atau berperahu, mencakup sepanjang sungai Subayang yang dapat diakses secara mudah oleh tim – tim survai. Metode ini digunakan untuk merekam spesies (mamalia dan burung – burung besar) termasuk merekam kehadiran-ketidakhadiran (presence-absence) spesies dan frekuensi individu – individu spesies dalam grid sel pemantauan 2x2 km melalui perjumpaan langsung maupun tanda keberadaan seperti jejak, suara, dsb. Kamera penjebak juga digunakan untuk merekam keberadaan satwaliar. Studi ini didesain untuk membandingkan keberadaan spesies di grid – grid dengan dan tanpa keberadaan desa untuk mengetahui apakah keberadaan desa memiliki pengaruh terhadap persebaran satwaliar. Enam belas grid sel tersurvai, tujuh dimana tanpa desa dan sembilan berdesa. Keseluruhan, tiga belas spesies satwaliar (termasuk kerbau) dalam empat genus mamalia dan aves terekam, ditambah dua spesies burung besar. Kecuali babi hutan Sus scrofa, beruang madu Helarctos malayanus dan kerbau, seluruh spesies memiliki skor kehadiran rendah (≤ 5 grid sel) pada grid sel tersurvei. Dengan data yang minim, menghambat analisis data. Kerbau dan babi hutan terekam pada seluruh sel baik berdesa maupun tanpa desa. Beruang madu dengan status Vulnerable (VU) berdasarkan IUCN, adalah spesies yang dapat terlihat jelas kehadirannya lebih tinggi di grid sel tanpa desa, kemungkinan menghindari keberadaan manusia. Jumlah dari gambar independen terekam kamera penjebak dengan jumlah ≥ 5 gambar independen untuk manusia (n=23), kancil Trangulus sp. (n=7), babi hutan (n=6), monyet beruk Macaca nemestrina (n=11) dan landak Hystrix brachyura (n=9). Monyet beruk, terdaftar sebagai Vurnerable (VU) di IUCN terekam kamera penjebak lebih sering di grid sel berdesa (n=8) daripada tanpa desa (n=3). Owa ungko Hylobates agilis terdaftar Endangered (EN) atau terancam oleh IUCN dan siamang Symphalangus syndactylus juga hadir selama survai, namun sangat jarang terekam. Kehadiran dari spesies – spesies memberikan kesan bahwa keberadaan desa – desa secara relatif bertoleransi tinggi terhadap mereka dan juga terhadap spesies lain seperti babi hutan dan beruang madu. Empat satwa dikenal sebagai mangsa harimau terekam selama ekspedisi ini yaitu kijang Muntiacus muntjak, rusa sambar Rusa unicolor, monyet beruk, dan babi hutan. Landak dan dua spesies burung besar, burungpuyuh sengayan Rollulus rouloul dan burung kuau Argusianus argus mungking secara terkadang termangsa oleh harimau dan semua spesies yang terekam dengan nilai rendah. Kehadiran dari spesies – spesies tersebut, termasuk satwa mangsa harimau, diperkirakan memberikan dampak baik pada kehadiran harimau meskipun beberapa diantara mereka tidak terekam selama ekspedisi ini. Selain itu, dari jumlah masyarakat lolal terwawancara (n=16) memiliki laporan pernah melihat harimau (25%) dan jejak harimau (38%) seumur hidup mereka. Umumnya masyarakat mengalami ketakutan (72%) or sedikit takut (14%) dan sebagai hasil, mayoritas (69%) memiliki pendapat negatif terhadap keberadaan harimau. Akantetapi, umumnya, masyarakat lokal terwawancara mengetahui pentingnya keberadaan harimau untuk negara (61%) dan untuk kunjungan wisata (81%), dan seharusnya harimau dilindungi (>80%). Selama survai, jerat mangsa harimau ditemukan di 14% dari 16 grid tersurvei dan suara tembakan kemungkinan perburuan didengar. Empat sekolah (tiga sekolah tingkat dasar dan satu sekolah tingkat menengah pertama) dikunjungi dengan melibatkan 158 murid keseluruhan dalam presentasi – presentasi dan pengajaran tentang harimau dan konservasi secara umum.