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Yael Guilat (2020), ART-MEMORY: The case of AMIA bombings as a continuous and unresolved memorializing process in Buenos Aires, Argentina, through the Visual Culture perspective, Dvarim, 13, 249-289 להחזיק את הזיכרון: פיגוע טרור ב-AMIA, בואנוס איירס, ארגנטינה, 1994 - מקומן של התערבויות אומנותיות מוזמנות בהבניית זיכרון כאירוע מתמשך

Authors:

Abstract

In July 18, 1994, 85 people were killed when a car-bomb destroyed the core of AMIA, the Argentine Jewish Mutual Ais Association in Buenos Aires, two years after the bombing of the Israeli embassy there. One attack after another addressing issues of transnational terrorism Middle East based and marked the Argentine Jewry as a distinct minority. Until today, all the judicial questions in the wake of the bombing are still open. The lack of justice engendered the fusion of memory and protest against impunity. Different civil groups in parallel to the AMIA devoted to this aim. A complex process of grass-roots, semi-official and official collective memory construction took place in the public space. This article based on the perspective of Visual Culture, focuses on the way that AMIA uses Art interventions in the daily public space related to the attack and asks how it serves the institution in order to play its role as a memory and protest agent among the Jewish community and Argentinian memory discourse. Focusing on the memorial site at the subway station, which redesigned by caricature cartoons, and graffiti works on the walls of the docks, aisles, and access stairs, and an adjacent interpretative center , I argue that the use, sometimes conflicting, sometimes complementary, of Jewish (and Israeli) models of commemoration ( and protest) and those from the Argentine visual culture seem not only to reflect the status of the Jewish community in Argentina as a minority but also to be a case study of the complex relationship between memory, protest and memorialization.
   AMIA 
      


1 
        
   AMIA(Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina

        
   
      
     
    
      
    
     

   (Nisman
  AMIA   
     



250
 AMIA       
     
Menem
        

1

       
     

2

    
3
  
   AMIA   

           

     
 
        
   
       

4

       
 
        
     AMIA 
         

   (Kapszuck)  
Espacio AMIAAMIAAMIA
1
           
Gurevitz
& Escudé, 2003; Feldstein & Acosta-Alzuru, 2003
2
y, 2015kLevine & Zaretz
3
Alzuru, 2003-Acosta& Feldstein
4

                                     
251
     

  


  
   AMIA       
        
AMIA     Station of memory  

 AMIA      

2 
AMIA
AMIAAsociación Mutual Israelita Argentina

     
 

     
  
5
 


AMIA
-
5
          
           
        
191,400
(Della-Pergola, 2008)
 273,400   


252

           

6

- Once - 
           
   AMIA    

        
  DAIA (Delegación Asociaciones Israelitas Argentinas)
   IWO        


AMIA


7


        
-
8


Nunca Más"
          
.AMIA 
6
Sadow, 2015
7
 
 AMIA  .(Todos somos AMIA)     
El día de los paraguas)Cohen,
2009: 28
8

          
    La Junta Terror Estatal 
         
      .(Marchak, 1999)   
 (Verbitsky, 1996)  
        (La Guerra de las Malvinas
Las Malvinas   .
         
(Marchak, 1999)
                                     
253
 

9


AMIA
    SIDE
  
     
10
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AMIA DAIA


    DAIA
11
 
 DAIA
        
        

12
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
-  
 Lavalle)    

9
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Cohen 2009 Gurevitz & Escudé, 2003 Levine & Zaretzky, 2015 -Feldstein & Acosta
Alzurú, 2003
10

             
       

11
   
(Galeano) 
          
AMIAUFI AMIA
   
11

DAIA
12
     
    
 
    
    
     
Macri

254
(Plaza de la Justicia
Memoria Activa" 
         

AMIA
   "grassroots movement
13
 
  AMIA      
         
 -     
  
Abuelas
de Mayo
14



    
Familiares y Amigos de las Victimas

          
          
AMIA
    
DAIA(Ruben Baraja
13
2015 ,ykZaretz &Levine
14
            
Gurevich, 2005
                                     
255

15

   
16
     
A.P.E.M.I.A.
17

 

    AMIA   
 DAIA-        
    
  (Szmulewicz)

            
       

18
     AMIA
  

      

      
  
      
(Plaza Lavalle)
 Subway Station AMIA-Pasteur
633 Pasteur St.
 (Clinicas Hospital)
  (El Corredor de la Memoria)   
         Once 
      AMIA 
15
Cohen, 2009 ;Gurevich, 2005 ;Gurevitz & Escudé, 2003 ;Rein, 2010
16
         ursteinB  
AMIAJ
https://www.gacetamercantil.com/notas/18263
17
A.P.E.M.I.A, 2020
18
Cohen & García Cano ,2014

256
      
19

(Revista El Abasto, 2019)
-
;ClinicasAMIA-
Pasteur

     
       
AMIA
  AMIA  AMIA
AMIA
     
20
   
          
  AMIA

19
Telam, 2020
20
-Feldstein & Acosta ;Gurevitz & Escudé, 2003; Cohen, 2009 ;, 2015retzkyZaLevine &
Alzuru, 2003
                                     
257
         
   
(DAIA
           
         
,AMIA

  
AMIA-Pasteur
   

3 
  
        
         
   
21
   
          Rose

  
22
         
      
23
  
         

24

   
25
     

26

          

21

22
Rose, 2007
23
258: Ibid
24

25

26


258

   
(Lefevbre)
        
        

           
 
27
        
AMIA 

         

         
AMIA-

(Barthesיגולותימתו
 

28




29
"Grassroots shrines."
   
   
30
     
      
      
     

31

27
52, 11641: Lefebvre, 1991[1974]
28

29
2011 ,rreteroMargry & Ca
30
2013 Battiti, ;, 2019ćMiloševi
31
2018, Doving
                                     
259
   
  
32
(Halbwachs) 



 
33
 
34
    
      
    
35
 counter memory
        
 
   
36

      
      AMIA  
 

   

37


        
38
 
        
  
         

39
    
     
32
]19251992[ Halbwachs,
33

34
Finkelstein, 2000
35
Finkelstein, 2000
36
  (Young          
              
Foucault, 1980; Young, 1999
37

38

39
Rothberg, 2009

260
     
    
    

4 
 
40

           
          

41
 Relics
42

        
        

       
        
         
          
          
 

43
40

(Schapiro)   AMIA    La
Tablada           
  Lavalle
 
  (Kupferminc      
 
               
   
-
41
Toser & Weinstein, 2005
42
Lutz, 2011
43
Aizenberg, 2015
                                     
261
-     
     AMIA 
AMIA


AMIA(Espacio Artístico AMIA  
    

      

44

        

         
   
44
171: Wohl, 2015

262
 
45

       

" Artememoria  
46
 
Impunity-Impunidad

47


 

AMIA      
    
48
    
      AMIA
           
    (Memoria Activa)
A.P.E.M.I.A

AMIA
       
(Brodsky)

        
   A AMIA   
   ata(Río de La Pl   
49
  
      

AMIA
      
   
45
s, 1966Yate
46

47
Battiti, Octubre 2013
48
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1m9qaB27R5dl4WuUnP2yUKYReGf0brmm1/view?usp=sharing
49
 la MemoriaParque de         

http://parquedelamemoria.org.ar/
                                     
263
  Recoleta   
(Rojas - 
 (Falta Compartida)    

50

Falta Compartida
         
         

51


  ,(ready-made) "   
 

52
  


 AMIA
Memoria
Ilustrada   Historieta    
50
Mazzei, 2019
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
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

264

53
 AMIA 
        
           
     
54
   
 
 
55


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AMIA
         
            

 Memoria Ilustrada 
           
AMIA-Pasteur

           
 
53
Steimberg, 2013
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
55
            
Clarin  AMIA      

-Nelly
Langer-Mira
56
 

   
Atocha Kailuweit &
Quintana, 2020
                                     
265
          
    
57
  
        
MAUS
(Spiegelman)   
            
        
        
        
      AMIA   
  Memoria Ilustrada  AMIA-Pasteur
          


       
       
        

58


       
59




         
    
        
60
 
          
          
57
Jenkins, 2020
58

59
07Rose, 20
60
1974 ,Lefebvre, 1991

266
 AMIA 

  

AMIA
            
         
61
  
AMIA

     AMIA 

         
.
62

(De Certau
    


63
 
           
       
) Clínicas 
       UBA
Clarín    La Nación  
       
       
          
       

61
Rothberg, 2009
62
Movement Situationism     
 (Debord)

63

                                     
267

      
        
        
 
 
64
   
Caldirola תונגהו םידומעPilotes y defensas





65
 
   

(participatory art) "Escombros"

64
Kapszuck, 2011
65
Levine, 2015

268
ESCOMBROSParticipatory art



     escombros
        
    Escombros”


AMIA     
 
66


67



66

67
Rothberg, 2009
                                     
269

    usticiaJ
(Impunity
    
     
     
       
   
      
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
         
Memo-test"      
  AMIA   



        


            

          
        
       AMIA 

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270

     
68
 

        
        
     
69
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La Memoria Gieco
70
   

AMIA 



           

 AMIA  
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        
           
        
Resolution UDHR 2004/72 
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AMIAhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXQWdOWq_x0
             
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9JeJS5FtGCw
                                     
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           

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
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 
        AMIA
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   
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   
    
        
           

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
   
     
        
       

       


 
  

75
71

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Lefebvre, (1991[1974]
73
07Rose, 20
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
75
a, 2017Murales por la Memori

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-AMIA
Clinicas


           

76
 


        
         
      
          
RecoletaAMIA


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
        
  Corredor de la Memoria 
76
    
             
    Aizenberg,
2015     
          
      
           
       
(El muro de la memoria, 2018)
77
]Lefebvre, 1991[1974
                                     
273
AMIA
78
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5 
AMIA-Pasteur
      
   


       
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  
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AMIA-Pasteur
 
      Pasteur   
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         
           
 Estación de la
Memoria  .AMIA   
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80
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AMIADAIA
AMIA      SBASE
81
 
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        
,AMIA-         
A.I.M.E.P.A  
82
 
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       
             
     AMIA
       
84
     
AMIA 
     
   

      
UmschlagplatzBahnhof RadegastGrunewald S-Bahn 
Antocha         
        


85
      
            

Place attachment
86

(Grass-roots)
shrines bereavement’s
87
    
   
88
   
          

        
           
83

84
Amia, 2014-Sbase
85
Amstrong, 2011
86
, 2010Scannell & Gifford
87
, 2017ćMiloševi
88


276



          


  
     Darío Santillán y
Maximiliano Kosteki        
Darío y Maxi 
 

Derechos Humanos 2020      


        
 
 AMIA
        
  AMIA
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  Memoria Ilustrada)   
        
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
AMIA


         
            
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CEO Caloi Crist, Fontanarrosa, Sandra   Tute, Liniers,
Corne    
   
(Gociol & Rosemberg, 2000)
                                     
277
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90





 over-allalimpsestp
    
        


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AMIA-Pasteur
AMIA
            
           


         
          

92

90
Cascioli, 2006
91
2016 ,Kapszuk & Scherman
92
41-40 :Ibid

278
AMIA-Pasteur
AMIA

93

AMIA
          
   


AMIA-Pasteur 

AMIA
     
    
93
Amia, 2014-Sbase
                                     
279
     


AMIA-Pasteur
 
    AMIA
Langer
     
             

      



(MilayoAMIA 
 Hiroshima stopped clock)
Campos

   
(Hiroshima Peace Clock
          
   

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280
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

        


  
      
       
     
    

94


94


                                     
281


AMIA
95


 
         
     

96
6 
 
AMIA     
        
AMIA

         
       

     AMIA
        

95
    
AMIA  

96

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282
AMIA 

        
    

          

AMIA


 
        AMIA
       
      

97

 
   AMIA
        
     
     
         
   AMIADAIA    

 AMIA
      
          
   

AMIA
           

       
97

                                     
283
AMIA

            


            

AMIA 
AMIA

         
         

        
        


      


         
  Escombros       
 Trafic 



          
           

         
AMIA


284

98

          
           
 
        

AMIA-Pasteur
 
        




           

        
           
          

          

       
          

       
      

  ,AMIA     

98
Finkelstein, 2000
                                     
285

         





         
 -
 
      

 


.
          
-
         
--
-
 .
 
http://bezalel.secured.co.il/zope/home/he/1252746792/1253044477
Aizenberg, E. (2015). Remembering the AMIA bombing: The mothers of Pasteur Street and
Stones of Memory. In: E. Aizenberg & N. Zaretzky (Eds.),
Landscape of memory and
impunity, The aftermath of AMIA bombing in Jewish Argentina
(pp. 74-75). Leiden:
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A.P.E.M.I.A 
Basta de impunidad y encubrimiento
. Retrieved 5/2/2020 from APEMIA:
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Las Muestras de Arte Visuales en los Espacios de Memoria <