Ultrasound examination is a broadly available method that can also be used in diagnosing locomotor system disorders. Elastography is one of the more recent ultrasound techniques that is currently most utilized in diagnosing pathologies of the liver, thyroid gland, breast, and prostate. Over the past several years, numerous studies have emerged in which the authors measured the elasticity of the locomotor system tissues. Both functional and structural disorders of the locomotor system are known to often cause changes in tissue stiffness that can vary depending on the current state. These changes could previously be detected only by palpation, which, opposed to elastography, did not provide objective data. There is still a lack of guidelines defining the methodol-ogy of examining particular structures in the locomotor system. Ultrasound elastography could contribute to better understanding of the function of the locomotor system, diagnosis of its pathologies, or the assessment of therapy efficacy, for example in rehabilitation. © 2020, Czech Medical Association J.E. Purkyne. All rights reserved.