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Coordinate systems and projections

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... The Kalman filter was used to fuse data between the IMU and the GPS for the purpose of localization, therefore the results will be about the position change in the three axis of the world frame (XYZ). The coordinates used are the planar ones after applying the Mercator conversion from geographic to planar coordinates [51]. ...
Thesis
In today’s world, CO2 emissions have become a serious problem to which the transport sector contributes significantly through hydrocarbon-based vehicles. To help mitigate these emissions, the European Union aims to decrease GHG emissions by 40% by the year 2030 [1]. Shifting to electrical vehicles is then a great solution for the transport sector and especially E-bikes for reducing motorized road traffic in urban cities. The work of this dissertation aims to build an e-bike system capable of improving the cycling experience making it a more attractive alternative to cars in urban cities. A general literature review is conducted about e-bike systems, control and energy management techniques. On the other hand, this study addresses the localization aspect taking into consideration data fusion methods to provide more precision. The work includes the instrumentation of the bicycle as well as data acquisition and processing in LabVIEW, the control of electrical assistance and EKF-based data fusion between the GPS and the IMU in MATLAB for the localization part. The developed system was tested in a trip and the results showed that the system ensures adaptive assistance to the rider, which enhances the cycling experience and improves battery autonomy by at least 27%. In addition, the data fusion between the GPS and the IMU provides accurate and continuous positioning.
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Objectives The Colorado BMI Monitoring System was developed to assess geographic (ie, census tract) patterns of obesity prevalence rates among children and adults in the Denver-metropolitan region. This project also sought to assess the feasibility of a surveillance system that integrates data across multiple health care and governmental organizations. Materials and Methods We extracted data on height and weight measures, obtained through routine clinical care, from electronic health records (EHRs) at multiple health care sites. We selected sites from 5 Denver health care systems and collected data from visits that occurred between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. We produced shaded maps showing observed obesity prevalence rates by census tract for various geographic regions across the Denver-metropolitan region. Results We identified clearly distinguishable areas by higher rates of obesity among children than among adults, with several pockets of lower body mass index. Patterns for adults were similar to patterns for children: the highest obesity prevalence rates were concentrated around the central part of the metropolitan region. Obesity prevalence rates were moderately higher along the western and northern areas than in other parts of the study region. Practice Implications The Colorado BMI Monitoring System demonstrates the feasibility of combining EHRs across multiple systems for public health and research. Challenges include ensuring de-duplication across organizations and ensuring that geocoding is performed in a consistent way that does not pose a risk for patient privacy.
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This article presents the application of augmented reality through the use of devices in the valorisation of the geological heritage of six known geosites of the Jurassic or Cretaceous age, located in the SouthEast (SE) of the province of Burgos (Castilla y León, Spain). Using augmented reality techniques, geomatic resources have been developed that allow real-time interaction with different thematic layers (e.g., cartography, digital terrain model, etc.). Using these techniques, this paper proposes a virtual route in Google Earth and a Field Trip Guide with a detailed description of each site and suggested activities for educational use and one free geoapp. These geosites comprise three zones with deposits of dinosaur ichnites and three other sectors with marine fossils (Jurassic limestones), fossil trees, or singular karstic landscapes. The globalization of geodatabases allows the intelligent use of geo-resources and their use for tourism, didactic and scientific purposes.
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This paper describes a study of the evaluation of cartographic quality of urban plans in the Czech Republic using eye-tracking. Although map visualization is a crucial part of the urban planning process, only a few studies have focused on the evaluation of these maps. The plans of four Czech cities with different styles of visualization and legends were used in this eye-tracking experiment. Respondents were required to solve spatial tasks consisting of finding and marking a certain symbol on a map. Statistical analyses of various eye-tracking metrics were used, and the differences between experts and students and between the map and legend sections of the stimuli were explored. The study results showed that the quality of map symbols and the map legend significantly influence the legibility and understandability of urban plans. For correct decision-making, it is essential to produce maps according to certain standards, to make them as clear as possible, and to perform usability testing on them.
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In this article, a case is made to reconceptualise archaeological cartography from a performative perspective. Through such a discussion the aim is not only to render archaeology an active part in related multidisciplinary discussions within the field of critical mapping but also to open up possibilities for alternative mapping practices in the discipline. While pursuing this reconceptualisation, I first discuss how to rethink maps as performances. Subsequently, I present understanding archaeological maps as performances as a way to create alternatives to representational modes of thinking. Finally, I stress the timeliness of reconceptualising maps as performances in digital age.
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Dot mapping is a traditional method for visualizing quantitative data, but current automated dot mapping techniques are limited. The most common automated method places dots pseudo-randomly within enumeration areas, which can result in overlapping dots and very dense dot clusters for areas with large values. These issues affect users’ ability to estimate values. Graduated dot maps use dots with different sizes that represent different values. With graduated dot maps the number of dots on a map is smaller, reducing the likelihood of overlapping dots. This research introduces an automated method of generating graduated dot maps that arranges dots with blue-noise patterns to avoid overlap and uses clustering algorithms to replace densely packed dots with those of larger sizes. A user study comparing graduated dot maps, pseudo-random dot maps, blue-noise dot maps, and proportional circle maps with almost 300 participants was conducted. Results indicate that map users can more accurately extract values from graduated dot maps than from the other map types. This is likely due to the smaller number of dots per enumeration area in graduated dot maps. Map users also appear to prefer graduated dot maps over other map types.
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Origin-destination flow maps are often difficult to read due to overlapping flows. Cartographers have developed design principles in manual cartography for origin-destination flow maps to reduce overlaps and increase readability. These design principles are identified and documented using a quantitative content analysis of 97 geographic origin-destination flow maps without branching or merging flows. The effectiveness of selected design principles is verified in a user study with 215 participants. Findings show that (a) curved flows are more effective than straight flows, (b) arrows indicate direction more effectively than tapered line widths, and (c) flows between nodes are more effective than flows between areas. These findings, combined with results from user studies in graph drawing, conclude that effective and efficient origin-destination flow maps should be designed according to the following design principles: overlaps between flows are minimized; symmetric flows are preferred to asymmetric flows; longer flows are curved more than shorter or peripheral flows; acute angles between crossing flows are avoided; sharp bends in flow lines are avoided; flows do not pass under unconnected nodes; flows are radially distributed around nodes; flow direction is indicated with arrowheads; and flow width is scaled with represented quantity.
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Flame and Fortune in the American West creatively and meticulously investigates the ongoing politics, folly, and avarice shaping the production of increasingly widespread yet dangerous suburban and exurban landscapes. The 1991 Oakland Hills Tunnel Fire is used as a starting point to better understand these complex social-environmental processes. The Tunnel Fire is the most destructive fire—in terms of structures lost—in California history. More than 3,000 residential structures burned and 25 lives were lost. Although this fire occurred in Oakland and Berkeley, others like it sear through landscapes in California and the American West that have experienced urban growth and development within areas historically prone to fire. Simon skillfully blends techniques from environmental history, political ecology, and science studies to closely examine the Tunnel Fire within a broader historical and spatial context of regional economic development and natural-resource management, such as the widespread planting of eucalyptus trees as an exotic lure for homeowners and the creation of hillside neighborhoods for tax revenue—decisions that produced communities with increased vulnerability to fire. Simon demonstrates how in Oakland a drive for affluence led to a state of vulnerability for rich and poor alike that has only been exacerbated by the rebuilding of neighborhoods after the fire. Despite these troubling trends, Flame and Fortune in the American West illustrates how many popular and scientific debates on fire limit the scope and efficacy of policy responses. These risky yet profitable developments (what the author refers to as the Incendiary), as well as proposed strategies for challenging them, are discussed in the context of urbanizing areas around the American West and hold global applicability within hazard-prone areas.
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The labelling problem has been central in the framework of automated cartography. The quality and efficiency of label placement have great influences on the expression and understanding of maps. Although many algorithms have been developed to address the labelling problems of point features, very little work has been directed towards those of line or area features. Owing to the weakness of these approaches, the label quality rules of line or area features were reconsidered and strengthened based on the cognizance of cartographers. Such rules should be separate from the labelling algorithms to be appropriate for the program’s flexibility. A new grid algorithm, in contrast to traditional vector-based methods, is proposed. For the line feature, the cells passed by a line are computed, and their parallel cells are selected as the bottom of the text. For the area feature, a maximal inclusive rectangle is searched for the numerical label of its corresponding polygon (area), the midpoint of which is considered the potential position. A test program was developed and shows that the algorithm is simple and appropriate. The efficiency of the algorithm is closely related to the cell density.
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Maps are a crucial asset in communicating climate science to a diverse audience, and there is a wealth of software available to analyse and visualise climate information. However, this availability makes it easy to create poor maps as users often lack an underlying cartographic knowledge. Unlike traditional cartography, where many known standards allow maps to be interpreted easily, there is no standard mapping approach used to represent uncertainty (in climate or other information). Consequently, a wide range of techniques have been applied for this purpose, and users may spend unnecessary time trying to understand the mapping approach rather than interpreting the information presented. Furthermore, communicating and visualising uncertainties in climate data and climate change projections, using for example ensemble based approaches, presents additional challenges for mapping that require careful consideration. The aim of this paper is to provide background information and guidance on suitable techniques for mapping climate variables, including uncertainty. We assess a range of existing and novel techniques for mapping variables and uncertainties, comparing "intrinsic" approaches that use colour in much the same way as conventional thematic maps with "extrinsic" approaches that incorporate additional geometry such as points or features. Using cartographic knowledge and lessons learned from mapping in different disciplines we propose the following 6 general mapping guidelines to develop a suitable mapping technique that represents both magnitude and uncertainty in climate data: – use a sensible sequential or diverging colour scheme; – use appropriate colour symbolism if it is applicable; – ensure the map is usable by colour blind people; – use a data classification scheme that does not misrepresent the data; – use a map projection that does not distort the data – attempt to be visually intuitive to understand. Using these guidelines, we suggest an approach to map climate variables with associated uncertainty, that can be easily replicated for a wide range of climate mapping applications. It is proposed this technique would provide a consistent approach suitable for mapping information for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5).
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This paper considers what is at stake in defining and mapping protected areas for conservation. We link issues of power in cartography to themes from political ecology, social natures, and conservation biology literatures to extend our understanding of maps as reflective of, and productive of, power. Reviewing insights from these literatures to consider power asymmetries common to conservation practice, we highlight ways that mapping practices and products reinforce and contribute to such dynamics. Doing so enriches consideration of the power geometries of conservation cartographies by inviting fuller consideration of diverse species and landscapes, as well as enabling discussion of other representational and productive effects of conservation mappings. Once determined, how might conservation maps serve to naturalize certain spaces or boundaries as fixed, or contribute to certain socio-psychological understandings of conservation possibilities or outcomes? In the closing sections, we invoke the idea of 'counter-mapping' to explore strategies that might redress these concerns. Possibilities range from efforts to adapt the form of protected areas to more critical approaches that question the appropriateness of territorial focus and mapping practices for conservation goals. In conclusion, we argue that theorizing power in human, other-than-human, and inter-species contexts is essential to understanding the power geometries of conservation mapping.
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This article reports on a semi-structured interview study with 21 geospatial professionals to provide a contemporary snapshot of expert opinion on the design and use of interactive maps and map-based systems (treated together as "cartographic interfaces"). Interview questions were based on key themes regarding interaction discussed within cartography and across the related fields of human-computer interaction, information visualization, usability engineering, and visual analytics, enabling a comparison of the current states of science and practice regarding user interface (UI) and user experience (UX) design in cartography. The results are organized according to five broad topics germane to UI/UX design in cartography: (1) the meaning of cartographic interaction in both research and practice (what? ), (2) the purpose of cartographic interaction and the value it provides (why? ), (3) the times when interaction positively supports work/play and therefore should be provided (when?), (4) the way in which user differences impact the success of the cartographic interaction (who?), and (5) the opportunities for or limitations on cartographic interaction imposed by the computing device supporting the interaction (where? ). The interview study is significant for two reasons: first, it charts current trends in interactive mapping from the perspective of expert professionals, a population often missed in quantitative cartographic scholarship, and, second, it enables a reflection on future trends in UI/UX design in cartography, both those resulting from existing gaps between science and practice and those arising from emerging conceptual and technological developments.
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Volcanic hazard maps inform the public on the nature and extent of the hazards that threaten them, but these maps are often challenging for those who are not trained in map use or geology. This study focuses on hazard maps showing lahars—a dangerous, fast, and far-reaching volcanic hazard that can be avoided through preemptive evacuation or escaped with sufficient warning and awareness of affected areas. We evaluate the effectiveness of conventional contour lines versus 3D perspective maps for relief representation and the effectiveness of point markers versus isochrones (lines of equal time delay) for the visualization of lahar travel time. Four maps, each with a unique combination of these variables, were tested in a user study at Mount Hood, Oregon, USA. Each participant was given one of the maps and assigned tasks concerning: (1) terrain interpretation, (2) estimation of lahar travel times, and (3) selection of evacuation routes. Participants were then shown all four maps and asked to indicate which design they liked best and worst for each task. Thirty-four pilot surveys and 80 regular surveys were conducted. Participants clearly preferred the 3D isochrone map the most and the 2D point marker map the least for all tasks. Participants were better able to interpret terrain on the 3D maps and selected better evacuation routes on 3D maps. Participants showed similar performance with point markers and isochrones when reading lahar travel times. These findings suggest that 3D maps are better suited to communicate volcanic hazards than traditional contour maps.
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Cartograms are maps in which areas of geographic regions (countries, states) appear in proportion to some variable of interest (population, income). Cartograms are popular visualizations for geo-referenced data that have been used for over a century and that make it possible to gain insight into patterns and trends in the world around us. Despite the popularity of cartograms and the large number of cartogram types, there are few studies evaluating the effectiveness of cartograms in conveying information. Based on a recent task taxonomy for cartograms, we evaluate four major different types of cartograms: contiguous, non-contiguous, rectangular, and Dorling cartograms. Specifically, we evaluate the effectiveness of these cartograms by quantitative performance analysis, as well as by subjective preferences. We analyze the results of our study in the context of some prevailing assumptions in the literature of cartography and cognitive science. Finally, we make recommendations for the use of different types of cartograms for different tasks and settings.
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Dot mapping is a cartographic representation method to visualise discrete absolute values and their spatial distribution. To achieve this, dots equal in size and represented value are used. According to the dot value, a certain number of dots are used to depict a data value. These dots usually form dot clusters. The data value needs to be rounded to a multiple of the dot value. It is possible to roughly determine the visualised data value by counting the dots and multiplying this number with the dot value. As there are many parameters – dot size, dot value, map scale – to consider when designing a dot map, the manual way is very complex and time consuming. This paper presents a method to automatically create a dot representation of a dot map from given statistical data that needs no cartographic expertise. The dot representation may be combined with other elements, such as a topographic background, to form a complete map. So the algorithm can easily be integrated into the map design process. The paper refines the basic approach of automated dot mapping published earlier. The dot placement and arrangement have been improved compared to the basic method.
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The research reported here is motivated by the now ubiquitous nature of web mapping services that provide remotely sensed imagery as a basemap option. Despite the popularity of imagery basemaps, few strategies have been suggested to enhance their readability. Here, we describe a controlled experiment leveraging the eye tracking method to explore the potential of enhancing remotely sensed imagery when used for cartographic presentation. Specifically, twenty participants had their eye movements recorded as they visually searched for areas of interest in either an unmodified image (such as typical in web mapping services) or enhanced image (using image processing routines common to Remote Sensing). By interpreting the eye movement fixations and saccades of participants using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, we found that the image enhancements improved both the effectiveness of and efficiency in identifying areas of interest, particularly those previously concealed in more visually complex areas in the image. The results from this study can be used to improve the readability of web maps that employ remotely sensed imagery as the basemap.
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Crisis Mapping is a proper part of Crisis Informatics and Collaboration. This has come about mainly as a response to the major disasters of the last decade. Crisis Mapping has become a strong and effective tool for humanitarian workers especially after the Haiti earthquake of 2010. During the major floods in 2010 Czech Television used for the very first time social networks to involve thousands of citizens as sensors of the current state of affairs. Since that experience Czech Television started experimenting with creating its own crisis map. These experiments resulted in The Crisis Map of the Czech Republic. Since The Crisis Map is solely web-based and social media oriented, the crucial point was to design, programe and set-up the website itself. For this purpose, cognitive methods of user issues evaluation were used - namely eye-tracking technology. Eye-tracking technology is based on the principles of tracking movements of human eye while perceiving the visual scene. Recoding eye movements does not rely on self-reporting, therefore it can be considered as an objective method and can enhance traditional methods of evaluating user interfaces. Eye movement analysis provides valuable quantitative and qualitative information on visual search strategies of users. The main goal of the paper is to evaluate The Crisis Map website design to achieve maximal efficiency of manipulating and reporting user needs during crisis events. In total, 8 volunteers were asked to participate in the eye-tracking experiment. Based on the results of this study the website administrators were able to improve overall interface of The Crisis Map, which is now ready to use.
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Regardless of changing official definitions, many cartographers continue to think of cartography in terms of art and science. This paper critiques the use of the art/science dualism as a means of understanding cartography, particularly by those interested in reexamining the role of aesthetics, design, and visual expression in cartography. Two basic approaches to ‘art’ and 'science' in the context of cartography and information graphics are described along with their limitations. It is argued that the manner in which the art/science dualism has been used in cartography does not stand up under close scrutiny and that attempts to strictly differentiate art and science have ended in confusion while simultaneously demeaning both art and science. It is suggested that various and seemingly divergent trends including postmodern deconstruction, hypermedia, cognitive psychology, semiotics, geographical information systems, and visualization all point to a process oriented means of understanding cartography. Within this process, ‘art’ and ‘science’ serve a functionally similar role, informing the different ways in which we come to know and re-know our human and physical worlds.
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The development of computer systems that emulate human expertise in decision making is a common task in the automation of processes like planning, design, prediction or control. When it comes to map design, one of the problems of the cartographer is to orchestrate the elements of the map so that it clearly conveys its information to the readers. Several disciplines, such as Computational Geometry, Cartography and Operations Research have devoted diverse efforts to automate this task, commonly identified in the research domain as the Point-Feature Label Placement (PFLP). These approaches aim to avoid or minimize overlapping elements on the map, but almost no attempt to model possible ambiguities of feature and label pairs has been conducted so far. This article presents four Integer Programming formulations for the PFLP problem that incorporate ambiguity as an indicator of the solution quality. A very basic heuristic procedure is also introduced as an alternative to the exact formulations for large instances. All the proposed methods are tested on several maps of Spanish municipalities. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations are given.
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In an interactive three-dimensional (3D) map, the relief of the terrain can obstruct annotations. As the perspective moves and rotates freely in 3D space, the occlusion relationship among annotations changes accordingly. The direction of a line in general definitively influences the orientations of the characters in its annotation label, which affects its readability. Furthermore, a line that extends deep into 3D space requires annotation-reference line segments at different scales because the distant parts of a line appear less detailed than closer ones, and the positioning of the text of its annotation should be adjusted accordingly. In this paper, a rule set for 3D interactive map line-feature annotations is proposed and a screen-based line-feature annotation-placement algorithm is implemented. The purpose of our algorithm is to ensure that the annotations are readable from multiple angles, not obstructed by other annotations, terrains, or artificial structures, convey the directions of the lines, and conform to the traditional positioning preferences in cartography.
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We present the results of a user study comparing variants of commonly used line symbolizations for directed origin–destination flow maps. Our design and evaluation consisted of five line symbolizations that employ a combination of following visual variables: arrowheads, origin–destination coloring (color hue, and value), line shortening, line width, tapered edges (varying width from wide to narrow, and narrow to wide), and curvature asymmetry and strength. To guide our evaluation, we used a task-by-type typology and chose four representative tasks that are commonly used in flow map reading: identifying dominant direction of flows, flows with the highest magnitude (volume), spatial focusing of long flows toward a destination, and clusters of high net-exports (net-outflow). We systematically analyzed user responses and task performance which we measured by task completion time and accuracy. We designed a web-based flow mapping and testing framework and recruited the participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk. To demonstrate the application and user experiment, we used 16 commodity flow data sets in the United States from 2007 and systematically rotated the layouts to evaluate the effect of layout orientation. From this study, we can conclude that there is potential usefulness for all of the five symbolizations we tested; however, the influence of the design on performance and perception depends on the type of the task. Also, we found that data and layout orientation have significant effects on performance and perception of patterns in flow maps which we attribute to the change in visual saliency of node and flow patterns in relation to the way users scan the map. We recommend that the choice of line symbolization should be guided by a task taxonomy which end users are expected to perform. We discuss various design trade-offs and recommendations and potential future work for designing and evaluating line symbolizations for flow mapping.
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Legend is an important map component. Legend design is one aspect of map design, which forms an important topic in Cartography. From the literature, it is found that only one study was dedicated to the building of cartographic rules for effective legend design, and no systematic investigations into the building of grouping rules for proper determination of the grouping of legend features (symbols + text descriptions) was carried out. This study thereby is devoted to the building of grouping rules based on Gestalt laws. An experimental evaluation of these developed rules was designed and conducted. The results indicate that a legend designed by considering these new rules is significantly more efficient than the others violating these rules.
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The article focuses on the classification of animated maps online according to eight criteria: layout, title, legend, temporal legend, interactions, interactive tools, multimedia and special effects. The arrangement of individual elements of layout has a substantial influence on the effectiveness of animated maps. The author examined 100 animated maps and answered the question: are animated maps that are published on the internet designed with guidelines that are given by cartographers? The research showed that animated maps are designed very carefully and correspond with guides made by cartographers in the subject literature. It turns out that technology is adapting to good guides; however, at the same time it transforms animated maps into a ready-to-market product. Map designers are dealing with the process of map design, including replacing some classical elements with elements from internet technology. On the basis of this research it is clear that the evolution of animated maps which is taking place is not causing erosion of the cartographic rules, but they are adapting to new technological and user circumstances.
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Many map readers, including both children and adults, find it difficult to determine where they would be located along the edge of a world map after crossing that edge. Different types of markers have long been drawn close to the map’s edge – for example, in an atlas – to help map readers identify the map upon which they will find themselves if that edge is passed. In this study, a method similar to that used to show the continuity between maps in an atlas has been tested to determine whether continuity markers can also be used to help map readers find a world map’s actual peripheral continuity. The study involved children between the ages of 10 and 13 years and showed that continuity markers do help children determine the map’s actual peripheral continuity, in combination with a lesson that describes how to find the actual peripheral continuity of a world map. This article, therefore, concludes that continuity markers for world maps can be a useful part of map design that clarifies how the edges of a world map fit together for children who have learned to use this tool.
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In recent years, we have seen the emergence of sound mapping, through which users can share their recordings of sounds via online mapping platforms. These practices are enabled by an array of spatial and digital technologies that also facilitate the growth of the so-called volunteered geographic information (VGI) regarding contributions from users without training in conventional GIS or cartography. In the growing body of work on VGI, however, not much attention has been given to the emergence of such sound maps as part of the VGI constructions. Meanwhile, research in soundscape has not addressed the aspect of crowd-sourcing or user-generated contributions facilitated by new information and communication technologies. This article seeks to bridge this gap. It draws upon important insights from critical GIS research into investigating VGI as visual practices, while it is also informed by three areas of soundscape research including mapping soundscapes, tracing the production of soundscapes and exploring embodied experiences with soundscapes. Through an empirical case in China, this article suggests a two-level analytical framework: investigating in what ways crowd-sourced sound maps emerge and interpreting these sounds on their shared platforms. In so doing, this study calls for more engagement with the multi-modality aspect of visuality in mappings, which in turn may have implications for landscape design and planning. In this way, it seeks to enrich the discussion on critical visualization.
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The academic discipline of cartogTaphy is a twentieth-century phenomenon. From its incipient roots in landscape representation in geology and the mapping of socio-economic data in geogTaphy, it grew into its own sub-discipline with gTaduate programs, research paradigms, and a scientific literature of its own. It came close to establishing a national center for cartogTaphy in the late 1960s. After rather sporadic activity before World War II, the period from 1946 to 1986 saw the building of major graduate programs at the universities of Wisconsin, Kansas, and Washington.
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Building on the success of the previous editions, this book continues to be the most comprehensive introduction to health studies for anyone studying or working in the field of health.
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Animated maps are now technically and economically feasible. Like other forms of cartography, map animation has some unique design considerations, which involve a variety of tradeoffs. Making these tradeoff decisions is easier if we acknowledge that different animation software packages seem to embody a number of different perspectives - a 'flipbook' style of animation, for example, is suited to different tasks than a 'stage-and-actor' or a 'model-and-camera' program. This paper contrasts nine different animation metaphors, with special attention to the degree to which a given tool allows a cartographer to make particular kinds of revisions.
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The paper describes processing methods for portraying forest areas on maps utilizing point symbols. The forest map design is based on the use of individual tree data, which is detected from airborne laser scanning data and colour-infrared orthophotos. Several generalisation and symbolisation approaches have been tested in order to use the tree data set for cartographic purposes. Our generalisation method differentiates between trees in dense forests and tree structures in open areas, such as isolated trees, tree groups, tree rows and sparsely scattered trees. The tree symbols are integrated visually with the other map content. The results show that the production of attractive and useful maps requires an advanced generalisation method due to the massive amount of tree objects extracted from the laser scanning data as well as a generalisation level and a symbol type for the trees that are carefully chosen according to the map scale. Furthermore, sophisticated visualisation methods are needed for composing the maps. The created maps are part of a project that aims at supporting outdoor activities using multi-scale maps as part of a multi-publishing service.
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Commissioned by the State legislature after a succession of deadly and damaging landslides and decades of exurban growth on steep mountain slopes, the North Carolina Geological Survey produced a series of landslide hazard maps detailing for the public landslide prone areas of Macon County, North Carolina, USA. While widely supported at the state and local levels in 2005, by 2011, the mapping program was defunded in the state’s budget and the maps were highly politically criticized in Macon County. Even today, the maps remain unused in any legal capacity and are unknown to many residents of the region. Empirically, this article narrates the political fate of the maps in Macon County from 2005–2011 and theoretically, it draws upon a synthesis of urban political ecology (UPE), science and technology studies (STS), and critical cartography to interpret the rapid downfall of the landslide hazard maps. I show that a particular intervention of scientific expertise in exurban contradictions not only produced the maps, but also provided the political conditions for their ultimate discard. Finally, the article concludes by offering a contribution to the growing exurban studies literature as well as the ‘second wave’ of UPE.
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Legends are important for understanding maps. Legend design is a part of map design and forms an important topic of cartographic research. Most research on legend design concentrates on the development of techniques rather than the development of basic principles. This study is devoted to the latter topic. Particularly, attention is paid to the development of spacing and alignment rules for effective design of legends shown on screens (computer monitors and tablet screens). Based upon Gestalt laws and Bumstead's rules, a set of spacing and alignment rules is developed. Experimental evaluations are conducted, and the results indicate that a legend designed with proper consideration of the spacing and alignment rules is much more effective and efficient than ordinary legends.
Chapter
Visualisation of geospatial information is a key issue as it is a bridge between rich and high level spatial information, and the users of this information that helps to support decision making, management and operations. In recent years, new developments in technology have provided new methods and platforms that enable the innovative visualisation of geospatial information. Disciplines such as information visualisation, scientific visualisation, human–computer interaction and cartography have been integrated by researchers in order to generate geovisualisation strategies. Many aspects of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) could be improved by greater attention to the research on cognitive science. Operators, users and decision makers using GIS deal with large and complex geospatial data, and so the way geospatial information is visualised affects their perception. This explorative study suggests a systematic methodology for testing and analysing perceptions of geospatial information, considering different types of explorations and visualisation scenarios in a 3D virtual city environment. After making behavioural and fNIRS analyses, the study discusses how cognitive issues may differ in these scenarios.
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In the sixteenth century, European rulers attempting to consolidate their power realized that better knowledge of their lands would strengthen their control over them. By 1550, the cartographer's art had already become an important instrument for bringing territories under the control of centralized government; increasing governmental reliance on maps stimulated the refinement of cartographic techniques throughout the following century. This volume, a detailed survey of the political uses of cartography between 1400 and 1700 in Italy, France, England, Poland, Austria, and Spain, answers these questions: When did monarchs and ministers begin to perceive that maps could be useful in government? For what purposes were maps commissioned? How accurate and useful were they? How did cartographic knowledge strengthen the hand of government? The chapters offer new insights into the development of cartography and its role in European history. Contributors to the volume are John Marino, Peter Barber, David Buisseret, Geoffrey Parker, James Vann, and Michael J. Mikrs.
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Point, linear and areal elements, which are two-dimensional and of a graphic nature, are the morphological elements employed when designing tactile maps and symbols for visually impaired users. However, beyond the two-dimensional domain, there is a fourth group of elements – volumetric elements – which mapmakers do not take sufficiently into account when it comes to designing tactile maps and symbols. This study analyses the effect of including volumetric, or 3D, symbols within a tactile map. In order to do so, the researchers compared two tactile maps. One of them uses only two-dimensional elements and is produced using thermoforming, one of the most popular systems in this field, while the other includes volumetric symbols, thus highlighting the possibilities opened up by 3D printing, a new area of production. The results of the study show that including 3D symbols improves the efficiency and autonomous use of these products