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Code Mixing and Code Switching Found in Video Instagram

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Abstract

p class="5AbstrakIsi"> Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ujaran Baby Moonella yang mengandung campur kode dan alih kode di video Instagram miliknya. Ada 5 video yang dipilih dengan mempertimbangkan kecukupan representasi penggunaan alih kode dan campur kode kekinian . Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Data dikumpulkan dari hasil transkripsi tuturan Baby Moonella. Untuk menganalisis data, peneliti menggunakan teori dari Hymes (1986 ) dan Siregar (1996) yang diadaptasi dari Hoffman. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan ada tiga jenis alih kode dan dua jenis campur kode yang digunakan Baby Monella, seperti: tag code switching, inter-sentential switching, intra-sentential switching, intra-sentential mixings, insertion in extra-sentential mixing, dan alternation in Extra-sentential mixing. Jenis yang paling dominan digunakan dalam tutur kata Baby Moonella yaitu intra-sentential switching dan extra-sentential mixing dalam bentuk alternation. Alasan Baby Moonella melakukan pencampuran kode dan alih kode karena dia meniru apa yang dikatakan ibunya. Dia sering merasa kebingungan dengan perubahan bahasa dalam percakapan sehari-harinya. Banyak kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang dia sendiri tidak mengetahui arti dan padanannya dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Selain itu, Baby Moonella juga sudah dibiasakan oleh orang tuanya untuk menggunakan dua bahasa dalam komunikasi sehari-hari. Kata Kunci: alih kode, campur kode, video instagram, Babby Moonella </p
Vol. 12 No. 03, Sep-Des 2020
hlm. 296-306
p-ISSN: 2085-2274, e-ISSN 2502-227X DOI: 10.30998/deiksis.v12i03.5583
296
CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING FOUND IN VIDEO
INSTAGRAM
Siti Nita Kartika1, Ratri Harida2, Adip Arifin3
Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, STKP PGRI Ponorogo
1tika.kartika95@gmail.com, 2ratri3rida@gmail.com, 3adiparifin@yahoo.com
Abstrak
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ujaran Baby Moonella yang mengandung campur
kode dan alih kode di video Instagram miliknya. Ada 5 video yang dipilih dengan
mempertimbangkan kecukupan representasi penggunaan alih kode dan campur kode kekinian.
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Data dikumpulkan dari hasil transkripsi
tuturan Baby Moonella. Untuk menganalisis data, peneliti menggunakan teori dari Hymes (1986)
dan Siregar (1996) yang diadaptasi dari Hoffman. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan ada tiga
jenis alih kode dan dua jenis campur kode yang digunakan Baby Monella, seperti: tag code
switching, inter-sentential switching, intra-sentential switching, intra-sentential mixings, insertion
in extra-sentential mixing, dan alternation in Extra-sentential mixing. Jenis yang paling dominan
digunakan dalam tutur kata Baby Moonella yaitu intra-sentential switching dan extra-sentential
mixing dalam bentuk alternation. Alasan Baby Moonella melakukan pencampuran kode dan alih
kode karena dia meniru apa yang dikatakan ibunya. Dia sering merasa kebingungan dengan
perubahan bahasa dalam percakapan sehari-harinya. Banyak kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang
dia sendiri tidak mengetahui arti dan padanannya dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Selain itu, Baby
Moonella juga sudah dibiasakan oleh orang tuanya untuk menggunakan dua bahasa dalam
komunikasi sehari-hari.
Kata Kunci: alih kode, campur kode, video instagram, Babby Moonella
Abstract
This study focused on analyzing Baby Moonella’s utterances which contained code mixing and
code switching in her Instagram videos. There were 5 selected videos chosen which adequately
represented the the realization of code switching and code mixing. This research employed
qualitative descriptive method. The data were collected from Baby Moonella’s transcription. To
analyze the data, the researcher used Hymes (1964) and Siregar (1996) theory, adapted from
Hoffman. The result showed that there were three types of code switching and two types of code
mixing used by Baby Moonella, such as: tag code switchings, inter-sentential switching, intra-
sentential switchings, intra-sentential mixings, insertions in extra-sentential mixing, and
alternations in Extra-sentential mixing. The dominant type used was intra-sentential switching and
extra-sentential mixing in alternation form. The reason Baby Moonella did code mixing and code
switching because she imitated what her mom had said. She often confused with the language
change in the conversation she involved in. besides, she didn’t know the meaning of many English
words in Indonesian. Furthermore, she has been accustomed to use bilingual in her daily
conversation.
Keywords: code switching, code mixing, Instagram videos, Baby Moonella
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INTRODUCTION
In this era, everyone can communicate in more than one language freely.
Nowadays, it may usual hearing speakers used two or even three languages in a
communication event. Speakers often switch and mix one language to another language
in purpose. In the language study, this phenomenon is called code mixing and code
switching. The realization of code mixing and code switching appears in various forms,
such as oral and written communication, face to face communication, online
communication, and so forth.
Wardaugh (1998: 103) argued that “code mixing occurs when conversation use
both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in
the course of a single utterance.” It means that the speaker changes some of the language
elements (i.e. word) within the utterance. In the other hand, code switching according to
(Hymess, 1986) code-switching had become a common term for alternative use of two or
more language, or varieties of language, or even speech styles. Sociolinguistics as
generally deals with the study of society and language relationship views the phenomenon
as something acceptable in communication. Speakers have their own rights to use any
language, as long as the communication can run well though uses more than one language.
Finegan (1994: 3) stated that “in using language people do not always use the standard
language to make people understood what the speaker meant. People sometimes use
language variation which is to show their identity.” Speakers prefer to change language
because of the specific purpose. When interlocutors cannot understand what the speakers
mean, they usually change the language to make them understand.
In their development, Siregar (1996: 50) adapted from Hoffman's theory (1991)
categorized code mixing into intra-sentential mixing and extra-sentential mixing. Intra-
sentential mixing is the alternation of single words of phrases to clauses within a single
sentence or utterance, for example: Kamu harus bersemangat, jangan give up gitu.”
(give up as code mixing of word in the sentence). Extra-sentential mixing is mixing two
languages in single sentence, which divided more into insertion, alternation, and
congruent lexicalization. Structurally, extra-sentential mixing is less complex of syntactic
construction. For the detail, the example of each can be observed below:
Insertion: Jangan nge-judge orang dari penampilan saja.
(judge is an English word inserted in the Indonesian utterance).
Alternation: Aku bekerja every day. Kalau malemnya I‘m sleepy ya wajar lah.
(The underlined words above realized in the syntactic structure)
Congruent Lexicalization: Gee mi a hug (give me a hug)
(different lexical shared in grammar structure)
In case of code switching, Hymes (1986) divided into three types; tag code
switching, inter-sentential switching, and intra-sentential switching. Tag code switching
occurs when a bilingual speaker inserts short expressions (tag) from different language at
the end of his/her utterances, such as: An Indonesian bilingual switches from English to
Indonesian, It’s okay, no problem, ya nggak?” Inter-sentential code switching occurs
when there is complete sentence in a foreign language uttered between two sentences in
a base language, for instance: An Indonesian bilingual switches from Indonesian to
English, “Mereka pemain kawakan di film itu. They’re oldies but goodies, they say. Yang
pasti, masih enak ditonton”. Intra-sentential switching is realized when a word, a phrase,
or a clause, of a foreign language is found within the sentence in a base language,
example: An Indonesian switches to Javanese, “Baru saja pulang, tapi disuruh berangkat
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lagi, kapan lerenku?” (I just get home, but you order me to go again, when do I take a
rest? In fact, code mixing and code switching is often uttered by various age levels,
including youngster or children, for instance Baby Moonella. She is an influencer of
Indonesian children who likes to use code switching or code mixing in her utterance. In
her very young age, she has been getting 1.2 million followers. The little girl who born
in August 2014 is not an artist, her parents are not artist also nor join in the potency artist
management groups. Baby Moonella is better known as the Instagram influencer who is
attractive. Due to her various actions uploaded in the social media, she is often invited at
various programs on television station. Observing her videos, Babby Moonella shows her
awesome linguistics intelligence which characterized by the use of language effectively
to express herself rhetorically or poetically (Arifin, 2016).
The researcher reason took Baby Moonella as the object of this research because
she is four years old who has ability to speak more than one language. Her mother tongue
is Indonesia, but she often inserts English words in her speaking, especially with her
mother or other family members. The topic of conversation is commonly talking about
Moonella’s daily activities at home, school and other places.
Regarding to the use of social media, the realization of code mixing and code
switching in nowadays era has found so many. Users can easily express meanings,
intention, story, and ideas to attract other social media users to involve in his/her activity
or status (often in the form of language event). The other users are commonly involved
in by giving comment, questioning, criticizing, mocking, or just liking. As a result, the
more users involved in such kind of mass communication, the more popular the account
owner will be. It is then truly undeniable that language becomes the most important
medium for expressing feelings and exchanging meanings in human life (Arifin, 2018).
Furthermore, everyone can get information easily through social media, such as
Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube and many more. In those media the users often
found public figures or some well-known people who use code switching or code mixing
when they speak. These phenomena are not only found in the real life but also in the
media of videos or pictures with caption, such as in Instagram. It is one of many media
which is popular among social media users at present. Similar with Facebook or Twitter,
everyone who creates an Instagram account has a profile and news feed. When the
account owner posts a picture or video, it will be displayed on his/her profile. In language
study, this phenomenon is appropriately addressed through Sociolinguistics.
So far, studies on code mixing and code switching have been conducted by many
Indonesian researchers (see Margana, 2016; Sari, 2013; Rahmania, 2016; and Wakhidah
and Sudaryanto, 2019), but the study on analyzing both code mixing and code switching
by taking the videos Instagram as the source of data is found rare. Therefore, considering
the importance of code mixing and code switching in language study, therefore, this study
is intensively aimed at finding out their realization in Instagram videos used by Baby
Moonella in Instagram. Furthermore, this study is also intended to know the dominant
type of code mixing and code switching as well as to explain the reason for using code
switching and code mixing in Baby Moonella’s Instagram.
RESEARCH METHOD
In the present study, the researcher used descriptive qualitative method. The
object of this research is Baby Moonella’s videos on her Instagram. The researcher
analyzed 5 selected videos from her Instagram account. Those five videos were definitely
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contained the realization of code switching and code mixing. Data collecting technique
was performed through documentary technique. Researchers transcribed Baby
Moonella’s utterances which contained code mixing and code switching. Thus, the form
of data was descriptive which involved word, phrase, clause, and sentence. To analyze
the data, interactive model, as suggested by Miles and Hubberman (1994) is applied. In
analyzing the data, Hymes (1964) and Siregar (1996) is used to classify and interpret the
findings
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
In this part, the writer explains and discusses the research findings. The discussion
closely relates with some relevant theories on both code mixing and code switching.
There were many Indonesian-English of code mixing and code switching found by the
researcher. The detail findings are presented in the following table.
Table 1: Baby Moonella’s code mixing and code switching in her five videos
The total number of utterance which contained the code mixing and code
switching in Baby Moonella’s videos on Instagram, were: five tag code switchings, one
inter-sentential code switching, nine intra-sentential code switchings, three intra-
sentential code mixings, two insertions, six alternations, and no congruent lexicalization.
Based on the type of code switching and code mixing the researchers found the dominant
type used in Baby Moonella’s utterance is intra-sentential switching (nine data). The
findings confirmed that result of previous studies (see Margana, 2016; Sari, 2013; and
Rahmania, 2016) which also displayed the intra-sentential switching found most.
In general, the findings mean that many Indonesians tend to switch the language because
mostly Indonesians are bilingual speaker. As known in Indonesian context, the country
has one national language (Bahasa Indonesia) and more than 800 living ethnic languages
(ethnologue.com). Therefore, it is something common if Indonesian speakers switch and
mix their languages from the mother tongue into second language, and vice versa. The
goal of switching and mixing language of course varies according to their intended
purpose, for instance: to emphasize the point of communication, to make utterance easier
to understand, to create intimacy, to situate the communication, to realize implied
meaning, and so forth.
Code Switching
As explain in the previous part, the classification on code switching type was
based on Hymes' theory (1986). He categorized code switching into three types, namely
tag code switching, inter-sentential switching, and intra-sentential switching. The
Code Switching
Code Mixing
Type
Total
Type
Total
Tag code switching
5
Intra-sentential mixing
3
Inter-sentential switching
1
Extra-sentential mixing:
1. Insertion
2. Alternation
3. Congruent lexicalization
2
6
0
Intra-sentential switching
9
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findings which represent the use of those three types of code switching are presented in
the following part.
Tag code switching
A tag code switching happens when a bilingual insert short expressions (tag) from
different language at the end of his/her utterances. Based on the findings, there are five
data which could be categorized as tag code switching, as in the following way:
Utterance 1: Moonel, pengen angry.
Based on Baby Moonella’s utterance, the word angry is categorized as tag code
switching because Baby Moonella inserted short expression from different (foreign)
language at the end of her utterances. As widely known, the word angry is an English
word, which means marah Indonesian. Moonella wants to say “Moonel pengen marah”.
She switched her language because her mommy gave her a question in Indonesian and
then continued in English. Mommy said “Moonel sad, happy atau apa?”, In Indonesian
means Moonel sedih, senang atau apa?”. Referring to Hymes theory, Moonella switched
her utterance in regard to the key factor of letting other (her mom) knows her feelings.
This video took place on Baby Moonella’s way to school on February 22th, 2019 with the
duration of 1.59 minutes.
Utterance 2: Bagus yeah.
In the second utterance yeah is an English word, in Indonesian means ya.
Moonella wanted to say in Bahasa Indonesia, bagus, ya/ tentu to answer her mom
question, Hayooh raportnya Moonel bagus nggak? She answered Bagus, yeah to make
sure her mom if her grade was good. Based on Hymes theory, Baby Moonella switched
her utterance in regard to the participant factor. It was because she spoke more informal
to her mom. This video took place on her way to school on March 12th, 2019. The duration
of this video is 01.57 minutes.
Utterance 3: Moonel cry.
In the third utterance cry is an English word, in Indonesian means menangis. Her
Mommy stated to Moonel “enggak, mommy cinta Moonel banget malahan. Kan mommy
sayang banget sama Moonel”. Moonel answered her mom spontaneously by adding
English word in her utterance as usually she did. In this case, Baby Moonella switched
her utterance in regard to the key factor, which means she wanted her mother knowing
her feeling exactly. This video took place at home on February 22th, 2019. The duration
of this video was 2 minutes.
Utterance 4: Moonel enggak suka worm.
In the fourth utterance worm is an English word, in Indonesian means cacing. In
this video, Baby Moonella and her brother made a video unboxing slime worm. In the
slime, there were some fake worms. Moonella told her mother that she didn’t like worm
in Bahasa Indonesia, Moonel enggak suka cacing. By uttering this, Moonella switched
her utterance in regard to the participant factor. It happened due to the situational and
unchanging topic of conversation. This video took place at home on May 20th, 2019.
The duration of this video was 01.35 minutes.
Utterance 5: Tumpah!, It’s okay Cocon.
In the last utterance which categorized as tag code switching, Moonella’s brother,
named Marson spilled the slime on the table and then directly Moonella said Tumpah, it’s
okay Cocon, which means “Tumpah, enggak apa-apa Cocon” in Bahasa Indonesia. This
script was found in the same video as the fourth utterance. The use of foreign structure
within a sentence as Hymes conceptualized, belongs to tag code switching. Moonella
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purposively switched her utterance in regard to the act sequence factor due to the use of
careful and calm speaking to her brother in order to make him relax and not panic. This
video took place at home on May 20th, 2019. The duration of this video was 01.35
minutes.
Inter-sentential switching
Inter-sentential code switching occurs when there are complete sentence in a foreign
language uttered between two sentences in a base language. Based on the findings, there
was only one data which could be categorized as an intra-sentential switching, as follows:
Utterance: Look at the worm! Jangan pegang Cocon.
The sentence Look at the worm is an English word, in Bahasa Indonesia means
Lihat cacing itu. Baby Moonella warned her brother for not touching the slime, because
there were some fake worms in it. For the change in the sentence, it included inter-
sentential switching because the speaker changed her language in the other language after
the speaker spoke in bahasa Indonesia to English. The interlocutor will be easy to
understand what the speaker says though the speaker uses two languages in the same
sentence. Based on Hymes theory, Baby Moonella switched her utterance in regard to the
setting and scene factor which characterized by the natural situation.
Intra-sentential switching
Intra-sentential switching is found when a word, a phrase, or a clause, of a foreign
language is found within the sentence in a base language. Based on the findings, there
was nine data which could be categorized as an intra-sentential switching. Based on the
findings, Baby Moonella inserted some word, phrase or sentence of foreign language into
her base language. It means Baby Moonella used intra-sentential switching. As in
presented in the following part:
Utterance 1: Dia bilang, I don’t like you again.
In the first utterance I don’t like you again is an English sentence, in Bahasa
Indonesia means Saya tidak menyukaimu lagi. In this video, the speaker talked about
Moonella’s best friends at school. Her mommy asked to Moonella Kenapa Jayden enggak
suka Moonel lagi? (Why didn’t Jayden like Moonel anymore?). Then Moonella answered
her mom’s question in Bahasa Indonesia continued in English. This video took place on
the way of her school on February 22th, 2019. The duration of this video was 2 minutes.
In this case, Baby Moonella switched her utterance in regard to the key factor. It was
because she wanted her mom know her feeling. She wished her mother could catch the
message she sent in the conversation.
Utterance 2: I don’t know.
In the second utterance, the phrase I don’t know is classified as intra-code
switching. In this video Baby Moonella switched her language to answer her mom’s
question Jadi gimana dong, Moonel sad?. Her mom gave question both in Bahasa
Indonesia continued in English, then Baby Moonella answered in English I don’t know
means Saya tidak tahu. This video took place on her way to school on February 22th,
2019. The duration of this video was 2 minutes. Based on Hymes theory, Baby Moonella
switched her utterance in regard to the key factor because the question from her mother
was more sensitive. It was about her privacy.
Utterance 3: Iya, almost for more page again.
In the third utterance which contained intra-code switching was Iya, almost for
more page again. In Indonesian means Iya, hampir untuk lebih banyak halaman lagi. In
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the utterance, Baby Moonella told her mom that her English book was almost done. In
the previous dialogue, she told her mom if she got perfect score in English lesson. This
video took place on her way to school on March 12th, 2019. The duration of this video
was 01.57 minutes. Referring to Hymes theory, Baby Moonella switched her utterance
in regard to the participants factor.
Utterance 4: No, this is almost three, and I already, Oh ya four.
In the fourth utterance which contained intra-code switching was No, this is almost
three. And I already. Oh ya four. In Indonesian lexically means Tidak, ini hampir tiga.
Dan saya sudah. Oh iya empat. Baby moonella answered her mom question Iya? for more
page? Emang Moonel udah belajar apa aja sih?. This dialogue was on the same video as
the previous dialogue. This video took place on her way school on March 12th, 2019. The
duration of this video was 01.57 minutes. Referring to Hymes theory, Baby Moonella
switches her utterance in regard to the participant factor.
Utterance 5: Nothing, a cheese.
In the fifth utterance, Moonella realized intra-code switching by saying Nothing,
a cheese. Here, Moonella’s utterance was in an English phrase to answer her mom’s
question. It means Tidak ada, keju. The question from her mom was on Bahasa Indonesia.
Then Baby Moonella answered it clearly by using English words. This script was on the
same video as the third and fourth script. This video took place on her way school on
March 12th, 2019. The duration of this video was 01.57 minutes. Baby Moonella answered
in carefully. Based on Hymes theory, Baby Moonella switched her utterance in regard to
the act sequence factor.
Utterance 6: Nope.
In the sixth utterance Nope means enggak. This script was on the same video with
the previous script. This video took place at on the way to school on March 12th, 2019.
The duration of this video was 01.57 minutes. Baby Moonella answered carefully.
According to Hymes, Baby Moonella switched her utterance in regard to the participant
factor because she spoke in more casual to her mother.
Utterance 7: Haloo.. squishy humberger for my dad.
In the seventh utterance, Moonella uttered words showing the use of intra-code
switching. In the opening of the video, Baby Moonella said Hi to the camera in Bahasa
Indonesia continued in English to introduce her new toys. In Bahasa Indonesia means
Halo, hamburger lembut untuk ayahku. This video took place at home on May 20th, 2019.
The duration of this video was 01.35 minutes. Referring to the Hymes’ theory, Baby
Moonella switched her utterance in regard to the act sequence factor because she spoke
carefully with a nice opening and continued showing a replica of hamburger to the
audiences on the camera.
Utterance 8: Wow, a big baby bubble.
The above utterance represented the use of intra-code switching found in the same
video as the previous. This video took place at home on May 20th, 2019. The duration of
this video was 01.35 minutes. Referring to the Hymes’ theory, Baby Moonella switched
her utterance in regard to the setting and scene factor because when someone speak one
language in one situation or natural situation which intended to influence people for
choosing the code.
Utterance 9: Haaaaa? Pokoknya buat four for you aunty uncle.
In the last utterance Haaaaa? Pokoknya buat four for you aunty uncle. Baby
Moonella promoted her new product (cookies). She called her followers with aunty-uncle.
In Bahasa Indonesia means Haah? pokoknya buat empat (gratis kue yummy box) untuk
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tante dan paman. This video took place at home on April 10th, 2019. The duration of this
video was 01.35 minutes. Referring to Hymes’ theory, Baby Moonella switched her
utterance in regard to the participant factor, because she spoke more casual to make her
audience understand what she talked about.
Code Mixing
Code mixing is used to refer to a more general form of language contact that may
include cases of code switching and the other form of contacts which emphasized the
lexical items. From the definitions, the difference between code mixing and code
switching can be inferred. First, in code mixing bilingual people seem to apply some
foreign words or phrases (piece of one language smaller than clause). Second, bilingual
people are said to mix codes (but not switch from one to another) when the topic doesn’t
change, nor does the situation. According to Siregar (1996), there are two types of code
mixing, namely intra-sentential mixing and extra-sentential mixing. The specific types of
extra-sentential mixing then categorized into three; insertion, alternation, and congruent
lexicalization. To discuss the findings on code mixing, data display and discussion will
be presented orderly.
Intra-sentential mixing
Intra-sentential mixing is the alternation of single words of phrases to clauses within a
single sentence or utterance. Based on the findings, there were three data (utterances)
which could be categorized as intra-sentential mixing. They are as follows:
Utterance 1: Because Jayden enggak suka Moonel lagi.
Utterance 2: Iya makan cheese dong.
Utterance 3: Mommy enggak sayang Moonel.
As known, because, cheese, and Mommy are definitely English words. Baby
Moonella mixed her language because her mother often asked her both in Bahasa
Indonesia and English. That’s why she answered in Bahasa Indonesia and then mixed in
English as well. She would like to insert a single word or phrase when speaking. The
phenomenon happened in above communication belongs to insertion, as a part of intra-
sentential mixing.
In the first utterance, because is basically an English word. Baby Moonella mixed
her language because her mother often asked her in both Bahasa Indonesia and English.
That’s why she answered her mother’s question in bahasa and English. She would like to
insert a single word or phrase when speaking. Baby Moonella directly answered her
mother’s question more sensitively because it was about her feeling. Referring to Hymes
theory, Baby Moonella mixed her utterance in regard to the key factor. This video took
place at on the way to school on February 22th, 2019. The duration of this video was about
2 minutes.
In the second utterance cheese in Indonesian means keju. Baby Moonella did
mixing because she thought her mom was curious about Moonella’s health by
questioning. She answered it directly with strong emphasis dong in Bahasa Indonesia. In
this case, Baby Moonella mixed her utterance in regard to the ends factor. It happens
because people do mixing to talk about a particular topic. This video took place on her
way school on March 12th, 2019. The duration of this video was 2 minutes. While in the
last utterance, the word Mommy is basically similar to Ibu or Bunda in Baha Indonesia.
Baby Moonella already used the term Mommy to call her mother. In this case, Baby
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Moonella mixed her utterance in regard to the participant factor. This video took place at
on the way to school on February 22th, 2019. The duration of this video was 2 minutes.
Extra-sentential mixing
Extra-sentential mixing is mixing two languages in a sentence. There are three forms of
extra-sentential mixing; insertion, alternation, and congruent lexicalization. Based on the
findings, there were two insertion forms and six alternation forms, and none form
represent congruent lexicalization. The discussion on the findings is presented below.
Insertion
The insertion happens when the speaker inserts some Indonesian language in English
word when speaking.
Utterance 1: English book-nya
Utterance 2: Iih ada worm-nya nggak?
In the first utterance above, Baby Moonella mixed her utterance in regard to the
participants factor, because the topic was dealing with Moonella’s progress in school.
Baby Moonella did insertion in her utterance to make sure her mom understands what she
meant. The video took place at on the way to school on March 12th, 2019. The duration
of this video was 01.57 minutes. While in the second utterance which contained insertion
form was about unboxing the slime. Moonella asked to her mother to make sure if there
was no worm by questioning Iiih, ada worm-nya nggak? In this case, Baby Moonella
mixed her utterance in regard to the participant factor because in the given situation Baby
Moonella scared of worm. She then asked her mom as usually by using informal/ casual
language. She did mixing to make sure her mom understood what she meant. This video
took place at home on May 20th, 2019. The duration of this video was 01.35 minutes.
Alternation
The alternation happens when the speaker do alternation between structure of
languages. Furthermore, Muysken (2000: 3) argued that alternation occurs when
structures of two languages are alternated indistinctively both at the grammatical and
lexical level between structures and from languages. Six identified utterances which
belong to alternation are presented below:
Utterance 1: Mommy, English book-nya Moonel almost ten.
Utterance 2: Dia because cute, dia little. Jadi dia sukain Mommy. Terus Mommy
nggak sayang Moonel
Utterance 3: Aunty-uncle, besok Moonella yummy box ada yang baru cemilannya.
Utterance 4: Moonel udah cobain aslinnya yummy bangeeeeeettt, aunty uncle.
Utterance 5: Haaaaa? Pokoknya buat four for you aunty uncle. Aunty uncle mau
ngga?
Utterance 6: Kalo Moonel and wjtour bikin give away. Polling ya.
In the first utterance, Mommy English book-nya Moonel almost ten, the alternation
happens when the speaker alternates between structures of languages. Referring to
Hymes’ theory, Baby Moonella mixed her utterance in regard to participant factor,
because the topic was talked about Moonellas’s progress at school. Baby Moonella did
alternation in her utterance because she felt more comfortable by using two different
languages when speaking. The video took place at on the way to school on March 12th,
2019. The duration of this video was 01.57 minutes.
Code Mixing and Code Switching Found in Video Instagram
(Siti Nita Kartika, Ratri Harida, Adip Arifin)
305
In the second utterance, Dia because cute, dia little. Jadi dia sukain Mommy. Terus
Mommy nggak sayang Moonel”, Baby Moonella mixed her utterance in regard to the
participant factor, because the topic was talked about Moonellas’s progress in school.
Baby Moonella did insertion in her utterance to make sure her mom’s understand what
she meant. This video took place on her way to school on February 22th, 2019. The
duration of this video was 2 minutes. As in the second utterance, Babby Moonella also
uttered the alternation form due to the participant factor as shown in the last (sixth)
utterance. She did it because she imitated her mom and spoke more informal way to make
the audience understand what she meant.
In third utterance, Aunty-uncle besok Moonella yummy box, ada yang baru
cemilannya. Referring to Hymes theory, Baby Moonella did alternation in her utterance
in regard to the act sequence factor. It happened because Baby Moonella more
comfortable used two language when speaking. This video took place at home on April
10th, 2018. The duration of this video was 2 minutes.
In the fourth utterance which contained alternation was Moonel udah cobain
aslinnya yummy bangeeeeeettt aunty uncle. In this case, Baby Moonella did alternation
in regard to the act sequence factor. It happened because Baby Moonella felt more
comfortable by using two languages when speaking. This video took place at home on
February 22th, 2019. The duration of this video was 2 minutes. While in the fifth utterance
had alternation was Haaaaa??? Pokoknya buat four for you aunty uncle. Aunty uncle mau
nggak?. In this case Baby Moonella did alternation in regard to the act sequence factor.
Baby Moonella spoke carefully to the audience in her camera. This video took place at
home on February 22th, 2019. The duration of this video was 2 minutes.
CONCLUSION
From the analysis and discussion as presented in the previous part, it can be
concluded that the five selected videos of Baby Moonella contained code mixing and code
switching which dominated by the change of Indonesian language to English and vice
versa. Quantitatively, there were three types of code switching and two types of code
mixing used by Baby Moonella, such as: five tag code switchings, one inter-sentential
switching, nine intra-sentential switchings, three intra-sentential mixings, two insertions
in extra-sentential mixing, and six alternations in Extra-sentential mixing. The dominant
type used was intra-sentential switching and extra-sentential mixing in alternation form.
The reason Baby Moonella did code mixing and code switching because she imitated
what her mom had said. She often confused with the language change in the conversation
she involved in. Besides, she didn’t know the meaning of many English words in
Indonesian. Furthermore, she has been accustomed to use bilingual in her daily
conversation.
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Book
An Introduction to Bilingualism provides a comprehensive review of the most important aspects of individual and societal bilingualism, examining both theoretcial and practical issues. At the level of the individual, it addresses such questios as: What is involved in the study of bilingual children? What are the patterns of bilingual language acquisition? In which ways do the language competence and the speech of bilinguals differ from those of monolinguals? Topics that sometimes arouse controversy are explored - such as the question of whether there is a relationship between bilingualsim and a child's cognitive, psychological and social development. The book is also concerned with multilingualism, that is, bilingualsim as a societal phenomenon. It focuses on such issues as language choice in bilingual and multilingual communities, national identity and the education of bilinguals. The inclusion of several case studies of European linguistic minorities serves to exemplify the topics dealt with at the theoretical level and to illustrate the linguistic complexities found in contemporary Europe.
Article
This study aims to describe code switching in classroom communication from the sociolinguistic point of view. The research subjects comprised 12 English teachers in senior high schools in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Territory. The data were code switching utterances from English to Indonesian and vice versa in English language learning in the classroom. The data were analyzed using the qualitative descriptive method. The findings show that code switching has three functions, i.e. (a) material delivery, (b) classroommanagement, and (3) discourse markers. With reference to such functions, code switching in English language learning can be made as far as it satisfies academic functions. As the students’ English mastery improves, the use of code switching needs to be reduced.
Article
This research was aimed at describing and explaining the interpersonal meaning, types of mood system, and modality found in the thesis abstracts. The method used was descriptive qualitative and specifically designed as discourse analysis. The data were taken from two abstracts, written by undergraduate students, majoring in English Language Education atdifferent colleges in Ponorogo, East Java. They were non-native of English. Units of analysis were clauses, words, and phrases. The data were analyzed by using interpersonal meaning theory, proposed by Halliday. The result of this research reveals that firstly, the interpersonal meaning of the abstracts is realized through wordings of the clauses based on the mood system (subject and finite), while the residue is realized through the element of predicator, complement, and adjunct. Secondly, the mood types found are mostly declarative, and only a few of them are interrogative. The declarative form is characterized by order of subject followed by finite, while the interrogative form is characterized by the use of question word, instead of the order of finite and subject. Thirdly, in terms of modality, the abstracts dominantly display the use of low degree modality (can, could, may) which signals the writer’s intention to weaken the authority toward the readers.
Recognizing the students' intelligences earlier
  • A Arifin
Arifin, A. (2016). Recognizing the students' intelligences earlier. Deiksis, 08(03), 217-225. https://doi.org/10.30998/deiksis.v8i03.691
Sociolinguistics perspective on register
  • D B E Finegan
Finegan, D. B. E. (1994). Sociolinguistics perspective on register. New York: Oxford University Press.
Code switching used by Kimmy Jayanti 'Ilook
  • N A Rahmania
Rahmania, N. A. (2016). Code switching used by Kimmy Jayanti 'Ilook' Program on Net TV. Thesis: Maulana Malik Ibrahim Islamic State University.