Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial rhizomatous plant of tropical and subtropical regions. The three major chemical components responsible for the biological activities of turmeric are curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.
The literature search included review articles, analytical studies, randomized control experiments, and observations, which have been gathered from various sources, such as Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. A review of the literature was carried out using the keywords: turmeric, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Iranian medicine, traditional Indian medicine, curcumin, curcuminoids, pharmaceutical benefits, turmerone, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. The main components of the rhizome of the leaf are α-turmerone, β-turmerone, and arturmerone.
The notable health benefits of turmeric are antioxidant activity, gastrointestinal effects, anti-cancer effects, cardiovascular and antidiabetic effects, antimicrobial activity, photoprotector activity, hepatoprotective and renoprotective effects, and appropriate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory and edematic disorders.
Curcuminoids are phenolic compounds usually used as pigment spices with many health benefits, such as antiviral, antitumour, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, anticancer, and antifungal effects. Curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin are the major active and stable bioactive constituents of curcuminoids. Curcumin, which is a hydroponic polyphenol, and the main coloring agent in the rhizomes of turmeric, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anticarcinogenic activities, as well as beneficial effects for infectious diseases and Alzheimer's disease. Bisdemethoxycurcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-metastasis activities. Demethoxycurcumin, which is another major component, has anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and anti-cancer activities and is the appropriate candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
The goal of this review is to highlight the health benefits of turmeric in both traditional and modern pharmaceutical sciences by considering the important roles of curcuminoids and other major chemical constituents of turmeric. .