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Recent Tactics and Advances in the Application of Metal Sulfides as High‐Performance Anode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium‐Ion Batteries

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The successful development of post-lithium technologies depends on two key elements: performance and economy. Because sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) can potentially satisfy both requirements, they are widely considered the most promising replacement for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the similarity between the electrochemical processes and the abundance of sodium-based resources. Among various SIB anode materials, metal sulfides are most extensively studied as materials for high-performance electrodes due to the versatility of their synthesis procedure, utilization potential, and high sodiation capacity. Herein, some of the most effective strategies aimed at effectively alleviating the performance shortcomings of these materials from the materials engineering/design perspective are summarized. In terms of facilitating ion transport in SIBs, which represents one of the most critical aspects of their performance, a specific family of strategies related to a particular operational mechanism is considered rather than categorizing based-on individual sulfide materials. In the foreseeable future, the development of highly functional SIBs electrode materials and utilization of metal sulfides will become highly relevant due to their stability and performance characteristics. Therefore, it is anticipated that this review will guide further research and facilitate the realization of various applications of sulfide-based high-performance rechargeable batteries.
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2006761 (1 of 33)
Review
Recent Tactics and Advances in the Application of Metal
Sulfides as High-Performance Anode Materials for
Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries
Yew Von Lim, Xue Liang Li, and Hui Ying Yang*
The successful development of post-lithium technologies depends on two
key elements: performance and economy. Because sodium-ion batteries
(SIBs) can potentially satisfy both requirements, they are widely considered
the most promising replacement for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to
the similarity between the electrochemical processes and the abundance
of sodium-based resources. Among various SIB anode materials, metal
sulfides are most extensively studied as materials for high-performance
electrodes due to the versatility of their synthesis procedure, utilization
potential, and high sodiation capacity. Herein, some of the most eective
strategies aimed at eectively alleviating the performance shortcomings
of these materials from the materials engineering/design perspective are
summarized. In terms of facilitating ion transport in SIBs, which represents
one of the most critical aspects of their performance, a specific family of
strategies related to a particular operational mechanism is considered
rather than categorizing based-on individual sulfide materials. In the
foreseeable future, the development of highly functional SIBs electrode
materials and utilization of metal sulfides will become highly relevant due
to their stability and performance characteristics. Therefore, it is antici-
pated that this review will guide further research and facilitate the realiza-
tion of various applications of sulfide-based high-performance rechargeable
batteries.
DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202006761
Dr. Y. V. Lim, X. L. Li, Prof. H. Y. Yang
Singapore University of Technology and Design
Pillar of Engineering Product and Development
8 Somapah Road, Singapore 687372, Singapore
E-mail: yanghuiying@sutd.edu.sg
The ORCID identification number(s) for the author(s) of this article
can be found under https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202006761.
ever, the main issue related and common
to all these sources (which have a tran-
sient demand) is the necessity to store
the generated energy using inexpensive,
highly ecient, and safe devices. Energy
storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-
ion batteries (LIBs) are well-developed
and commonly used in various applica-
tions ranging from small-sized personal
mobile devices to medium-sized vehicles
(including hybrids, electrical vehicles, and
mopeds) with considerable commercial
success. However, the grid-scale energy
storage applications of these systems
require cost-eective and performance
characteristics, which are lacked by LIBs.[8]
To answer these concerns, sodium-ion
batteries (SIBs) emerged as a more eli-
gible alternative to LIBs.[9–11] In terms
of the material costs, the advantages of
sodium-based technologies over lithium-
based ones are indisputable due to the
widespread availability and abundance of
sodium-based resources, which are less
susceptible to price fluctuations. In terms
of research eorts and related costs, the
general guidelines for developing high-
performance SIB electrode materials are
based and leveraged on the current achievements in LIBs due
to the correspondence of electrochemical and kinetic properties
of lithium (Li+) and sodium (Na+) ions. In summary, SIBs rep-
resent the only feasible post-lithium technology that possesses
necessary cost and performance characteristics. However,
to establish SIBs as a commercially viable option, extensive
research studies must be performed to enhance their perfor-
mance by optimizing various aspects, including the eective
design of electrode materials and composition of electrolyte
blend.[9,12–16]
Transition metal sulfides (TMS) have recently attracted sig-
nificant interest from researchers due to a wide range of poten-
tial applications. The latter include energy storage materials for
high-performance supercapacitors, LIBs, and fuel cells.[17–20]
Chhowalla etal. demonstrated a high potential of using metallic
1T–MoS2, a widely studied open-structure layered metal sulfide,
as an active material for supercapacitors with a capacitance
ranging from 400 to 700 F cm3 in aqueous electrolytes.[21] As
LIBs, A high-capacity SnS2 anode with extremely stable perfor-
mance has been studied as early as in the 1970s.[22] Recently, a
1. Introduction
In recent years, significant research eorts have been empha-
sized on developing sustainable energy resources due to envi-
ronmental concerns, the price volatility caused by political
uncertainty, and potential depletion of fossil fuels.[1] Feasible
alternatives such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power
sources have various shortcomings, including low solar power
eciency[2–4] as well as the ecological and social disruptions
of hydroelectric dams[5] and wind farms, respectively.[6,7] How-
Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 31, 2006761
... Moreover, the integration of biomass-derived porous carbons with nanostructured metal sulfides can enhance the activity of metal sulfides and improve electrical conductivity [33]. Such a combination between active component and conductive substrate can reduce internal resistance and achieve excellent cycling stability [34,35]. For example, Song et al. prepared N-doped carbon/bimetallic sulfide and oxide composites via a heating treatment, which exhibited a high specific capacitance of 2883 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 [36]. ...
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The rational design and preparation of cathode and anode materials with high capacitance within both positive and negative potential windows for hybrid supercapacitors remains a great challenge. Herein, a hybrid supercapacitor with ultrahigh energy density is assembled with biomass-derived iron/cobalt disulfides immobilized on porous carbon (FeS2/CoS2@KC) and N, S co-doped porous carbon (NSKC) as cathode and anode materials. These two electrode materials are prepared by a facile impregnation and pyrolysis method. FeS2/CoS2@KC-800 cathode material exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a superior specific capacitance of 3480.47 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and high capacitance retention of 60.35% at 15 A g-1. NSKC-800 anode material delivers a high specific capacitance of 268.75 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. Remarkably, the assembled hybrid supercapacitor outputs an ultrahigh energy density of 200.20 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 463.19 W kg-1. Moreover, it also possesses remarkable cycling stability with improved capacitance retention of 94.79% after 10000 cycles at 5 A g-1. This work demonstrates that kelp is a promising precursor to construct high-performance electrode materials for energy storage applications.
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Design hybrid metal sulfides-based anode materials is one of the most effective approaches to improve the performance of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, owing to the huge volume expansion, the capacity of sulfide-based anode will decay significantly after repeated charge/discharge processes. Herein, we reported the successful demonstration of anode material based on concaved NiS2@CoS2 nanocube (NCSC) via a chemical etching strategy, which was derived from etching and sulfidation of Ni-Co coordination polymers (NiCoCP) precursor. The obtained NCSC anode materials deliver a high specific sodium storage capacity of 848 mAh g⁻¹ at 0.1 A g⁻¹ and a stable cyclability of 572 mAh g⁻¹ at 5 A g⁻¹ after 830 cycles. This special etching strategy exploit a novel way for the design and preparation of high-performance anode materials for SIBs.
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Transition metal silicates with the intrinsic low electronic conductivity and large volume variation are prohibited by its poor cycling stability. Herein, amorphous carbon coating zinc silicate flower-like structure is successfully synthesized via facile hydrothermal method. The composite shortens the diffusion path of lithium/sodium ions and enhances the electronic conductivity. The carbon coated flower-like structure bestows the composite a high reversible capacity, cycling stability and good rate performance. Even at 1A g⁻¹, it still retains the capacity of 544.7mAh g⁻¹ after 1000 cycles for lithium ion batteries. It also exhibits good sodium storage, delivering a capacity of 294.7mAh g⁻¹ after 50 cycles at 0.05A g⁻¹.
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Iron sulfide (Fe7S8) with high theoretical capacity and abundant natural resource is an attractive anode candidate in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, its abnormal capacity variation in ether-based electrolytes is inexplicable. Herein, N,S co-doped carbon-coated Fe7S8 (Fe7S8@NS-C) is constructed. As an anode for SIBs, the Na-storage capacity of Fe7S8@NS-C increases significantly from 503.9 to 565.8 mAh g–1 at 1 A g–1 after 120 cycles. Comprehensive characterizations demonstrate this capacity growth not only originates from the reduced FeSx particle size, but also from the Cu-triggered phase transition to form Cu5FeS4 and CuSx. Subsequently, the unstable Cu5FeS4 is converted to CuSx and FeSx, and the resultant capacity maintains relatively stable. Remarkably, Cu2O and Cu⁰ gradually appear as the cycle number increases, which may result from the side reactions of Cu⁺ with some electrolyte components. The constant Cu-related phase transition accelerates the corrosion of Cu foil, which weakens the adhesion of active materials on it and induces a capacity attenuation after ∼550 cycles. This work is helpful to understand the capacity variation of Fe7S8 anode during sodiation/desodiation processes in ether-based systems, which is of great significance for the design and application of metal sulfide materials in electrochemical energy storage.
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