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The Positive Impact of Rebranding to Increasing Consumer loyality with Brand Image as the Mediating Variable

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This study aims to analyze the effect of rebranding to consumer loyality with brand image as mediating variable. This research is using quantitative approach. 100 people of Gojek users are the sample, which were chosen with purposive sampling method. Data in this research were collected using questionnaire in Google Form as the instrument, then the data were analyzed using simple regression and Sobel test with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics application. The result shows that rebranding has positive effect fo consumer loyality; brand image has positive effect to consumer loyality; rebranding has positive effect to brand image. Besides, Sobel test result shows that the value of t-count < t-table (1.248 < 1.984), so it can be concluded that brand image does not mediating the rebranding effect to consumer loyality for the Gojek users. The result of this research can be used as a suggestion for the marketings (especially for marketing or a company that is willing to do logo rebranding) to see how the effect of rebranding is to consumer loyality with brand image as the mediating variable.
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International Journal of Social Science and Business.
Volume 4, Number 4, Tahun 2020, pp. 561-568
P-ISSN: 2614-6533 E-ISSN: 2549-6409
Open Access: https://ejournal.undiksha.ac.id/index. php/IJSSB/index
*Corresponding author.
E-mail address: prayoga87@gmail.com
The Positive Impact of Rebranding to Increasing Consumer
loyality with Brand Image as the Mediating Variable
Andre Prayoga1*, Eko Suseno2
1,2The Faculty of Economics and Business, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Indonesia
A B S T R A C T
This study aims to analyze the effect of rebranding to consumer loyality
with brand image as mediating variable. This research is using quantitative
approach. 100 people of Gojek users are the sample, which were chosen with
purposive sampling method. Data in this research were collected using
questionnaire in Google Form as the instrument, then the data were analyzed using
simple regression and Sobel test with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics application.
The result shows that rebranding has positive effect fo consumer loyality; brand
image has positive effect to consumer loyality; rebranding has positive effect to
brand image. Besides, Sobel test result shows that the value of t-count < t-table
(1.248 < 1.984), so it can be concluded that brand image does not mediating the
rebranding effect to consumer loyality for the Gojek users. The result of this
research can be used as a suggestion for the marketings (especially for marketing
or a company that is willing to do logo rebranding) to see how the effect of
rebranding is to consumer loyality with brand image as the mediating variable.
Copyright © Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Badan Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics) recorded the total population in Indonesia,
which reached 269.9 million people in 2019 (BPS, 2019). The total of active internet users according to
We Are Social’s data reached 150 million users or 56% from the Indonesian total population (Riyanto,
2019). It was recorded that 96% of the total internet users in Indonesia have used e-commerce or doing
online transactions, and Indonesia is one of the biggest internet users in Asia in 2019 (Solihin, 2020;
Sudaryana et al., 2020). With the high number of e-commerce and internet users in Indonesia, it shows
that the public is aware to technological change in recent days (Anwar, 2017; Kurniati, 2017). As an
example, Gojek is on of the most used e-commerce in Indonesia.
Gojek is a Indonesian-origin company engaging online transportation service sector founded by
Nadiem Makarim on 13 October 2010 with call-center booking as the main service. In 2015, Gojek
launched an application with three main services, such as; GoSend, GoMart and GoRide. From these three
main services, they are getting well-known by the public (Everlin & Erlyana, 2020; Syafariansyah, 2018).
Driver partners now have reached more than 2,000,000 partners, 400,000 merchant partners and 60,000
service providers in Southeast Asia. Along the way, Gojek has been rapidly growing and become the
biggest technology group who serves millions of users in Southeast Asia. In 2019, the value of Gojek
reaches USD 10 million, and was certified to bear decacorn status.
One of marketing strategies in changing the company image is rebranding or the change of brand
(Miller et al., 2014; Rasyid & Rizqina, 2019). A company that changes its name or logo will have a positive
effect if the strategy, communication, product and service are consistent and in tune (Rosyada, 2018;
Tjiptono, 2015). Rebranding strategy will make the company to be able to have a new concept, image and
identity, and the company will also renew its repositioning to maintain the existing customers and to
attrach new customers (Hanson et al., 2009). Nowadays, consumers are more aware to the brand
information that is being offered by producers in a very open market competition (Chrisandi, 2014).
In the midst of competition, Gojek did a logo rebranding, exactly on 22 July 2019, which had been
identical with motorcycle symbol, now Gojek has a new logo shaping like an upside down on/off button
and was named Solv. One of the reasons to base the Gojek logo change was they would not only be
recognized as a ride hailing service, but Gojek also wanted to be recognized as an super app with 20
A R T I C L E I N F O
Article history:
Received 31 August 2020
Received in revised form
5 September 2020
Accepted 18 October 2020
Available online 01
November 2020
Keywords:
Rebranding, Brand Image,
Loyalitas Konsumen
International Journal of Social Science and Business, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2020, pp. 561-568 562
IJSSB. P-ISSN: 2614-6533 E-ISSN: 2549-6409
services that ease the users in their daily lives. The goal of this rebranding is to update and refresh the
brand image and to recover a deficient brand image (Aspizain, 2014; Rasyid & Rizqina, 2019).
This research uses rebranding as the independent variable and consumer loyality as the dependent
variable. In the previous researches, as done by (Wiranata & Yuldinawati, 2014)) on Fourspeed Nomad as
the object, got a positive result that rebranding has a significant effect on consumer loyality , then on
(Sucipto, 2018) research on celebrity fitness in Puri Indah Mall, shows a positive result that rebranding
significantly affecting the brand image, and in (Winata & Andjarwati, 2018)) on PO Sugeng Rahayu as the
object, got a result that rebranding positively affecting the brand image and significant change in
consumer loyality. Meanwhile, in (Sufiatno, 2016) research with Frisian Flag as the object, found a
negative result, that rebranding does not affect consumer loyality. The previous research was done by
(Kaihatu, 2012; Thomas, 2016; Winata & Andjarwati, 2018) using brand image variable as the mediating
variable.
Reinvestigation and replication about rebranding is done based on research by (Winata &
Andjarwati, 2018) because there is a different result with the research done by (Sufiatno, 2016), which got
a negative result that rebranding does not affect the Frisian Flag consumer loyality, then an interest
emerged to study about rebranding and to bring up a new phenomenon, which was Gojek that changed its
logo or so-called rebranding.
Based on research by (Winata & Andjarwati, 2018), this research is also using brand image as the
mediating variable because it is believed that it strengthens the connection between rebranding and
consumer loyality indirectly, which is supported by (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2008) theory saying that a
positive brand image will have a strong bond with loyality in buying products, having trust and thinking
positive values to find that particular brand. Then it is supported by (Thomas, 2016) research saying that
brand image as mediating variable could strengthen the effect of rebranding to consumer loyality, and
according to (Maunaza, 2012), a good brand image, emotionally will make a satisfaction for consumers
that give impression to a brand, which leads to continuous buying.
The goal of this research is to analyze the effect of rebranding to the brand image, to analyze the
effect of brand image to consumer loyality, to analyze the effect of rebranding to consumer loyality and to
analyze the effect of brand image as the mediating variable between rebranding and consumer loyality of
Gojek users in Salatiga.
2. Method
The method used in this research is quantitative research with formulating hypothesis method first
in form of interrogative sentences, and then continued by using statistical calculation to know whether the
proposed hypothesis could be denied or accepted based on the existing data (Hidayat & Firdaus, 2014).
The data source for this research is the primary data. Primary data means that the data were taken from
questionnaire result from active consumers using Gojek as the respondent.
For every variable, the definition is taken from multiple sources written in Table 1.
Table 1. Operational Variable Definition
Variable dan Variable Definition
Dimension
Indicator
Rebranding
An act done twice to create a new name,
symbol, term, tag line, and design that
represents the change of stakeholders’
paradigm and differentiates the identity with
the competitors (Muzellec & Lambkin, 2006;
Winata & Andjarwati, 2018).
1. Repositioning
2. Renaming
3. Redesign
4. Relaunching
1. Consumer knows
Gojek logo change
2. Gojek logo change
gives new
characteristic
3. Gojek new logo seems
more elegant and
attractive
4. Gojek new logo is easy
to remember and up to
date
International Journal of Social Science and Business, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2020, pp. 561-568 563
Andre Prayoga1, Eko Suseno2/ The Positive Impact of Rebranding to Increasing Consumer loyality with Brand Image
as the Mediating Variable
Variable dan Variable Definition
Dimension
Indicator
Brand Image
How the actual point of view of a brand by
the consumers (Kotler & Keller, 2009;
Maharani, 2020).
1. Favorable of
brand
association
2. Uniqueness of
brand
association
3. Strength of
brand
association
1. Explaining products or
service (innovative)
2. Having a unique
characteristic
3. Giving positive value
4. Reflecting the identity
of product or service
Consumer Loyality
Positive consumers commitment for a long-
term buying to a store or brand (Dasuki,
2017; Griffin, 2005; Tjiptono, 2002).
1. Premium loyality
2. Hidden loyality
3. Weak loyality
4. No loyality
1. Consumers
recommending Gojek
to potential consumers
2. Consumers are not
attracted to other
competitors
3. Consumers routinely
transacting repeatedly
4. Consumers doing
buying in every
product lines
This research is using purposive sampling technique, where the sampling is done by setting a
specific criterion that corresponds the goal of this research (Fianto et al., 2014). This research using
Google Form as the data-collecting media which was done in Salatiga, this method is used because of the
place and time limitations of COVID-19 that forces the online-based research to be done. The population in
this research is Gojek actie users, including active transaction via Gojek application. Sample in this
research is Gojek active users with criteria; as a user minimum or more than 1 year, doing active
transaction twice a week using Gojek application, users who are transacting after Gojek made a
rebranding and users who know the Gojek logo change. The amount of sample in this research is 100
respondents.
In this research, questionnaire is used as the data-collecting method; the questionnaires are
spreaded to respondent who qualifies the criteria. Questionnaire is written in interrogative sentences in
Likert scale, with the answer scale as follows; Sangat Tidak Setuju or Completely Disagree (1), Tidak Setuju
or Disagree (2), Netral or Neutral (3), Setuju or Agree (4), Sangat Setuju or Completely Agree (5) (Fristiana
et al., 2012).
To verify the hypothesis proposed, then the validity and reliability test to know whether the
questionnaire is valid or not (Rusman, 2016). Then, classic assumption test is done using SPSS 26
software program. The classic assumption test includes normality test, to find out the normal or abnormal
data frequency distribution, then heteroscedasticity test to find out variant uncomfortness in a regression
model from residual in one to another observation, then multicolinearity test to find out whether there is
correlation between independent variable and dependent variable in regression model, and linearity test
to know whether the specification of a model is valid or not (Ghozali, 2018).
Afterwards, to test the effect of mediating variable, simple regression analyses are done first, and
then analyze the path using Online Sobel Test. In simple regression analysis, the connections between
variables are linear, where the change of X variables will be followed by Y variable constantly, meanwhile,
path analysis with sobel test is done to test the effect of mediating variable (Pratama, 2015).
After that, Determination Coefficient test (R Square) is done, aiming to test gooness-fit from the
model of a regressin, then there is Simultant Test (F test) to know the effect of all the independent
variables altogether / simultant with the dependent variables, and then Partial Test / T Test to show how
far is one variable to another (Manik & Syafrina, 2018).
International Journal of Social Science and Business, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2020, pp. 561-568 564
IJSSB. P-ISSN: 2614-6533 E-ISSN: 2549-6409
3. Results and Discussions
Results
Table 2. Respondent Characteristics Distribution
From the data in the above table, it shows that all respondents are certified for sam pling. The most
respondent is in the age range of 18-25, as much as 95%. Male as much as 52 men, or 52%, and Students
are dominating the respondents, as much as 88% doing transaction 2-3 times in a week.
Hypothesis Test
Rebranding towards Brand Image
Table 3. Regression Test 1 Result
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std. Error
1
(Constant)
4.926
1.544
3.191
.002
rebranding
.455
.061
7.451
.000
Y= 4.926 + 0.455 X + e
Based on simple linear regression equation, the result of regression coefficient is 4.926, which
means if rebranding variable (X) is 0, then the brand image variable (Z) will still be 4.926 and every
increment one unit in rebranding variable, it will increase brand image as much as 0.455 units.
Responden Characteristic
Frequency
Percentage
Age
<17 Years old
18-25 Years old
26-35 Years old
36-45 Years old
>46 Years old
1
95
1
2
1
1%
95%
1%
2%
1%
TOTAL
100
100%
Gender
Male
Female
52
48
52%
48%
TOTAL
100
100%
Job
Students
Entrepreneur
Employee
State Civil Apparatus
Housewife
84
6
9
0
1
84%
6%
9%
0%
1%
TOTAL
100
100%
Having Gojek Application
Yes
No
100
0
100%
0%
TOTAL
100
100%
Knowing Gojek Logo Change
Yes
No
100
0
100%
0%
TOTAL
100
100%
Transaction using Gojek in a week
0-1 Times
2-3 Times
4-5 Times
>6 Times
0
88
7
5
0%
88%
7%
5%
TOTAL
100
100%
International Journal of Social Science and Business, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2020, pp. 561-568 565
Andre Prayoga1, Eko Suseno2/ The Positive Impact of Rebranding to Increasing Consumer loyality with Brand Image
as the Mediating Variable
Brand Image towards Consumer Loyality
Table 4. Regression Test 2 Result
Y= 8.906 + 0.385 Z + e
Based on simple linear regression equation, the result of regression coefficient is 8.906 which
means if rebranding variable (X) is 0, then the consumer loyality variable (Y) will still be 8.906 and every
increment one unit in rebranding variable, it will increase brand image as much as 0.385 units.
Rebranding towards Consumer Loyality
Table 5. Regression Test 3 Result
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized Coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std. Error
Beta
1
(Constant)
6.640
2.157
3.078
.003
rebranding
.341
.085
.375
4.003
.000
Y= 6,640 + 0,341 X + e
Based on simple linear regression equation, the result of regression coefficient is 6.640, which
means if rebranding variable (X) is 0, then the consumer loyality variable (Y) will still be 6.640 and every
increment one unit in rebranding variable, it will increase consumer loyality as much as 0.341 units.
Determination Coefficient Test
Rebranding towards Brand Image
Based on R Square test result on rebranding towards brand image, the value of R Square from this
regression model is 0.362. The competence of independent variable in explaining the variants of
dependent variable is 36.2%. This means that there are 63.8% variants of variable that is being explained
by other variables outside the research.
Brand Image towards Consumer Loyality
Based on R Square test result on brand image towards consumer loyality, the value of R Square
from this regression model is 0.102. The competence of independent variable in explaining the variants of
dependent variable is 10.2%. This means that there are 89.8% variants of variable that is being explained
by other variables outside the research.
Rebranding towards Consumer Loyality
Based on R Square test result on rebranding towards consumer loyality, the value of R Square from
this regression model is 0.141. The competence of independent variable in explaining the variants of
dependent variable is 14.1%. This means that there are 85.9% variants of variable that is being explained
by other variables outside the research.
Rebranding and Brand Image towards Consumer Loyality
Based on R Square test result on rebranding towards consumer loyality, the value of R Square from
this regression model is 0.154. The competence of independent variable in explaining the variants of
dependent variable is 84.6%. This means that there are 84.6% variants of variable that is being explained
by other variables outside the research.
F Test Result
F Test or so-called simultaneous test/model test/anova test, is a test to know the effect all of the
independent variable simultaneously to their dependent variable. From statistic test result above, Sig. F
Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std. Error
1
(Constant)
8.906
1.908
4.669
.000
brand image
.385
.115
3.338
.001
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IJSSB. P-ISSN: 2614-6533 E-ISSN: 2549-6409
value is 0.000, less than alpha 0.05, can be concluded that rebranding and brand image variable are
strongly affecting the consumer loyality simultaneously.
T Test Result
From linear regression result analysis, with comparing the value of Sig. from each variable with the
alpha value is 0.05, if the analysis Sig. result is less than 0.05 then the hypothesis will be accepted, but if it
is more than 0.05, the hypothesis is denied.
Rebranding variable has positive effect on brand image variable because the significancy value is
0.000 so that is’s less than 0.05. So, the first hypothesis, H1: Rebranding has positive effect towards brand
image is accepted. Brand image variable has positive effect on consumer loyality variable because the
significancy value is 0.001, so that this is less than alpha 0.05. So, the second hypothesis, H2: Brand image
has positive effect towards consumer loyality is accepted. Rebranding variable has positive effect on
consumer loyality variable because the significancy value is 0.000, so that this is less than alpha 0.05. So,
the third hypothesis, H3: Rebranding has positive effect on consumer loyality is accepted.
Sobel Test Result
Mediating hypothesis testing can be done with procedures developed by Sobel and is known as
Sobel Test. Sobel test is done by testing the indirect effect strength of X to Z, through Y. Indirect effet of X
to Z through Y is calculated by shifting X-Y line (a) with Y-Z line (b) or ab path. So the coefficient of ab = (c’
c), where the c is the effect of X towards Z withouth controlling Y, meanwhile the c’ is the effect
coefficient of X towards Z after controlling Y (Sarwono, 2010).
Figure 1. Sobel Test Result
Direct Effect
X Z = 0.601
ZY = 0.147
XY = 0.286
Indirect Effect
X Z Y = 0.088
Total Effect
X Z Y = 0.601 + 0.147 = 0.748
From calculation formula, the value of count t is 1.24471027 and the value of table t is 1.984. Based
on this result, it can be concluded that this research has no mediating effect by brand image variable
between rebranding variable and consumer loyality variable.
Discussions
Based on statistical test result, rebranding variable has positive effect on brand image variable with
0.000 value of probability, so this value is less than alpha 0.05. This result is supported by previous
research having the result of rebranding variable has positive effect on brand image variable (Rosyada,
2018; Sucipto, 2018; Wardani & Wibowo, 2017; Winata & Andjarwati, 2018).
This matter shows that rebranding by Gojek management affecting Gojek’s brand image. This is
because rebranding is one of the strategies done to create a positive image for a brand to the perception
by the consumers. Can be seen from the average anwers in rebranding variable that showing “Knowing
Gojek Logo Change” is categorized as “Very High” with mean value of 4.5 and “Gojek new logo seems more
International Journal of Social Science and Business, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2020, pp. 561-568 567
Andre Prayoga1, Eko Suseno2/ The Positive Impact of Rebranding to Increasing Consumer loyality with Brand Image
as the Mediating Variable
elegant and attractive” is “Very High” with mean value of 4.26. This means that people who use Gojek
application admit that when Gojek changed its logo, the brand image from Gojek brand seems better and
makes Gojek having a unique logo and characteristics. People also realize that Gojek logo seems more
elegant and this is what makes Gojek consumers judging Gojek made its brand image better through the
logo change.
Then the statistical test result on brand image variable, has positive effect on consumer loyality
variable with 0.001, so the amount is less than alpha 0.05. The result of this research is in accordance with
the previous researches that also showing brand image having a positive effect on consumer loyality
(Wijayanto, 2013; Winata & Andjarwati, 2018). It can be seen in the respondents’ answers on brand image
indicator showing a high average with mean value of 4.19 in “New logo give a unique characteristic from
Gojek product services (logo design or shape)”, which means that when Gojek changed their logo, people
evaluated that Gojek new logo gave a distinct identity from Gojek product services (Maharani, 2020).
Gojek new logo also felt to give a positive aspect to Gojek product services from the perspective of Gojek
users. Consumer also agrees that Gojek logo change can also show a more innovative service from Gojek.
From this statement, we could conclude that the better a brand image is, the higher the consumer loyality
to that product. Brand image made by Gojek from logo change could give its consumers to be loyal to the
services inside the Gojek application (Everlin & Erlyana, 2020).
As well as the statistical test result on rebranding variable that shows a positive effect on consumer
loyality variable with 0.000 probability score, less than alpha 0.05. The result is supporting the research
done by (Winata & Andjarwati, 2018; Wiranata & Yuldinawati, 2014) which stated that rebranding has a
positive effect on consumer loyality. It can be seen on the respondents’ answer with mean value of 4.29,
which is categorized as Sangat Tinggi (Very High) on the statement “Consumer knows Gojek logo change”
and “Gojek new logo seems more elegant and attractive” with 4.2 mean value, categorized as Sangat Tinggi
(Very High), means that Gojek consumer loyality shows when Gojek changed its logo. Consumer knows
that Gojek made a logo change and they are still loyal to Gojek. Consumer also agrees that Gojek logo
seems more elegant, so that they are attracted to the new logo and showing their loyality to Gojek as a
consumer.
However, on the Sobel Test result, it shows the value of count t < table t as much as 1.244 < 1.984.
With this result, it is stated that brand image does not mediating the effect of rebranding to Gojek
consumer loyality. Rebranding of Gojek logo is affecting Gojek consumers directly without brand image,
because consumer will still be loyal to Gojek because they assume if using Gojek application will ease them
in fulfilling their needs even with the logo change. But in this matter, Gojek management has succeed to do
rebranding even if the brand image’s role does not mediate between the rebranding and consumer
loyality of Gojek in Salatiga.
The result of this research could be used as the suggestion for the marketing-person (for seller or a
company willing to do logo rebranding) to see how the effect is of rebranding to consumer loyality
through brand image as the mediating variable. It is suggested that the marketing or the company to try to
elevate the brand image from a brand, so to have a big impact on consumer loyality of a brand, and this
research can also be used as an addition to the literature of rebranding, brand image and consumer
loyality, especially for Gojek.
4. Conclusion
This research proves that there is positive impact from brand image to Gojek users in Salatiga, and
then positive impact from brand image to Gojek consumer loyality in Salatiga, and also the positive effect
on rebranding to Gojek consumer loyality in Salatiga. But in this research, brand image’s role as mediating
variable was proven to not mediating the rebranding and consumer loyality. Gojek logo rebranding affects
Gojek consumers directly without brand image, because they will still be loyal, assuming that Gojek
application will still ease them to fulfill their needs even with the logo change on Gojek, and without
looking at the image of Gojek itself.
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