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Navigating Social Norms and Animal Welfare in Hunted Animals

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Climate change presents significant challenges to human health and biodiversity. Increased numbers of extreme climate events, such as heat waves, droughts or flooding, threaten human health and well-being, both directly and indirectly, through impaired ecosystem functioning and reduced ecosystem services. In addition, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases is rising, causing ill health and accelerating costs to the health sector. Nature-based solutions, such as the provision and management of biodiversity, can facilitate human health and well-being, and mitigate the negative effects of climate change. The growing recognition of the importance of biodiversity’s contribution to human health offers great potential for maximising synergies between public health, climate change adaptation and nature conservation. This book identifies the contribution of biodiversity to physical, mental and spiritual health and well-being in the face of climate change, and considers implications across multiple sectors.
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Many new and highly variable data are currently being produced by the many participants in farmed animal productions systems. These data hold the promise of new information with potential value for animal health surveillance. The current analytical paradigm for dealing with these new data is to implement syndromic surveillance systems, which focus mainly on univariate event detection methods applied to individual time series, with the goal of identifying epidemics in the population. This approach is relatively limited in the scope and not well-suited for extracting much of the additional information that is contained within these data. These approaches have value and should not be abandoned. However, an additional, new analytical paradigm will be needed if surveillance and disease control agencies wish to extract additional information from these data. We propose a more holistic analytical approach borrowed from complex system science that considers animal disease to be a product of the complex interactions between the many individuals, organizations and other factors that are involved in, or influence food production systems. We will discuss the characteristics of farmed animal food production systems that make them complex adaptive systems and propose practical applications of methods borrowed from complex system science to help animal health surveillance practitioners extract additional information from these new data.
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Emerging and re-emerging pathogens exhibit very complex dynamics, are hard to model and difficult to predict. Their dynamics might appear intractable. However, new statistical approaches—rooted in dynamical systems and the theory of stochastic processes—have yielded insight into the dynamics of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. We argue that these approaches may lead to new methods for predicting epidemics. This perspective views pathogen emergence and re-emergence as a “critical transition,” and uses the concept of noisy dynamic bifurcation to understand the relationship between the system observables and the distance to this transition. Because the system dynamics exhibit characteristic fluctuations in response to perturbations for a system in the vicinity of a critical point, we propose this information may be harnessed to develop early warning signals. Specifically, the motion of perturbations slows as the system approaches the transition.
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The international community and governmental organizations are actively calling for the implementation of One Health (OH) surveillance systems to target health hazards that involve humans, animals, and their environment. In our view, the main characteristic of a OH surveillance system is the collaboration across institutions and disciplines operating within the different sectors to plan, coordinate, and implement the surveillance process. However, the multisectoral organizational models and possible collaborative modalities implemented throughout the surveillance process are multi-fold and depend on the objective and context of the surveillance. The purpose of this study is to define a matrix to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of multisectoral collaboration through an in-depth analysis of its organization, implementation, and functions. We developed a first list of evaluation attributes based on (i) the characteristics of the organization, implementation, and functionality of multisectoral surveillance systems; and (ii) the existing attributes for the evaluation of health surveillance systems and OH initiatives. These attributes were submitted to two rounds of expert-opinion elicitation for review and validation. The final list of attributes consisted of 23 organizational attributes and 9 functional attributes, to which 3 organizational indexes were added measuring the overall organization of collaboration. We then defined 75 criteria to evaluate the level of satisfaction for the attributes and indexes. The criteria were scored following a four-tiered scoring grid. Graphical representations allowed for an easy overview of the evaluation results for both attributes and indexes. This evaluation matrix is the first to allow an in-depth analysis of collaboration in a multisectoral surveillance system and is the preliminary step toward the creation of a fully standalone tool for the evaluation of collaboration. After its practical application and adaptability to different contexts are field-tested, this tool could be very useful in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of collaboration occurring in a multisectoral surveillance system.
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There is growing interest in evidence-based conservation, yet there are no widely accepted standard definitions of evidence, let alone guidance on how to use it in the context of conservation and natural resource management practice. In this paper, we first draw on insights of evidence-based practice from different disciplines to define evidence as being the "relevant information used to assess one or more hypotheses related to a question of interest." We then construct a typology of different kinds of information, hypotheses, and evidence and show how these different types can be used in different steps of conservation practice. In particular, we distinguish between specific evidence used to assess project hypotheses and generic evidence used to assess generic hypotheses. We next build on this typology to develop a decision tree to support practitioners in how to appropriately use available specific and generic evidence in a given conservation situation. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of how to better promote and enable evidence-based conservation in both projects and across the discipline of conservation. Our hope is that by understanding and using evidence better, conservation can both become more effective and attract increased support from society. K E Y W O R D S adaptive management, biodiversity, environmental evidence, evidence-based conservation, evidence-based practice, natural resource management, project management
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The Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) proudly announces the availability of the third edition of its textbook, Health Promotion Programs: From Theory to Practice. The 432-page textbook is an essential reference for undergraduate and graduate students in health education, public health, nursing, allied health, and other medical professions and practitioners, managers, researchers, and instructors who are responsible for teaching, researching, designing, or leading health promotion programs. This third edition explores the history of health promotion programs over the last 30 years, augmented with contemporary evidence-based research, practice, and policy related to social justice, diversity, equity, and inclusion. Additional tenets of the updated edition, available in both hard and soft copy, are the latest HESPA II 2020 Areas of Responsibility and Competencies for Health Education Specialists and the HHS Healthy People 2030 Objectives for the Nation. Co- editor Carl I. Fertman, PhD, MBA, MCHES®, emeritus associate professor, University of Pittsburgh writes, “This third edition is grounded in the latest theory-based guidance for assessing, planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining health promotion programs. More than 40 health promotion researchers and practitioners have contributed their pragmatic experience and expertise as chapter authors.” Each of the text’s 17 chapters includes learning objectives; tables, figures, and sidebars; practice and discussion questions; lists of key terms; and recommendations for student self-reflection and application of the content. “We are especially pleased to offer faculty expanded ancillaries designed for in-person, online and hybrid course formats,” says co- editor Melissa L. Grim, PhD, CHES®, professor and chair of the Department of Health and Human Performance at Radford University. “In addition to PowerPoint lecture slides, test exam questions, and syllabi, this edition will feature scenario-based challenge projects that promote skill development in needs assessment, health communication, advocacy, and other contemporary areas of health promotion practice.” SOPHE’s textbook also can be used as a desk reference by those studying for the exam as a Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES®). Foundational theories and health promotion program planning models are covered as well as approaches for addressing racial and ethnic health equity and for engaging vulnerable and underserved population groups. Instructors can order desk review copies of Health Promotion Programs: From Theory to Practice by contacting Jossey-Bass. National SOPHE members are eligible for a 15% discount. Contact info@sophe.org for the discount code.
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This article will examine how agency is circulated through human and non-human worlds in the creation and maintenance of society from an Indigenous point of view. Through processes of colonization, the corruption of essential categories of Indigenous conceptions of the world (the feminine and land) has led to a disconnect between how this agency is manifested in Indigenous societies. Through a comparison between the epistemological-ontological divide and an Indigenous conception of Place-Thought, this article will argue that agency has erroneously become exclusive to humans, thereby removing non-human agency from what constitutes a society. This is accomplished in part by mythologizing Indigenous origin stories and separating out communication, treaty-making, and historical agreements that human beings held with the animal world, the sky world, the spirit world, etc. In order for colonialism to operationalize itself, it must attempt to make Indigenous peoples stand in disbelief of themselves and their histories. This article attempts to reaffirm this sacred connection between place, non-human and human in an effort to access the “pre-colonial mind”.
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The second edition of this book contains 32 chapters divided into 4 main sections that discuss the theoretical foundations of One Health; methods, skills and perspectives for the practice of One Health; the application of One Health in infectious and non-infectious diseases and governance and capacity building, all of which are related to the global issues of the prevention and control of animal, plant and human diseases in the wake of drug resistance by pathogens, biodiversity loss, natural disasters, climate change and the recent COVID-19 novel coronavirus pandemic.
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In the fast changing global business, knowledge management (KM) has emerged as an integral part of business strategy. Many business organizations have implemented KM and many are in the process of its implementation. KM implementation is adversely affected by few factors which are known as KM barriers. The objective of this paper is to develop the relationships among the identifiedKMbarriers. Further, this paper is also helpful to understand mutual influences of barriers and to identify those barriers which support other barriers (driving barrier) and also those barriers which are most influenced by other barriers (dependent barriers). The interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology is used to evolve mutual relationships among these barriers. KM barriers have been classified, based on their driving power and dependence power. The objective behind this classification is to analyze the driving power and dependence power of these barriers.
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Health impacts of climate change are now inevitable. The objective of this study was to see if animal health climate change adaptation was a subject of scholarly inquiry, advice, or discussion and if there was an evidence base from which to make adaptation recommendations. A scoping review of English-language literature over the past 10 years was undertaken and the top findings related to animal health adaptation and climate change were inventoried on Google. Documents found in the search focussed predominantly on hypothesizing what hazards might occur with climate change, describing their spread or proposing possible impacts. Scant evidence was found of scholarship related to sustainable animal health climate change adaptation planning or action. Investment and attention to adaptation planning and research are needed to increase confidence in climate change recommendations in the face of continuing uncertainty about the breadth of effects on animal health and the best actions to take in preparing and responding to them.
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The social and ecological changes accompanying the Anthropocene require changes in how pandemics are anticipated, conceived, and managed. Pandemics need to be reframed from infections we can predict to inevitable infectious and non-communicable surprises with which we need to cope. A hazard-by-hazard approach to planning and response is insufficient when the next pandemic cannot be predicted. Decision-making will benefit from scoping the problem broadly to generate deeper insights into potential threats. The origins of pandemics come from our relationships with the world around us. Health leaders, therefore, need to be aware of primordial determinants of risk arising from these changing relationships. Cross-sectoral co-learning to anticipate surprise will require bridging agents embedded within a health agency to facilitate transdisciplinary intelligence gathering. A unified set of guidelines is needed to promote pandemic resilience by collaboratively tending to the determinants of health for each other, our communities, and the natural environment.
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Due diligence is a concept used to justify investment in wildlife health surveillance to satisfy trading partners and other animal health stakeholders. Canadian literature and legislation were reviewed and key informant interviews were used to determine if a wildlife surveillance due diligence standard existed. Wildlife surveillance is constrained by challenges that necessitate convenience and opportunistic sampling, making it difficult to apply surveillance performance standards from public or domestic animal health. Key informants cited due diligence to justify wildlife health surveillance activities but could not identify a due diligence threshold nor could regulations, international obligations, or the literature. The lack of a due diligence standard puts wildlife health surveillance managers at a disadvantage when trying to show public return on investment or when assessing the adequacy of surveillance efforts. Steps being taken by the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative to meet the performance needs of the Pan-Canadian Approach to Wildlife Health are introduced.
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The 1918 influenza pandemic is one of the most devastating infectious disease epidemics on record, having caused approximately 50 million deaths worldwide. Control measures, including prohibiting non-essential gatherings as well as closing cinemas and music halls, were applied with varying success and limited knowledge of transmission dynamics. One hundred years later, following developments in the field of mathematical epidemiology, models are increasingly used to guide decision-making and devise appropriate interventions that mitigate the impacts of epidemics. Epidemiological models have been used as decision-making tools during outbreaks in human, animal and plant populations. However, as the subject has developed, human, animal and plant disease modelling have diverged. Approaches have been developed independently for pathogens of each host type, often despite similarities between the models used in these complementary fields. With the increased importance of a One Health approach that unifies human, animal and plant health, we argue that more inter-disciplinary collaboration would enhance each of the related disciplines. This pair of theme issues presents research articles written by human, animal and plant disease modellers. In this introductory article, we compare the questions pertinent to, and approaches used by, epidemiological modellers of human, animal and plant pathogens, and summarize the articles in these theme issues. We encourage future collaboration that transcends disciplinary boundaries and links the closely related areas of human, animal and plant disease epidemic modelling. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Modelling infectious disease outbreaks in humans, animals and plants: approaches and important themes’. This issue is linked with the subsequent theme issue ‘Modelling infectious disease outbreaks in humans, animals and plants: epidemic forecasting and control’.
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Community-based capture–hold–release (CHR) aquariums were developed to (i) increase community connection to local marine environments by displaying local animals, (ii) avoid negative perceptions about holding animals by minimizing the time any individual is held captive, and (iii) operate with a low ecological footprint. CHR aquariums in British Columbia, Canada, require government-issued licences and permits to capture, hold, and release animals, a condition of which is that neither capture nor release can result in negative ecological, genetic, or disease impacts on wild populations in the collecting or receiving waters. Growth in the popularity of CHR aquariums is placing them under greater scrutiny from permitting agencies. Because of variability between facilities and a lack of performance standards, CHR aquariums cannot be assured of a consistent assessment. This paper proposes a CHR Aquarium Health Program that transparently and consistently provides assurances that they are socially and ecologically safe and recognizes the unique challenges of small-scaled, often rural aquariums. The value of this approach is discussed with respect to 10 years of implementation at the Ucluelet Aquarium.