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Effecting Of Candidate Image On Post-Voting Behaviour, Mediating Roll Of Voters' Satisfaction In Jordanian Parliament Election Using Hirschman Theory



The post-purchasing behavior and customer behavior have received a great attention in marketing research since a long time ago, whereas academic literature in the political marketing and voting behavior is still sparse, particularly factors that affecting on post-voting behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between candidate image and post-voting behavior (exit, voice, and loyalty). It also seeks to reviews the mediation role of voters' satisfaction in primary relationship to address the inconsistent findings in the previous studies.
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Effecting Of Candidate Image On Post-Voting Behaviour,
Mediating Roll Of Voters’ Satisfaction In Jordanian
Parliament Election Using Hirschman Theory
Akaileh A.Mustafa 1* , Fairol Bin Halim 1, 2, Maha Mohammed Yusr 1, 2, 3
School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, 06010, Malaysia
The post-purchasing behavior and customer behavior have received a great attention in marketing research
since a long time ago, whereas academic literature in the political marketing and voting behavior is still
sparse, particularly factors that affecting on post-voting behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to fill this
gap by examining the relationship between candidate image and post-voting behavior (exit, voice, and
loyalty). It also seeks to reviews the mediation role of voters' satisfaction in primary relationship to address
the inconsistent findings in the previous studies.
Keywords: Candidate image, voters’ satisfaction, post-voting behavior (Exit, Voice, Loyalty).
1. Introduction
Jordan is a semi-democratic monarchy in a tense aria, and surrounding by unstable situation countries,
particularly after the Arab spring revolutions (Christophersen, 2013; Rwashedh, 2013). All around the
world, participation in the parliament elections is an important part of the democratic process (de Miguel,
2015). The lack of intensity and substantive content in the messages which issued either by political parties
or independent candidates reflected disconnection with the socioeconomic situation in the country. Several
cases of extensive use of political money, vote-buying, and other fraud attempts marked the campaign
period (European UEO, 2013). Hence, figure 1 shown below, explains the declining and slightly fluctuating
in the proportion and number of voters participated during the electoral periods re-established in 1989.
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Figure 1 Jordanian Independent Election Commission Report (JIEC) (2016).
The chart above illustrates the real situation of declining parliament life of Jordon in terms of policy, issues,
and candidate image. From past eight election sessions, the percentage of voters in Jordan for the years
1989 was recorded at 68.8% followed by 62%, recorded in 1993, and 58% recorded in 1997, likewise 55%,
recorded in 2003 that is continuous declined. Further it reaches up to 53% in the year 2010, slightly
increase in 2013 recorded 55%, and sharp decline in 2016 recorded as 37% (Al-Momani, 2016; Harahsheh,
2010; IECR, 2016; JIEC, 2016).
Michael, (2009) highlights that the elections have become familiar in most monarchies states around the
Arabian countries.
The declining voting turnout ratio in Parliament elections affects political issues. This was observed in
Australia (Hughes & Dann, 2010), Turkey (Gullupunar & Gulluoglu, 2013), and USA (Gillespie, 2015). In
recent years, there is a detente in the context of Jordanian political case, and limited role of parties in the
democratic system, especially in the Jordanian Parliamentary elections (CFSS, 2015, JHOR, 2013, Al-
Azzam, 2012). That led to decay in the percentage of turnout from 68.8 percent in 1989 to 36.7 percent in
2016 over the last eight Parliamentary elections (JIEC, 2016). In recent years, the Jordan Parliament voters’
industry saw a gradual decline in the percentage of Party affiliation and the number of electoral voters from
68.8% in 1989 to 55% in 2016 (IECR, 2016), indicating the need to investigate the reason of gradually
decline (Al-Momani, 2016). Specifically, there is a need to investigate the factors that could influence post-
voting behaviour towards generating repetitive visits and votes parties’ loyalty.
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The political marketing industry is viewed as a multi-billion-dollar industry (Alsamydai & Khasawneh,
2013), billions of dollars spent on political issues, such as, political brand, winning the election from each
cycle, that lead to democratic life permitting them to practice their policy upon the public, changing the
landscape of political and policy of their nation, country, or state (Weber, 2016). The total spending of
political issues in the 2012 USA elections in the run of election win was around $7 billion, and may be rises
up to approximately $11.4 billion in the next election session 2016 (Buttrill, 2016). In general, to influence
on voter decision making and to increase the political market share (Guzzman, Paswan & Van, 2015;
Winchester, Hall & Binney, 2014).
2. Post-voting behaviour
In the field of marketing, most previous studies in consumer behaviour only focuses on pre-purchase
decision-making process (for example, searching for information, confidence, attitude, purchase
preferences, E-Word of mouth, and purchase intentions (Mohammed & Sadia, 2013; Cantallops, & Salvi,
2014; Pescher, Reichhart, & Spann, 2014). Post-purchase activity usually involves a series of steps that the
user evaluates the performance to consider the product and compared to the expected level of performance
that are affected by the congruence or discrepancy (Gilly and Gelb, 1982; Woodruff, Cadotte, & Jenkins,
1983; Bearden & Teel, 1983; Oliver, 1980; Park, & Rao, 2015). As such, this study attempts to explore new
approach to study the phenomenon of electoral politics, by using of marketing theories.
According to Kotler & Armstrong, (2001) consumer buying process extends not only when the user has
finished buying goods or services. But also, after purchase, namely, post-purchase behaviour. The user may
achieve satisfaction or not. It relies on two factors, namely the user’s expectations and performance. In the
political marketing, when associated with this study, the Post-voting behaviour is assumed will determine
whether voters will continue to vote for the same party/candidate or they will leave and choose the others.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. Decision-making process of consumers.
In the political marketing context, according to several previous literature (Kaleli & Eroglu, 2016; John,
2015; Halim & Ishak, 2014), voter’s response (post-voting behavior) is an important aspect that has not
been given sufficient focus in the current literature on the voters’ perspective. However, from supporting
point of view there are a small number of empirical studies on public organizations that have generated
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innovations in the exit, voice, and loyalty (EVL) framework that have not seen in other parts of the
Hirschman universe (John, 2015). Therefore, it is appropriate need to address these variables in current
study affecting voters’ decision making and their motives that aggravate post-voting response (Davies &
Mian, 2010).
This model is widely tested in several fields, for example in the organisation or work, employees will look
for a better job or (exit), continue to work to improve the situation by voice, or remain in the organisation,
or support organisation (loyalty). In the marketing field, the users will switch to other providers or change
brands (exit), raised their complaints to the supplier or dealer by (voice), or continue to buy the same brand
or goods (loyalty). In the situation of the country, the citizen can be moved to another country (exit),
voicing their dissatisfaction, or remain in the country. In particular, the couple relationship, they are not
happy to take any action to leave their partner, talk with their partners to fix a problem or remain loyal to
their spouse (Hirschman 1970, 1994). This study tried to see whether the three responses proposed by
Hirschman appropriate to describe what happens after the elections in political situation (post-voting
3. Candidate image
In the field of political marketing, candidate image is important factor and main concept in political
marketing field (Davies & Mian, 2010; Kaleli & Eroglu, 2016). Nimmo & Savage (1976) identified
candidate image is the “best single predictor of voting behavior”. Several researchers concluded that
candidate image has a more powerful influence on voting behavior than the issues of the election (Clark,
1979). The importance of building and management of candidate image was found to have a great influence
in the success of political marketing (Khatib, 2012). It needs to study, especially, from the voters’
perspective in political system with high spending at the time of election campaigns, (Akhmad & Azhar,
2015; Aygoren & Yilmaz, 2015; Halim & Ishak, 2014).
Using Hirschman theory, Halim and Ishak (2014) presented that measuring voters’ response cannot be
accomplished without considering the factors that affecting on it directly or indirectly. In short, with
complete understanding of Hirschman theory creates a better idea about voters’ response (post-voting
behavior) to political issues under this study. This similar to those of previous studies (Newman, 1999).
Moreover, there is the limited study on post-voting behavior that has used Hirschman theory as an
underpinning theory previously (Halim & Ishak, 2014). The theory needs to be tested to see this extent of
influence of candidate image in further developing the theory. Thus, Cwalina, Falkowski, and Newman,
(2010) opined that external and other variables such as candidate image, need to be considered to improve
the strength of response theories (Davies & Mian, 2010; Schofield 2015).
Halim and Ishak, (2014), they discussed the definition of post-voting behavior in the Malaysian general
election, as one of the East Asia constitutional monarchy countries. However, post-voting behaviour has not
been used and tested widely in Arab countries before, many theories and studies have been conducted about
the voting behaviour, pre-voting behaviour, in political science and marketing field (Berelson, Lazarsfeld &
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McPhee, 1954; Campbell, Converse, Miller & Stokes, 1960; Tekade, Magade, & Mendhe, 2016; Wolfinger
& Rosenstones, 1980; Zucco, 2013). This study is contributed to solve such problems and reduce their
impact and to extend the political marketing research depending on the Hirschman model 1970.
4. Voters’ Satisfaction
According to Baron and Kenny (1986), there is a need for a intervine variable to explain the relationships
between (DV) and (IV’s). One possible mediator is satisfaction as one of the significant individual
characteristics (Hirschman, 1970; Halim & Ishak, 2014). This study aims to examine the influences of
voters’ individual characteristics (satisfaction) as a mediating variable between three variables which are,
policy, issue, candidate image and the voters’ response (post-voting behavior) with three dimensions (exit,
voice, and loyalty). Evidence suggests that customer satisfaction can mediate the relationship between
these factors (Chang & Chong, 2011; Alireza et al., 2011).
Satisfaction is defined “as an effective response to purchase situation” Satisfaction is a positive affective
reaction to an outcome of a prior experience. Then influences on subsequent purchases (Bennett et al.,
2005; Anderson & Narus, 1990; Ganesan, 1994; and Oliver, 1980). Satisfaction has been studied in various
areas of marketing like consumer services (Berry, 1983; Ndubisi & Wah, 2005), consumer markets (Giese
& Cote, 2000; Kahn, 1998), industrial markets (Abdul-Muhmin, 2005; Leuthesser & Kohli, 1995), and
international markets (Clemes, Gan, Kao, & Choong, 2008; Dickson & Zhang, 2004). User may achieve
satisfaction or not. It relies on two factors, namely the user’s expectations and performance. Three
conditions that would happen, first of all, if performance exceeds the expectations of consumers, then
consumers will be satisfied. The second situation is when performance is below expectations of users then
the user will experience dissatisfaction. The third situation is when expectation and performance are
equivalent to the user may be satisfied with a product or service bought (Kotler & Armstrong, 2001).
5. Conceptual framework
The model in this paper developed in the context of post-voting behaviour by mapping the relationships
between candidate image, voters’ satisfaction and post-voting behaviour(exit, voice, and loyalty). The
model represents an investigation mechanism in which this factor might potentially affect individuals
intention to revote to the same candidate in the next parliament session. Figure .3, shows the proposed
Figurem 3: A conceptual framework of post-voting behaviour through three dimentions (exit, voice, and
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Voter’s response (post-
voting behavior
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Figurem 3: A conceptual framework
6. Conclusion
Political marteting play a critical role in economic growth in democratic countries However, in Jordan, this
vital sector faces some problems. Political independent candidates took the assential role at the time of
elections. In the western countries, voters’ response (post-voting behaviour) spend a much marketing
efforts, while post-voting behaviour in Jordan did not adopt this strategy especially to know a voters’
response (exit, voice, and loyalty).
Voters’ response (post-voting behaviour) is affected by many variables, and this paper aims at identifying
the role of candidate image on post-voting behaviour exit, voice, and loyalty) among jordanian voters, and
mediating role of voters’ satisfaction in creating and maintaining the voters’ response. Since, there is a
debate in the literature about the significant relationship between candidate image, voters’ satisfaction on
post-voting behaviour. Based on that, this paper clarifies the role of these constructs, and it proposes a
conceptual framework for this relation; according to the literature review, there is limited research that has
examined this issue in the Arab context. Moreover, this paper will open the door for scholars for future
empirical studies, by adding an external factors that might include party characteristics as well as the role of
culture factors in local context and other countries which affect the voting decision-making.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study is designed to clarify the integral component and criteria of the success of the electoral candidate and its impact on the voters' selection decision (a case study of Jordanian voters). For the purpose of identifying the most important basic components that influence voters choice decision, the study's model was designed based on these criteria taking into consideration previous studies related to political and electoral marketing and extant political science research as well as the nature of the Jordanian environment. The model study was divided into five major dimensions which are (candidates' personal attributes, political background, candidates' credibility, communications and contact means used by the candidates and campaign management) and how they influence voters' selection decision. In addition, a hypothesis was developed for each dimension as well as another hypothesis was proposed in order to measure the significance of the relationship between the different components of the study's model.. In order to collect the data required for examining the hypotheses and drawing conclusions, a questionnaire consisting of (24) questions covering the dimensions and the hypotheses of the study, was designed. The design and development of this questionnaire was based on an initial pre-tested survey distributed to a sample consisting of (60)individuals who are eligible to participate in the Jordanian election. The initial survey was also pre-tested and evaluated by a panel of experts in marketing and politic specialists in order to assess the items within each construct. The questionnaire was then distributed to Jordanian citizens in Amman. Data collection resulted in (629) usable surveys for subsequent analysis. Certain statistical methods were adopted in data analysis and reaching results. The resulted of statistical analysis indicated acceptance of all hypotheses relating to the impact of the ingredients (Standards) included in the study to understand and choose the candidate and voter, but differently as well as the results indicate there is a correlation significance between the components of the model. JEL classification numbers: M310
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Albert Hirschman makes an important contribution to the study of public services with his book Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (197023. Hirschman, A. O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations and States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.View all references). Hirschman shows that exit and voice are the two main responses to dissatisfaction, with voice being more effective and desirable. His core claims are that a lack of exit opportunities increases voice, and loyalty reduces exit. The exit, voice and loyalty (EVL) framework is very suitable for understanding how public services can perform effectively and responsively as there are a range of exits and voices available to citizens and employees when they are dissatisfied. Though there are extensive citations of Hirschman relatively few scholars fully apply the framework. The main exceptions are the literatures on urban services and on intentions to exit by public employees. Yet the topics of service quality, performance, competition, choice and participation continue to be of core interest to scholars of public administration. Hirschman's insights and framework foster understanding of the relationships between different kinds of citizen responses to dissatisfaction and how to achieve better quality public services.
This research aims at identifying the attributes that were viewed by the Jordanian voters as suitable and qualifying for a member of the Lower House of Representatives in the elections of 2013. These attributes were put in the following order, the candidate’s ability to satisfy peoples’ demands of public services, the candidate’s academic qualifications, the candidate is not accused of corruption, the candidate’s ability to keep the executive authority accountable, the candidate is religious, the candidate’s kinship, the candidate’s male gender, the candidate’s family relationship, the candidate’s ability to draw legislations, the candidate’s economic situation, the candidate’s female gender, the candidate’s place of residence, whether the candidate would pay money for the vote, whether the candidate is a former MP and whether the candidate is a former Minister. The order of above attributes varied according to the voters’ categories, however, they have all agreed on the first two attributes which are: The candidate’s ability to satisfy peoples’ demands of public services and his academic qualification; the candidate being a former Minister came last. Keywords: Criteria, elections, House of Representatives, candidate, society.
A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships is presented and is assessed empirically on a sample of distributor firms and a sample of manufacturer firms. A multiple-informant research method is employed. Support is found for a number of the hypothesized construct relations and, in both manufacturer firm and distributor firm models, for the respecification of cooperation as an antecedent rather than a consequence of trust. Some implications for marketing practice are discussed briefly.
This study provides a critical discourse analysis of election advertisements in Jordanian society before and after the political uprisings in the Arab world, referred to as the "Arabic Spring", which started in 2011. It is argued here that these events have left traces on political advertisement. This study aims to uncover the shifts in discourse that have occurred in election advertisements since 2011. To this end, a sum of 150 advertisements from three election campaigns 2007, 2010 and 2013 was collected from different media sources during the campaigns of those elections. The data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis showed that the advertisements of 2013 elections manifested different strategies, addressing mostly sociopolitical issues, compared to the other two elections which showed little political concern and focused on socio-economic issues. It is hoped that this study will contribute to cross cultural understanding, multimodality and critical discourse analysis.
This article explores the theoretical underpinnings of the dissonance framework in online consumer satisfaction formation process. Specifically, we suggest that any discrepancy between pre- and post-purchase service performance would help determine consumers’ evaluations of online vendors. Drawing upon cognitive dissonance theory, a conceptual model is developed and tested in two different studies (preliminary and main studies). Using data from 191 college students collected longitudinally, the preliminary study demonstrates the validity and reliability of the measurements. Using a comparative analysis, the main study then tests our conceptual model as well as various competing models, including the expectation–confirmation model, with a sample of 292 online consumers. The results in both studies support our main prediction that the service encountered in different stages establishes dissonance. Specifically, we find that dissonance explains online consumers’ satisfaction process to a substantial extent, as compared with disconfirmation under the same conditions in online retailers. This study contributes to providing an alternative yet substantial approach for expectation–confirmation theory, reflecting the overarching nature of online shopping.