ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Austroboletus asper on soil, Cylindromonium alloxyli on leaves of Alloxylon pinnatum, Davidhawksworthia quintiniae on leaves of Quintinia sieberi, Exophiala prostantherae on leaves of Prostanthera sp., Lactifluus lactiglaucus on soil, Linteromyces quintiniae (incl. Linteromyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Quintinia sieberi, Lophotrichus medusoides from stem tissue of Citrus garrawayi, Mycena pulchra on soil, Neocalonectria tristaniopsidis (incl. Neocalonectria gen. nov.) and Xyladictyochaeta tristaniopsidis on leaves of Tristaniopsis collina, Parasarocladium tasmanniae on leaves of Tasmannia insipida, Phytophthora aquae-cooljarloo from pond water, Serendipita whamiae as endophyte from roots of Eriochilus cucullatus, Veloboletus limbatus (incl. Veloboletus gen. nov.) on soil. Austria, Cortinarius glaucoelotus on soil. Bulgaria, Suhomyces rilaensis from the gut of Bolitophagus interruptus found on a Polyporus sp. Canada, Cantharellus betularum among leaf litter of Betula, Penicillium saanichii from house dust. Chile, Circinella lampensis on soil, Exophiala embothrii from rhizosphere of Embothrium coccineum. China, Colletotrichum cycadis on leaves of Cycas revoluta. Croatia, Phialocephala melitaea on fallen branch of Pinus halepensis. Czech Republic, Geoglossum jirinae on soil, Pyrenochaetopsis rajhradensis from dead wood of Buxus sempervirens. Dominican Republic, Amanita domingensis on litter of deciduous wood, Melanoleuca dominicana on forest litter. France, Crinipellis nigrolamellata (Martinique) on leaves of Pisonia fragrans, Talaromyces pulveris from bore dust of Xestobium rufovillosum infesting floorboards. French Guiana, Hypoxylon hepaticolor on dead corticated branch. Great Britain, Inocybe ionolepis on soil. India, Cortinarius indopurpurascens among leaf litter of Quercus leucotrichophora. Iran, Pseudopyricularia javanii on infected leaves of Cyperus sp., Xenomonodictys iranica (incl. Xenomonodictys gen. nov.) on wood of Fagus orientalis. Italy, Penicillium vallebormidaense from compost. Namibia, Alternaria mirabibensis on plant litter, Curvularia moringae and Moringomyces phantasmae (incl. Moringomyces gen. nov.) on leaves and flowers of Moringa ovalifolia, Gobabebomyces vachelliae (incl. Gobabebomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Vachellia erioloba, Preussia procaviae on dung of Procavia capensis. Pakistan, Russula shawarensis from soil on forest floor. Russia, Cyberlindnera dauci from Daucus carota. South Africa, Acremonium behniae on leaves of Behnia reticulata, Dothiora aloidendri and Hantamomyces aloidendri (incl. Hantamomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Aloidendron dichotomum, Endoconidioma euphorbiae on leaves of Euphorbia mauritanica, Eucasphaeria proteae on leaves of Protea neriifolia, Exophiala mali from inner fruit tissue of Malus sp., Graminopassalora geissorhizae on leaves of Geissorhiza splendidissima, Neocamarosporium leipoldtiae on leaves of Leipoldtia schultzii, Neocladosporium osteospermi on leaf spots of Osteospermum moniliferum, Neometulocladosporiella seifertii on leaves of Combretum caffrum, Paramyrothecium pituitipietianum on stems of Grielum humifusum, Phytopythium paucipapillatum from roots of Vitis sp., Stemphylium carpobroti and Verrucocladosporium carpobroti on leaves of Carpobrotus quadrifolius, Suttonomyces cephalophylli on leaves of Cephalophyllum pilansii. Sweden, Coprinopsis rubra on cow dung, Elaphomyces nemoreus from deciduous woodlands. Spain, Polyscytalum pini-canariensis on needles of Pinus canariensis, Pseudosubramaniomyces septatus from stream sediment, Tuber lusitanicum on soil under Quercus suber. Thailand, Tolypocladium flavonigrum on Elaphomyces sp. USA, Chaetothyrina spondiadis on fruits of Spondias mombin, Gymnascella minnisii from bat guano, Juncomyces patwiniorum on culms of Juncus effusus, Moelleriella puertoricoensis on scale insect, Neodothiora populina (incl. Neodothiora gen. nov.) on stem cankers of Populus tremuloides, Pseudogymnoascus palmeri from cave sediment. Vietnam, Cyphellophora vietnamensis on leaf litter, Tylopilus subotsuensis on soil in montane evergreen broadleaf forest. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... A total of 171 species were compiled in the genus and listed in the latest monograph [3]. Furthermore, 26 new taxa were afterwards noted [1,[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Twenty of them are from Asia: T. albisclerotius B.D. Sun Southwestern China shows various climates, altitudes, and vegetations, and it is rich in fungal biodiversity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Species of Talaromyces are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous, and some are of industrial and medicinal importance. Species of Talaromyces have been successively reported in China. During our examinations of samples collected from southwestern China, two new species belonging to Talaromyces sect. Talaromyces were further discovered based on phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons. Talaromyces ginkgonis sp. nov., isolated from a partially colonized fruit of Ginkgo biloba, differs from closely-related fungi in the combination of conidia ellipsoidal, smooth and 3.5−4 × 2−3 µm, no growth on CYA at 37 • C and sequence divergences; T. shilinensis sp. nov. is distinguished from its related allies in the combination of smooth conidia, colonies 10−11 mm diameter on CYA at 25 • C and sequence differences. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the new taxa are given.
... In that study, 22 species names were synonymized, and two new combinations were proposed. More recently, five new species were described based on morphological and on multi loci phylogeny (Brahmanage et al., 2019;Marin-Felix et al., 2019;Crous et al., 2020). ...
... In that study, 22 species names were synonymized, and two new combinations were proposed. More recently, five new species were described based on morphological and on multi loci phylogeny (Brahmanage et al., 2019;Marin-Felix et al., 2019;Crous et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf blight and spot caused by Stemphylium spp. and Alternaria spp. are the most common destructive tomato diseases in north-western Algeria. During 2018 growing seasons, more than 30% of samples collected from plants grown in greenhouses or open fields were infected with Stemphylium. Initial symptoms were small, multiple, irregular to oval, yellow leaf spots, which enlarged to brown lesions later. In these lesions, Stemphylium mostly co-occurred with Alternaria spp. Twenty nine Stemphylium isolates were characterized based on morphological features, and multi-locus phylogenies using ITS, gpd, and cmdA genomic loci. Five Stemphylium species (S. lycopersici, S. gracilariae, S. eturmiunum, S. vesicarium, S. lycii) were associated with tomato leaf spot, of which S. lycii is a new report for tomato. Pathogenicity tests on healthy 2-months-old tomato seedlings reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in tomato rops. The tested fungus isolates differed in pathogenicity. Two isolates of S. lycopersici were more aggressive than those of the other species, causing major lesions on tomato plants. The five identified Stemphylium species are reported for the first time as new pathogens for tomato in Algeria, and S. lycopersici, S. gracilariae, S. eturmiunum, and S. lycii as new species of Algerian mycoflora.
... A functional role based on cellulolytic properties could also be implicated in the association of Talaromyces spp. with xylicolous Coleoptera. This is the case of Talaromyces pulveris, which has been very recently described based on an isolate from bore dust of the deathwatch beetle (Xestobium rufovillosum, Anobiidae) in France [32], while other findings concern the gut of the ribbed pine borer (Rhagium inquisitor, Cerambycidae) collected in Tatarstan (Russia) [43] and of the ambrosia/bark beetles (Curculionidae, Platypodinae and Scolytinae). In particular, many cases are known for species in the latter group, starting from Polygraphus poligraphus and Ips spp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Facing the urgent need to reduce the input of agrochemicals, in recent years, the ecological relationships between plants and their associated microorganisms have been increasingly considered as an essential tool for improving crop production. New findings and data have been accumulated showing that the application of fungi can go beyond the specific role that has been traditionally assigned to the species, employed in integrated pest management as entomopathogens or mycoparasites, and that strains combining both aptitudes can be identified and possibly used as multipurpose biocontrol agents. Mainly considered for their antagonistic relationships with plant pathogenic fungi, species in the genus Talaromyces have been more and more widely reported as insect associates in investigations carried out in various agricultural and non-agricultural contexts. Out of a total of over 170 species currently accepted in this genus, so far, 27 have been found to have an association with insects from 9 orders, with an evident increasing trend. The nature of their mutualistic and antagonistic relationships with insects, and their ability to synthesize bioactive compounds possibly involved in the expression of the latter kind of interactions, are analyzed in this paper with reference to the ecological impact and applicative perspectives in crop protection.
Article
Full-text available
Species of Paramyrothecium that are reported as plant pathogens and cause leaf spot or leaf blight have been reported on many commercial crops worldwide. In 2019, during a survey of fungi causing leaf spots on plants in Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son provinces, northern Thailand, 16 isolates from 14 host species across nine plant families were collected. A new species Paramyrothecium vignicola sp. nov. was identified based on morphology and concatenated (ITS, cmdA, rpb2, and tub2) phylogeny. Further, P. breviseta and P. foliicola represented novel geographic records to Thailand, while P. eichhorniae represented a novel host record (Psophocarpus sp., Centrosema sp., Aristolochia sp.). These species were confirmed to be the causal agents of the leaf spot disease through pathogenicity assay. Furthermore, cross pathogenicity tests on Coffea arabica L., Commelina benghalensis L., Glycine max (L.) Merr., and Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Schott revealed multiple host ranges for these pathogens. Further research is required into the host–pathogen relationship of Paramyrothecium species that cause leaf spot and their management. Biotic and abiotic stresses caused by climate change may affect plant health and disease susceptibility. Hence, proper identification and monitoring of fungal communities in the environment are important to understand emerging diseases and for implementation of disease management strategies.
Article
Full-text available
The role of fungi in both natural and managed ecosystem processes is unequivocal with mycotaxa being key drivers of soil, plant and animal health. Recent advances in DNA-based species identification and classification have enforced mycologists to update national checklists for proper exploitation of fungal traits and functions. However, in some countries like Pakistan, a comprehensive checklist of fungal diversity, distribution, and their host range is still lacking. Herein, we summarize novel fungal species (including both macro-and micro-fungi) for the first time from distinct geographical locations of Pakistan. A total of 742 novel fungal species in 7 phyla have been reported in Pakistan since 1947, including 136 ambiguous species (as a result of cryptic species, taxonomy revisions, and lack of DNA sequence data) and 113 species with DNA sequence data. The compilation of the fungal name list provides an overview of the currently known fungal taxa in Pakistan and enables the assessment of the knowledge gap on the fungal biodiversity in comparison to the rest of the world. The current checklist will serve as a foundation for new fungi names to be added in the future and can be used as a reference by mycologists to retrieve fungal species from existing culture banks in Pakistan mentioned on the website, www.fungiofpakistan.com, to exploit their functional traits in the food industry, health sectors and for sustainable agriculture in Pakistan.
Article
Moniliophthora pakistanica sp. nov. is described from Punjab, Pakistan, based on micro-and morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. The taxon is characterized by a creamy to brownish basidiomes, a depressed or subumbonate and tomentose pileus with distinct orange to brown zones, a hairy stipe, oblong to ellipsoid basidiospores (4.7-8.5 × 4-6 μm), frequent clavate to flexuous cheilo-and pleurocystidia with apical projections, common long setiform terminal hairs in both pileipellis and stipitipellis, rhizomophs, and growth on fallen plant debris. A detailed description of macro-and microscopic characters and field photographs of collections are given. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, M. iopus is found to be a close relative of the new species. Two phylograms inferred from the datasets of nrITS and nrLSU sequences, and a comparison with phylogenetically closely related species are provided.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an updated classification of the Kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi) and fungus-like taxa. Five-hundred and twenty-three (535) notes are provided for newly introduced taxa and for changes that have been made since the previous outline. In the discussion, the latest taxonomic changes in Basidiomycota are provided and the classification of Mycosphaerellales are broadly discussed. Genera listed in Mycosphaerellaceae have been confirmed by DNA sequence analyses, while doubtful genera (DNA sequences being unavailable but traditionally accommodated in Mycosphaerellaceae) are listed in the discussion. Problematic genera in Glomeromycota are also discussed based on phylogenetic results.
Chapter
Species of the genus Tylopilus from China were investigated based on morphological and multi-locus phylogenetic studies. This genus differs from all other genera in the Boletaceae by its bitter taste in most species; white to pallid or yellowish context without discoloration or staining red to reddish brown, or blue when hurt; white to cream then pinkish to pink or yellowish hymenophoral surface; cutis, trichoderm, hymeniderm, or palisadoderm pileipellis; and smooth basidiospores. Currently, 32 species, including eleven new species, namely T. albopurpureus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. aurantiacus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. griseiviridus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. griseolus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. olivaceobrunneus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. phaeoruber Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. pseudoalpinus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. purpureorubens Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. rubrotinctus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, T. rufobrunneus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, and T. violaceorubrus Yan C. Li & Zhu L. Yang, are known from China. The new species are characterized and documented in detail, and their line illustrations and color photos are also provided. For the previously reported species, their known distribution areas have been expanded, voucher specimens have been increased, and morphological characteristics together with color photos have been supplemented.
Article
Full-text available
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica, Cladosporium arenosum from marine sediment sand. Argentina, Kosmimatamyces alatophylus (incl. Kosmimatamyces gen. nov.) from soil. Australia, Aspergillus banksianus, Aspergillus kumbius, Aspergillus luteorubrus, Aspergillus malvicolor and Aspergillus nanangensis from soil, Erysiphe medicaginis from leaves of Medicago polymorpha, Hymenotorrendiella communis on leaf litter of Eucalyptus bicostata, Lactifluus albopicri and Lactifluus austropiperatus on soil, Macalpinomyces collinsiae on Eriachne benthamii, Marasmius vagus on soil, Microdochium dawsoniorum from leaves of Sporobolus natalensis, Neopestalotiopsis nebuloides from leaves of Sporobolus elongatus, Pestalotiopsis etonensis from leaves of Sporobolus jacquemontii, Phytophthora personensis from soil associated with dying Grevillea mccutcheonii. Brazil, Aspergillus oxumiae from soil, Calvatia baixaverdensis on soil, Geastrum calycicoriaceum on leaf litter, Greeneria kielmeyerae on leaf spots of Kielmeyera coriacea. Chile, Phytophthora aysenensis on collar rot and stem of Aristotelia chilensis. Croatia, Mollisia gibbospora on fallen branch of Fagus sylvatica. Czech Republic, Neosetophoma hnaniceana from Buxus sempervirens. Ecuador, Exophiala frigidotolerans from soil. Estonia, Elaphomyces bucholtzii in soil. France, Venturia paralias from leaves of Euphorbia paralias. India, Cortinarius balteatoindicus and Cortinarius ulkhagarhiensis on leaf litter. Indonesia, Hymenotorrendiella indonesiana on Eucalyptus urophylla leaf litter. Italy, Penicillium taurinense from indoor chestnut mill. Malaysia, Hemileucoglossum kelabitense on soil, Satchmopsis pini on dead needles of Pinus tecunumanii. Poland, Lecanicillium praecognitum on insects’ frass. Portugal, Neodevriesia aestuarina from saline water. Republic of Korea, Gongronella namwonensis from freshwater. Russia, Candida pellucida from Exomias pellucidus, Heterocephalacria septentrionalis as endophyte from Cladonia rangiferina, Vishniacozyma phoenicis from dates fruit, Volvariella paludosa from swamp. Slovenia, Mallocybe crassivelata on soil. South Africa, Beltraniella podocarpi, Hamatocanthoscypha podocarpi, Coleophoma podocarpi and Nothoseiridium podocarpi (incl. Nothoseiridium gen. nov.) from leaves of Podocarpus latifolius, Gyrothrix encephalarti from leaves of Encephalartos sp., Paraphyton cutaneum from skin of human patient, Phacidiella alsophilae from leaves of Alsophila capensis, and Satchmopsis metrosideri on leaf litter of Metrosideros excelsa. Spain, Cladophialophora cabanerensis from soil, Cortinarius paezii on soil, Cylindrium magnoliae from leaves of Magnolia grandiflora, Trichophoma cylindrospora (incl. Trichophoma gen. nov.) from plant debris, Tuber alcaracense in calcareus soil, Tuber buendiae in calcareus soil. Thailand, Annulohypoxylon spougei on corticated wood, Poaceascoma filiforme from leaves of unknown Poaceae. UK, Dendrostoma luteum on branch lesions of Castanea sativa, Ypsilina buttingtonensis from heartwood of Quercus sp. Ukraine, Myrmecridium phragmiticola from leaves of Phragmites australis. USA, Absidia pararepens from air, Juncomyces californiensis (incl. Juncomyces gen. nov.) from leaves of Juncus effusus, Montagnula cylindrospora from a human skin sample, Muriphila oklahomaensis (incl. Muriphila gen. nov.) on outside wall of alcohol distillery, Neofabraea eucalyptorum from leaves of Eucalyptus macrandra, Diabolocovidia claustri (incl. Diabolocovidia gen. nov.) from leaves of Serenoa repens, Paecilomyces penicilliformis from air, Pseudopezicula betulae from leaves of leaf spots of Betula sp. Vietnam, Diaporthe durionigena on branches of Durio zibethinus and Roridomyces pseudoirritans on rotten wood. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
Article
Full-text available
The Eurotiales is a relatively large order of Ascomycetes with members frequently having positive and negative impact on human activities. Species within this order gain attention from various research fields such as food, indoor and medical mycology and biotechnology. In this article we give an overview of families and genera present in the Eurotiales and introduce an updated subgeneric, sectional and series classification for Aspergillus and Penicillium. Finally, a comprehensive list of accepted species in the Eurotiales is given. The classification of the Eurotiales at family and genus level is traditionally based on phenotypic characters, and this classification has since been challenged using sequence-based approaches. Here, we re-evaluated the relationships between families and genera of the Eurotiales using a nine-gene sequence dataset. Based on this analysis, the new family Penicillaginaceae is introduced and four known families are accepted: Aspergillaceae, Elaphomycetaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Eurotiales includes 28 genera: 15 genera are accommodated in the Aspergillaceae (Aspergillago, Aspergillus, Evansstolkia, Hamigera, Leiothecium, Monascus, Penicilliopsis, Penicillium, Phialomyces, Pseudohamigera, Pseudopenicillium, Sclerocleista, Warcupiella, Xerochrysium and Xeromyces), eight in the Trichocomaceae (Acidotalaromyces, Ascospirella, Dendrosphaera, Rasamsonia, Sagenomella, Talaromyces, Thermomyces, Trichocoma), two in the Thermoascaceae (Paecilomyces, Thermoascus) and one in the Penicillaginaceae (Penicillago). The classification of the Elaphomycetaceae was not part of this study, but according to literature two genera are present in this family (Elaphomyces and Pseudotulostoma). The use of an infrageneric classification system has a long tradition in Aspergillus and Penicillium. Most recent taxonomic studies focused on the sectional level, resulting in a well-established sectional classification in these genera. In contrast, a series classification in Aspergillus and Penicillium is often outdated or lacking, but is still relevant, e.g., the allocation of a species to a series can be highly predictive in what functional characters the species might have and might be useful when using a phenotype-based identification. The majority of the series in Aspergillus and Penicillium are invalidly described and here we introduce a new series classification. Using a phylogenetic approach, often supported by phenotypic, physiologic and/or extrolite data, Aspergillus is subdivided in six subgenera, 27 sections (five new) and 75 series (73 new, one new combination), and Penicillium in two subgenera, 32 sections (seven new) and 89 series (57 new, six new combinations). Correct identification of species belonging to the Eurotiales is difficult, but crucial, as this the species name is the linking pin to information. Lists of accepted species are a helpful aid for researchers to obtain a correct identification using the current taxonomic schemes. In the most recent list from 2014, 339 Aspergillus, 354 Penicillium and 88 Talaromyces species were accepted. These numbers increased significantly, and the current list includes 446 Aspergillus (32 % increase), 483 Penicillium (36 % increase) and 171 Talaromyces (94 % increase) species, showing the large diversity and high interest in these genera. We expanded this list with all genera and species belonging to the Eurotiales (except those belonging to Elaphomycetaceae). The list includes 1 187 species, distributed over 27 genera, and contains MycoBank numbers, collection numbers of type and ex-type cultures, subgenus, section and series classification data, information on the mode of reproduction, and GenBank accession numbers of ITS, beta-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene sequences.
Article
Full-text available
Curvularia is a cosmopolitan genus that includes species associated with plants, animals and humans, several of which are of clinical significance. Some of these species are important pathogens of grasses, causing devastating diseases on cereal crops in the family Poaceae. In the present multi-locus study, ex-type and reference strains of Curvularia, as well as several strains deposited in the CBS culture collection of the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, were included. Based on ITS, GAPDH and TEF1 sequences, as well as phenotypic data, ten new species are described and illustrated: C. arcana, C. austriaca, C. canadensis, C. ellisii, C. pseudoclavata, C. pseudoellisii, C. pseudointermedia, C. pseudoprotuberata, C. siddiquii and C. tribuli. Moreover, the new combinations C. cactivora and C. patereae are proposed, and an epitype for C. oryzae-sativae is designated. In addition, illustrations and descriptions are provided for C. cactivora, C. ellisii, C. crassiseptata, C. neergaardii, C. oryzae, C. oryzae-sativae, C. protuberata and C. verruciformis. The description of C. pseudobrachyspora is emended, and its host and distribution records are updated.
Article
Full-text available
Seven new genera, 26 new species, 10 new combinations, two epitypes, one new name, and 20 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera are: Italiofungus (based on Italiofungus phillyreae ) on leaves of Phillyrea latifolia (Italy); Neolamproconium (based on Neolamproconium silvestre ) on branch of Tilia sp. (Ukraine); Neosorocybe (based on Neosorocybe pini ) on trunk of Pinus sylvestris (Ukraine); Nothoseptoria (based on Nothoseptoria caraganae ) on leaves of Caragana arborescens (Russia); Pruniphilomyces (based on Pruniphilomyces circumscissus ) on Prunus cerasus (Russia); Vesiculozygosporium (based on Vesiculozygosporium echinosporum ) on leaves of Muntingia calabura (Malaysia); Longiseptatispora (based on Longiseptatispora curvata ) on leaves of Lonicera tatarica (Russia). New species are: Barrmaelia serenoae on leaf of Serenoa repens (USA); Chaetopsina gautengina on leaves of unidentified grass (South Africa); Chloridium pini on fallen trunk of Pinus sylvestris (Ukraine); Cadophora fallopiae on stems of Reynoutria sachalinensis (Poland); Coleophoma eucalyptigena on leaf litter of Eucalyptus sp. (Spain); Cylindrium corymbiae on leaves of Corymbia maculata (Australia); Diaporthe tarchonanthi on leaves of Tarchonanthus littoralis (South Africa); Elsinoe eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus propinqua (Australia); Exophiala quercina on dead wood of Quercus sp., (Germany); Fusarium californicum on cambium of budwood of Prunus dulcis (USA); Hypomyces gamsii on wood of Alnus glutinosa (Ukraine); Kalmusia araucariae on leaves of Araucaria bidwillii (USA); Lectera sambuci on leaves of Sambucus nigra (Russia); Melanomma populicola on fallen twig of Populus canadensis (Netherlands), Neocladosporium syringae on branches of Syringa vulgarishorus (Ukraine); Paraconiothyrium iridis on leaves of Iris pseudacorus (Ukraine); Pararoussoella quercina on branch of Quercus robur (Ukraine); Phialemonium pulveris from bore dust of deathwatch beetle (France); Polyscytalum pinicola on needles of Pinus tecunumanii (Malaysia); Acervuloseptoria fraxini on Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Russia); Roussoella arundinacea on culms of Arundo donax (Spain); Sphaerulina neoaceris on leaves of Acer negundo (Russia); Sphaerulina salicicola on leaves of Salix fragilis (Russia); Trichomerium syzygii on leaves of Syzygium cordatum (South Africa); Uzbekistanica vitis-viniferae on dead stem of Vitis vinifera (Ukraine); Vermiculariopsiella eucalyptigena on leaves of Eucalyptus sp. (Australia).
Article
Full-text available
We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, MEGA has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing bigger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in MEGA. The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit MEGA is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OSX. The command line MEGA is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
Article
Full-text available
Mollisia is a taxonomically neglected discomycete genus (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) of commonly encountered saprotrophs on decaying plant tissues throughout temperate regions. The combination of indistinct morphological characters, more than 700 names in the literature, and lack of reference DNA sequences presents a major challenge when working with Mollisia. Unidentified endophytes, including strains that produced antifungal or antiinsectan secondary metabolites, were isolated from conifer needles in New Brunswick and placed with uncertainty in Phialocephala and Mollisia, necessitating a more comprehensive treatment of these genera. In this study, morphology and multigene phylogenetic analyses were used to explore the taxonomy of Mollisiaceae, including Mollisia, Phialocephala, and related genera, using new field collections, herbarium specimens, and accessioned cultures and sequences. The phylogeny of Mollisiaceae was reconstructed and compared using the nuc internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS) barcode and partial sequences of the 28S nuc rDNA (LSU) gene, largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), DNA topoisomerase I (TOP1), and the hypothetical protein Lipin/Ned1/Smp2 (LNS2). The results show that endophytism is common throughout the Mollisiaceae lineage in a diverse range of hosts but is infrequently attributed to Mollisia because of a paucity of reference sequences. Generic boundaries within Mollisiaceae are poorly resolved and based on phylogenetic evidence the family included species placed in Acephala, Acidomelania, Barrenia, Bispora, Cheirospora, Cystodendron, Fuscosclera, Hysteronaevia, Loramyces, Mollisia, Neopyrenopeziza, Obtectodiscus, Ombrophila, Patellariopsis, Phialocephala, Pulvinata, Tapesia (= Mollisia), and Trimmatostroma. Taxonomic novelties included the description of five novel Mollisia species and five novel Phialocephala species and the synonymy of Fuscosclera with Phialocephala, Acidomelania with Mollisia, and Loramycetaceae with Mollisiaceae.
Article
Full-text available
The newly discovered systematic placement of Bactrodesmium abruptum, the lectotype species of the genus, prompted a re-valuation of the traditionally broadly conceived genus Bactrodesmium. Fresh material, axenic cultures and new DNA sequence data of five gene regions of six species, i.e. B. abruptum, B. diversum, B. leptopus, B. obovatum, B. pallidum and B. spilomeum, were studied. Bactrodesmium is a strongly resolved lineage in the Savoryellales (Sordariomycetes), supported by Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The genus Bactrodesmium is emended and delimited to hyphomycetes characterised by sporodochial conidiomata, mononematous often fasciculate conidiophores, holoblastic conidiogenesis and acrogenous, solitary, dry, pigmented, transversely or rarely longitudinally septate conidia. The conidia are seceding rhexolytically, exhibiting multiple secession patterns. An identification key to 35 species accepted in Bactrodesmium is given, providing the most important diagnostic characters. Novel DNA sequence data of B. longisporum and B. stilboideum confirmed their placement in the Sclerococcales (Eurotiomycetes). For other Bactrodesmium, molecular data are available for B. cubense and B. gabretae, which position them in the Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes, respectively. All four species are excluded from Bactrodesmium and segregated into new genera, Aphanodesmium, Gamsomyces and Kaseifertia. Classification of other 20 species and varieties not recognised in the genus is discussed. Based on new collections of Dematiosporium aquaticum, the type species of Dematiosporium, the genus is emended to accommodate monodictys-like freshwater lignicolous fungi of the Savoryellales characterised by effuse colonies, holoblastic conidiogenous cells and dictyosporous, pigmented conidia with a pore in each cell. Study of additional new collections, cultures and DNA sequence data revealed several unknown species, which are proposed as taxonomic novelties in the Savoryellales and closely related Pleurotheciales. Ascotaiwania latericolla, Helicoascotaiwania lacustris and Pleurotheciella erumpens are described from terrestrial, lentic and lotic habitats from New Zealand and France, respectively. New combinations are proposed for Helicoascotaiwania farinosa and Neoascotaiwania fusiformis. Relationships and systematics of the Savoryellales are discussed in the light of recent phylogenies and morphological patterns newly linked with the order through cultural studies.
Article
Full-text available
To clarify the diversity of plant-parasitic Alternaria species in Japan, diseased samples were collected, and fungal isolates established in culture. We examined 85 isolates representing 23 species distributed in 14 known sections based on conidial morphology and DNA phylogeny. Three species were found to be new, A. cylindrica, A. paragomphrenae and A. triangularis. Furthermore, a lectotype was designated for A. gomphrenae, and epitypes for A. cinerariae, A. gomphrenae, A. iridicola, and A. japonica. Species boundaries of isolates were also clarified by studying phenotypes and determining host ranges. Alternaria gomphrenae and related species in sect. Alternantherae were recognized as distinct species owing to their host specificity. Among the species infecting Apiaceae, the pathogenicity of A. cumini and a novel species, A. triangularis ex Bupleurum, were confirmed as host specific. Another novel species, A. cylindrica, proved to be host specific to Petunia. Alternaria iridicola was recognized as a large-spored species in sect. Alternaria, being host specific to Iris spp. On the other hand, the experimental host ranges of three morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species infecting Brassicaceae (A. brassicae, A. brassicicola, and A. japonica) showed almost no differences. Alternaria brassicicola and A. porri were even found on non-host plants. In general, host ranges of Alternaria species correlated with morphology and molecular phylogeny, and combining these datasets resulted in clearer species boundaries.
Article
A description is provided for Geoglossum cookeanum . Some information on its associated organisms and substrata, habitats, dispersal and transmission and conservation status is given, along with details of its geographical distribution (North America (Mexico and USA (Kentucky, Michigan, New Hampshire and Tenesse)), Asia (Georgia, India (Uttarakhand) and China (Guizhou, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Yunnan)), Australasia (Australia (South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia) and New Zealand), Europe (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UK)). No reports of negative economic impacts of this fungus have been found.
Article
The North European species of Elaphomyces section Elaphomyces ( Eurotiales , Pezizomycotina ) are studied. Three new species, E. citrinopapillatus , E. pusillus , and E. roseoviolaceus are introduced and verified by morphology and sequence data from ITS, nuclear LSU, mitochondrial SSU, and β-tubulin. A lectotype for Elaphomyces granulatus is selected. Elaphomyces granulatus and E. muricatus are epitypified with sequenced material from the Femsjö region in South Sweden. Elaphomyces striatosporus is epitypified with sequenced material from the vicinity of the type locality in Norway. A key to all species of Elaphomyces occurring in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden is provided.