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Round Melon [Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks) Pangalo] an under exploited Vegetable

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Abstract

Praecitrullus fistulosus (Cucurbitaceae) known as Indian round gourd or Tinda is a squash-like cucurbit having lots of essential nutrients found to be effective against various ailments in human being in Ayurveda. It's a god gifted plant herbaceous in nature mainly grown for its immature fruit used in preparation of rayata or vegetable curries. In India it is used as fodder and in medicine too. Itmay be a used as a source of resistance to the insect whiteflies for the improvement of watermelons.The application of inorganic fertilizers like 75 per cent NPK, vermicompost @ 2t ha-1 along with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg ha-1 found to have beneficial effect on the yield of Tinda. Punjab Tinda andArkaTinda are the only varieties of potential yield. As a potential crop, resistance to mosaic, having ascorbic acid content in fruit and a lots of medicinal as well as health benefits is associated with it, this crop need more exploitation for farming community.
Agriculture and Forestry: Current
Trends, Perspectives, Issues - I
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Title of the Book: Agriculture and Forestry: Current Trends, Perspectives,
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Edited By: Dr. Sandeep Rout
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Round Melon [Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks) Pangalo] an under exploited
Vegetable
Kalyani Pradhan1, Sandeep Rout1, Ajay Kumar Prusty2 and Barsha Tripathy2
1Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack, Odisha-754006, India
2M.S.Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and
Management, Paralakhemundi, Gajapati, Odisha-761211, India
Article Info
Article History
Received : 18 11 - 2020
Revised : 26 11 - 2020
Accepted : 01 12 - 2020
Abstract:
Praecitrullus fistulosus (Cucurbitaceae) known as
Indian round gourd or Tinda is a squash-like cucurbit
having lots of essential nutrients found to be effective
against various ailments in human being in Ayurveda. It’s
a god gifted plant herbaceous in nature mainly grown for
its immature fruit used in preparation of rayata or
vegetable curries. In India it is used as fodder and in
medicine too. Itmay be a used as a source of resistance to
the insect whiteflies for the improvement of
watermelons.The application of inorganic fertilizers like
75 per cent NPK, vermicompost @ 2t ha-1 along with
Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @ 2 kg ha-1 found to
have beneficial effect on the yield of Tinda. Punjab Tinda
andArkaTinda are the only varieties of potential yield. As
a potential crop, resistance to mosaic, having ascorbic acid
content in fruit and a lots of medicinal as well as health
benefits is associated with it, this crop need more
exploitation for farming community.
Keywords: Ecology, medicinal value, Praecitrullus
fistulosus, yield.
Contact Author
Kalyani Pradhan
Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri
University, Cuttack, Odisha-
754006, India
Introduction
Praecitrullus fistulosusus is a vegetable of the largest family Cucurbitaceae popularly known as
Tinda, having a number of synonyms i.e. round melon, Indian baby pumpkin, Indian round gourd
or apple gourd, Indian squash. It is mainly grown for its immature fruit, much popular in south
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Asia and the member of single genus i.e. Praecitrullus. A miraculous plant, Tinda gifted by nature
with all the essential nutrients required by the human body for growth and development.
Tinda mainly cultivated and grown in the plain areas of 1000 meter sea level , where
they required sunny warm conditions of in between 25 to 30°C at day light. In night it requires
18°C but gains less in cooler climate and humidified areas of coast level. Sandy loam rich in
organic matter and pH OF 6.5-7.5 is suitable for cultivation of Tinda. In east India the growing
season of Tinda is either in dry season from February to April and also in rainy season on
monsoon mid of June to end of July.
The roots of Tinda required light sandy soils where it penetrates easily in depth. More
fertile to less fertile soil is suitable for early open end of the vegetative cover (Sultana, 2006).
The need for renewable forms of energy and reduced cost of fertilizing crops, have revived the use
of organic manures worldwide. Improvement in environmental conditions and public health are
important reason for advocating increased use of organic materials. Nutrients from mineral
fertilizers enhance the establishment of crops while those from mineralization of organic manures
promotes yield when both fertilizers were combined (Basel and Sami, 2014). Recommended dose
of fertilizer for Tinda is 10t FYM/ha, 50-60: 30-60 :40-60 kg NPK/ ha
(https://www.agrifarming.in).
Origin and Distribution
Praecitrullus fistulosus is cultivated as a vegetable in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.Theround
melon is probably from north-western India, where wild types may still be found in the wild.In
Ghana and Kenya it is grown as an export commodity for the United Kingdom market. It is also
grown on a small scale in the United States(Schippers, 1994).This unique squash-like gourd or
Tinda is believed to be native to India. In India, it is distributed mainly in states like Punjab,
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan, etceither grown in dry season (February to end of April) or
in the rainy season (mid-June to end of July) and Sambalpur district of Odisha.
Morphology
The plant is a prolific vine, herbaceous and is grown as an annual having pointed hairy stem with
curly long tendrils.
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Fruit
Botanically the fruit is a type is known as berry or pepo. It is approximately spherical in shape and
5-8 cm in diameter. The Fruit size is about of a small turnip, depressed at each end, hispid
glabrous when young (Gautam et al., 2011).
Flowers
The flowers of round melon are always unisexual and actinomorphical ways unisexual.
The perianth has a short to prolonged epigynous zone which bears a calyx of 3-6 lobes and 3-6
petals or more frequently a 3-6 lobed sympetalous corollas. The androecium consisting of 5
distinct to complete connate which are twisted and folded. The gynoecium consists of a
single compound pistil of 2-5 carpels, generally with one style and as many style branches or
major stigma lobes as carpels, and an inferior ovary with one locule and usually numerous ovules
on 2-5 parietal placentae or 3 locules with numerous ovules on axile placentae(Gautam et al.,
2011).
Leaves
The 5 lobed, divided and alternating leaves are palmate. There are stipules that are considered to
be absent. Leaves are springlypinnatified, sparsely hispid lamina all over, densely hispid on under-
surface veins and veinlets, minutely denticulate margin, seemingly whole, villous to densely hispid
young leaves. 0.8 cm long, Probract spathulate is (Gautam et al. 2011).
Traditional uses
As Tinda (Praecitrullus fistulosus) is not much cultivated commercially and not much variety has
been developed it may be a used as a source of resistance to the insect whiteflies for the
improvement of watermelons. The immature fruits of Tinda are used in preparation of rayata or
vegetable curries. The roasted seeds of Tinda are consumed in the same way asegusi or seeds of
watermelon. In our country India Tinda is also used as fodder and in medicine (Javid et al., 2010).
Variety
Arka Tinda
It’s a hybrid between Rajasthan Local and T8 (Punjab) followed by pedigree method of selection.
Fruits round with lush green shining skin covered with soft hair when young and tender (60 g). it
gives an average yield of 10 t/ha.
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Punjab Tinda
This varietyis suitable for sowing in spring season. The leaves of this variety are green and
moderately lobed. Vines are long and bears 4-5 primary branches. It is an early variety, ready for
first picking in 54 days after sowing and yields about 15-16 tonnes per acre from first 3 pickings.
Fruits are round, shining, green, pubescent and white fleshed. A single vine bears 12-13 fruits with
an average immature weight of 60g. it gives 14-16 pickings over a period of 30-40 days. The fruits
have low dry matter (6-7%) and high ascorbic acid content (19-20 mg/100g). Its seed are small
with an average 100 seed weight of 6.24g. It is moderately resistant to mosaic under natural field
condition. This variety gives an average marketable fruit yield of 72 quintals per acre.
Table 1. Chemical constituents
Chemical
constituents
Quantity (per100g edible
portion)
Water
93.5g
Protein
1.4g
Fat
0.2g
Carbohydrate
3.6g
Fibre
1.6g
Calcium
25mg
Iron
0.9mg
Potassium
24mg
Carotene
13μg
Thiamin
0.04mg
Riboflavin
0.08mg
Niacin
0.3mg
Ascorbic acid
18mg
Copper
11ppm
Nikel
<0.006ppm
Lead
<0.015ppm
Zinc
34ppm
Cobalt
<0.009ppm
Cadmium
<0.0008ppm
Cromium
<0.003ppm
Sodium
4ppm
Source: (Holland et al., 1991, Javid et al., 2010)
Nutritive value
The whole plant of Tinda are enriched with all dietary components like carbohyadrate, protein, fat
and fibers, vitamins and minerals and a host of plant substances including phenolics and
cucurbitacins.
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Table 2. Tinda nutrition facts for a 100 g of edible part:
Calories
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
86.2 kcal
Total Fat 3.9 g
Saturated Fat 0.5 g
Total Carbohydrate 12.5 g
Dietary Fiber 0.6 g
Protein 2.0 g
Cholesterol 0.0 mg
Sodium 33.0 mg
Potassium 359.1 mg
Vitamins:
Vitamin A 9.8 %
Vitamin B6 11.3 %
Vitamin C 30.5 %
Vitamin E 1.1 %
Minerals:
Calcium 5.1 %
Magnesium 6.7 %
Phosphorus 5.0 %
Zinc 7.2 %
Iron 5.7 %
Manganese 12.5 %
Iodine 5.9 %
Source- (https://www.netmeds.com/)
Health benefits
Tinda is highly beneficial for stimulating the physical wellness and also utilized in Ayurveda as
effectiveagainst various ailments.
Promotes weight loss
Tinda being low in calories and high in essential nutrients, provides dietary fibres which can be
processed easily in stomach, one person can feel full of longer, assisting in burning of fat at a
quicker pace.
Augments heart function
As Tinda is having very negligible amount of cholesterol it serves a diet regularly to promote heart
health. Also improves circulation of blood and ensures optimal function of cardiac muscles.
Detoxifies kidney
By taking round melon in diet it stimulates the elimination of body wastes via excretory system,
boost the secretion of fluids inside kidney, promotes hydration of internal organ and getting rid of
accumulation of toxic substances.
Enhance digestive system
Because of fiber content prevents constipation, regulates bowel movement.
Fights jaundice
The leaves of Tinda contains cucurbitacins, vitamin C which play a crucial role in boosting
defense system, liver function and having antioxidant capacity those suffering from jaundice.
Regulates thyroid
Tinda contain profuse amount of iodine so it helps in elevating thyroid hormones level.
Findings
The yield of Tinda in response to the effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers was
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Trends, Perspectives, Issues - I
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evaluated at the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil
Nadu during March-May, 2015. More number of fruits (14.41), highest single fruit weight
(50.68g) and highest yield per plant (722.69g) were obtained with treatments comprising 75 per
cent recommended dose of fertilizers package coupled with vermicompost @ 2t ha-1 along with
Azospirillum and phosphobacteria @ 2 kg ha-1 (Natchathraet al., 2016).
Conclusion
Tinda or round melon being a miraculous plant with several nutrients composition needs to be
evaluated further and its practical applications to be investigated for future interest of
mankind.Based on the above review as having importancein traditional uses, vitamin content, well
response to inorganic fertilizer application and high yield potential, it can be regarded as the crop
of future for the farmers in our country.
References
Basel, N. and Sami, M. (2014). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on soil and
cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plant productivity. International Journal Agriculture&
Forestry,4(3):166- 170.
Gautam, S., Singh, P., Shivhare, Y.(2011). Praecitrullusfistulosus: A miraculous plant. Asian
Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.1: 9-12.
Holland, B., Unwin, I.D. and Buss, D.H.(1991). Vegetables, herbs and spices. The fifth
supplement to McCance & Widdowson’s. The Composition of Foods. 4th Edition.
Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 163.
https://www.netmeds.com/
Hussain, Javid., Rehmaan, Nazeeb. Ur.,Khan, A.L., Hamayun, M., Hussain, S. M. and Shinwari,
Z.K.(2010).Proximate and essential nutrients evaluation of selected
vegetable species from kohat region, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany,42 (4): 2010:
2847-2855.
Javid, H., Nazeeb, R., Latif, K.A., Muhammahad, H., Murtaza, H.S., Khan, S.Z.(2010). Proximate
and essential nutrients evaluation of selected vegetable spieces from kohat region,
Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany,42: 2847-2855.
Natchathra, V.U.,Anuja, S. and Haripriya, K. (2016). Effect of organic manures and inorganic
fertilizers on fruit yield of tinda (Praecitrullusfistulosus), The Asian Journal of
Horticulture, 11(2):408-410.
Schippers, R.R. (1994).Praecitrullus fistulosus(Stocks) Pangalo In: Grubben, GJH & Denton,
O.A. (Editors), PROTA 2: Vegetables/Légumes [CD-Rom]. PROTA, Wageningen,
Netherlands.
Sultana, S.(2006).Indigenous knowledge of folk herbal medicines by the women of district
Chakwal, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 1:26.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The application of organic fertilizer combined with or without chemical fertilizer to soil is considered as a good management practices in any agricultural production system because it improves plant quality and soil fertility. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of compost on cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.) productivity and soil properties. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in Tulkarm, Palestine, during the summer season of 2012. The results showed that the application of compost improving the soil characteristics; increasing soil productivity and organic matter content. Compost application can compensate use of chemical fertilizers, which have adverse environmental effects. The experimental results confirmed that the use of organic fertilizers increasing the crop productivity with compost (7005 kg / dunum, dunum is 0.1 ha) comparing with (6017 kg / dunum) with chemical fertilizers, on the other hand, increasing the soil fertility and saving water, were the water requirements was decreasing with using compost (180 m3 / season) comparing with (213 m3 / season) were chemical fertilizers used during the agriculture period.
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Eight vegetable species viz., Solanum melongena, Trianthema portulacastrum, Abelmoschus esculentus, Spinacia oleracea, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata and Cucumis sativus were evaluated for their nutritional values using standard techniques for proximate, macro and micronutrient analysis. In proximate analysis, ash, carbohydrate, proteins, fiber, fats and moisture (both dry and wet) were assayed while Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, Cd, Fe, Cr, Ca and Na were evaluated in micronutrients analysis using AOAC methods and atomic absorption spectrometric techniques. The species showed variable results in proximate analysis, however, Cucurbita moschata have revealed higher percentage of carbohydrates, fibers, and energy values. The results showed that Trianthema portulacastrum (a wild vegetable) had the highest concentrations of the micronutrients like Cu, Zn, and Fe compared to the other seven species while it had highest concentration of Ca. Proximate and nutrient analysis of such wild and cultivated vegetables can help us to determine the health benefits achieved from their use in marginal communities.
Article
The present research work was designed to gather indigenous knowledge of local women about herbal medicines. Present study was confined to interview women of remote villages of district Chakwal. The study was conducted from October 2004-February 2005. Indigenous knowledge was collected by interviewing about 50 women of different age groups between 20 and 80 years. Frequent field trips were arranged to collect plant specimens. Information about the local names, parts used and medicinal uses of plants was collected from native women. Indigenous information was arranged by ethnomedicinal inventory followed by botanical name, local name, family name, flowering season, part used and folk medicinal uses. A total of 38 species belonging to 36 genera and 24 families were recorded as being used by local inhabitants for the treatment of various diseases. It is concluded from this study that the women of the area have rich indigenous knowledge about the medicinal uses of native flora. Women of the area believe that these natural products are easily available, inexpensive and permanent cure for common day ailments.
Praecitrullusfistulosus: A miraculous plant
  • S Gautam
  • P Singh
  • Y Shivhare
Gautam, S., Singh, P., Shivhare, Y.(2011). Praecitrullusfistulosus: A miraculous plant. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Technology.1: 9-12.
Vegetables, herbs and spices. The fifth supplement to McCance & Widdowson's. The Composition of Foods
  • B Holland
  • I D Unwin
  • D H Buss
Holland, B., Unwin, I.D. and Buss, D.H.(1991). Vegetables, herbs and spices. The fifth supplement to McCance & Widdowson's. The Composition of Foods. 4th Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 163. https://www.netmeds.com/
Proximate and essential nutrients evaluation of selected vegetable spieces from kohat region
  • H Javid
  • R Nazeeb
  • K A Latif
  • H Muhammahad
  • H S Murtaza
  • S Z Khan
Javid, H., Nazeeb, R., Latif, K.A., Muhammahad, H., Murtaza, H.S., Khan, S.Z.(2010). Proximate and essential nutrients evaluation of selected vegetable spieces from kohat region, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany,42: 2847-2855.
Praecitrullus fistulosus(Stocks) Pangalo In
  • R R Schippers
Schippers, R.R. (1994).Praecitrullus fistulosus(Stocks) Pangalo In: Grubben, GJH & Denton, O.A. (Editors), PROTA 2: Vegetables/Légumes [CD-Rom].