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Research of Attitudes Toward Online Violence- Significance of Online Media and Social Marketing in the Function of Violence Prevention and Behavior Evaluation

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The main aim of this paper is to analyze attitudes toward online violence in order to identify the current state of this problem through psychosocial analysis, as well as the possibility of preventing this kind of violence through the prism of online media and social marketing. The authors developed a conceptual model and conducted an online quantitative research study. The survey was conducted among 277 respondents in Montenegro, which is a developing country and as such is experiencing transitions in many segments. The data were analyzed using standard statistical tests, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, logistic regression and the Relative Importance Index. The results of the research showed that specific vulnerable groups such as women are more exposed to online violence. The results of the logistic regression revealed that female respondents aged 18 to 24 were 76.3% more exposed to online violence than respondents over 55. Regarding the aspect of marital status, the results showed that divorced women were most exposed to online violence, 74% more than widows, while single respondents had a 54.2% greater chance of being a victim of online violence compared to widows. In terms of education, the results of the research highlighted that female respondents with a higher level of education were significantly less likely to be victims of online violence than those with a lower level of education. Respondents who had completed doctoral studies had a 48.6% lower chance of being victims of online violence compared to the respondents who had only completed high school. In terms of online media being used as a tool for spreading online violence, 36.89% of respondents identified Facebook, while 21.61% identified Instagram as the main medium of this type of violence. Thus, the research identified the necessity of continuous work focused on informing the population about online violence, as well as raising awareness about measures that should be carried out in order to reduce online violence, because of the significant influence of online media on forming attitudes toward online violence, which was confirmed by 85.19% of respondents. Furthermore, the results showed that online media-in particular, social marketing-may have a key role in the prevention of online violence, as its preventive role was confirmed by 96.76% of respondents. The findings of the research may be extremely useful for different policymakers in order to help them to better understand and identify cases of online violence, especially against women, as well as to create adequate strategies for its prevention through the prism of online media and social marketing.
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Sustainability2020,12,10609;doi:10.3390/su122410609www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability
Article
ResearchofAttitudesTowardOnlineViolence—
SignificanceofOnlineMediaandSocialMarketing
intheFunctionofViolencePreventionandBehavior
Evaluation
BobanMelović
1
,AnđelaJakšićStojanović
2
,TamaraBacković
1
,BranislavDudić
3,4,
*
andZuzanaKovačičová
3
1
FacultyofEconomics,UniversityofMontenegro,81000Podgorica,Montenegro;
bobanm@ucg.ac.me(B.M.);tassabacc@ucg.ac.me(T.B.)
2
FacultyofCultureandTourism,UniversityofDonjaGorica,81000Podgorica,Montenegro;
andjela.jaksic@unimediteran.net
3
FacultyofManagement,ComeniusUniversityinBratislava,82005Bratislava,Slovakia;
zuzana.kovacicova@fm.uniba.sk
4
FacultyofEconomicsandEngineeringManagement,UniversityBusinessAcademy,
21000NoviSad,Serbia
*Correspondence:branislav.dudic@fm.uniba.sk
Received:21November2020;Accepted:11December2020;Published:18December2020
Abstract:Themainaimofthispaperistoanalyzeattitudestowardonlineviolenceinorderto
identifythecurrentstateofthisproblemthroughpsychosocialanalysis,aswellasthepossibilityof
preventingthiskindofviolencethroughtheprismofonlinemediaandsocialmarketing.The
authorsdevelopedaconceptualmodelandconductedanonlinequantitativeresearchstudy.The
surveywasconductedamong277respondentsinMontenegro,whichisadevelopingcountryand
assuchisexperiencingtransitionsinmanysegments.Thedatawereanalyzedusingstandard
statisticaltests,ananalysisofvariance(ANOVA)test,logisticregressionandtheRelative
ImportanceIndex.Theresultsoftheresearchshowedthatspecificvulnerablegroupssuchas
womenaremoreexposedtoonlineviolence.Theresultsofthelogisticregressionrevealedthat
femalerespondentsaged18to24were76.3%moreexposedtoonlineviolencethanrespondents
over55.Regardingtheaspectofmaritalstatus,theresultsshowedthatdivorcedwomenweremost
exposedtoonlineviolence,74%morethanwidows,whilesinglerespondentshada54.2%greater
chanceofbeingavictimofonlineviolencecomparedtowidows.Intermsofeducation,theresults
oftheresearchhighlightedthatfemalerespondentswithahigherlevelofeducationwere
significantlylesslikelytobevictimsofonlineviolencethanthosewithalowerlevelofeducation.
Respondentswhohadcompleteddoctoralstudieshada48.6%lowerchanceofbeingvictimsof
onlineviolencecomparedtotherespondentswhohadonlycompletedhighschool.Intermsof
onlinemediabeingusedasatoolforspreadingonlineviolence,36.89%ofrespondentsidentified
Facebook,while21.61%identifiedInstagramasthemainmediumofthistypeofviolence.Thus,the
researchidentifiedthenecessityofcontinuousworkfocusedoninformingthepopulationabout
onlineviolence,aswellasraisingawarenessaboutmeasuresthatshouldbecarriedoutinorderto
reduceonlineviolence,becauseofthesignificantinfluenceofonlinemediaonformingattitudes
towardonlineviolence,whichwasconfirmedby85.19%ofrespondents.Furthermore,theresults
showedthatonlinemedia—inparticular,socialmarketing—mayhaveakeyroleintheprevention
ofonlineviolence,asitspreventiverolewasconfirmedby96.76%ofrespondents.Thefindingsof
theresearchmaybeextremelyusefulfordifferentpolicymakersinordertohelpthemtobetter
understandandidentifycasesofonlineviolence,especiallyagainstwomen,aswellastocreate
adequatestrategiesforitspreventionthroughtheprismofonlinemediaandsocialmarketing.
Sustainability2020,12,106092of24
Keywords:onlineviolence;onlinemedia;socialmarketing;behaviorevaluation;women
1.Introduction
Theprocessesofglobalization,internationalizationandtheimplementationofinformationand
communicationtechnologies(ICT)havesignificantlychangedpeople’slives,andtheworldhas
becomeonehuge“globalvillage”[1].ICTtechnologieshavemanybenefitsfrommanydifferent
pointsofview,especiallyconsideringtheirinformativeandeducationalfunction.ThenumberofICT
usersisconstantlygrowing,communicationisbecomingmuchfasterandeasierthaneverbeforeand
newchannelsofcommunicationarebeingintroduced[2].
AlthoughtherearemanybenefitsfromtheimplementationofICTtechnologies,therearealsoa
largenumberofchallenges.Oneofthemostimportantoftheseisviolence,whichrepresentsanold–
newphenomenonthathasbeenallowedtoexistnotonlyintherealbutalsointhevirtualworld.The
characteristicsandconsequencesoftraditionalandonlineviolencearealmostthesame,andtheyare
mostlyrealizedsimultaneouslyandcoexist[3].
However,accordingtosomeauthors,onlineviolenceisevenmoredangerousbecauseofthefact
thatitismuchmoredifficulttoescapebecauseoftheimpossibilityoffeelingsafeinanyplace,even
intheplacesinwhichvictimsshouldfeelsafest,suchasathome[4,5].Onlineviolenceisnotlimited
byplaceortime[6],whilethegeneralpublic,whichoftenwitnessesonlineviolence,makesvictims
feelmorehelplessandunprotected[3,7].Additionally,onlinemediacommunicationischaracterized
bygreateranonymity,whichencouragesunconstrainedaggressiveformsofcommentingandthe
postingofoffensivemessages,whichboostsviolenceevenmoreonlinecomparedtothereal
environment[8–10].ContentismadeavailableontheInternetveryquickly,andthereisalarge
numberofpeoplewhomaybewitnessesofviolence[4,5],aswellaspassivebullies.Astheresearch
ofBarlińskaetal.suggests[11],theonlineenvironmentincreasesthelikelihoodofnegativebystander
behaviorthroughthesharingofoffensivepostsandphotosduetotheabsenceofdirectcontactwith
thevictim,whichreducesthesenseofempathyandguilt.Thetargetsofonlineviolenceareboth
childrenandadults,andinaddition,abullyveryoftendoesnothaveapictureoftheextenttowhich
theyarehurtingthevictimandcausingdamage[12].Atthesametime,thebullyisveryoften
anonymous,anditisnoteasytoidentifythem,whichmakesthemmoreconfidentbecausethereis
nofearofbeingsanctioned[13].
Onlineviolencemaybedefinedasanykindofcommunication,includingtheexchangeof
textual,audioorvideocontent,viatheInternetthatendangersthesafetyofanindividualormakes
themfeelingfrightenedandupset[14].Itmaytakemanyforms,suchassendingaggressiveor
threateningemailsandmessages,sharingpersonalphotosandvideoswithoutapproval,Internet
trolling,hackingandInternetmonitoring.Themostcommontypesofonlineviolenceareviolencein
socialmedia,cyberbullying,cyberstalking,harassment,gangviolence,cybersuicide,etc.[15].Inthe
lastfewyears,anewphenomenoncalledInternetbanginghasappeared,inwhichsocialmediasites
suchasFacebook,TwitterandYouTubeareusedtotradeinsultsormakethreats,whichmayendin
homicideorvictimization[15].Thetermcyberbullyingrepresentsatypeofbullyinginwhich
differenttechnologiesareused,suchas“cellphones,computersandtablets,aswellas
communicationtoolsincludingsocialmediasites,textmessages,chatandwebsites,willfuland
repeatedharminflictedthroughtheuseofcomputersandotherelectronicdevices”[16].
Someauthors[17]distinguishbetweendirectandindirectonlineviolence.Directonlineviolence
includessendingdisturbingmessages,insultsandthreatsonsocialnetworksdirectlytoavictim;
publishingprivatedata,photosorvideoswithoutapproval;impersonation;etc.Incontrast,indirect
violenceisrealizedthroughathirdparty(theaccountorprofileofanotherperson,etc.).Withthe
continuousandrapidprogressofICTtechnologies,newtypesofviolenceagainstwomenarealso
appearing.AstheresearchofLewisetal.[18]indicated,womenengagedinfeminismareespecially
exposedtodifferentformsofonlineviolence,evenmorethanintheofflineworld.Althoughtheir
Sustainability2020,12,106093of24
exposuretoonlineviolencedependsonthetimespentonline,morethan80%offeministsthatare
highlyactiveonlinemediausersexperiencedflaming,trollingandharassment.
Sincethebeginningofthe21stcentury,alargenumberofresearchpapersandpublications
regardingonlineviolencehaveappeared,andmostofthemrefertoadolescents[19].Inrecentyears,
thefocushasbeenputonwomenaswell.ThenumberofstudiesonMontenegroisquitesmall,and
theypredominantlyrefertoonlineviolencetowardwomenaswellaschildren.
OneofthemostimportantstudiesistheresearchoftheEuropeanUnionAgencyfor
FundamentalRightsfrom2015andOrganizationforSecurityandCooperationinEurope(OSCE)
[20],whichisaboutviolence.However,thisresearchpredominantlyreferstotraditionalviolence,
whileonlineviolenceisincludedtoalesserextent.In2017,theEuropeanInstituteforGenderEquity
publishedasurveythatrefersexclusivelytoonlineviolencetowardwomenandgirls[21].In2019,
NGO(Nongovernmentalorganization)SafeWomen’sHousecarriedouttheproject“Stopthe
connectiontoonlineviolence”,whichwassupportedbytheEuropeanUnionandcarriedoutbyThe
UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgram(UNDP)andincludedresearchamong700womenandgirls
inthecapitalcityofPodgoricaregardingonlineviolencetowardwomenandgirls[22].Althoughthis
researchprovidedsomesignificantresultsregardingthisissue,itsmaindisadvantagewasthefact
thatitwascarriedoutonlyinthecapitalcity,whiletheothertownsinMontenegrowerenotincluded,
aswellasthefactthattherespondentswereonlywomenandgirlswhich,intheopinionofauthors
ofthisresearch,significantlydiminishesitsimportanceandrelevance.
In2016,UNICEFandtheGovernmentofMontenegropresentedthepublication“Children
online—possibilities,risksandsafety”whichpresentstheresultsoftheresearchregardingonline
violencetowardchildren[23].TheresearchwasusedasanintroductionforUNICEFglobalcampaign
“Stoptheviolenceonline”whichwasrealizedinMontenegroaswell.
Onlineviolenceis,accordingtothementionedstudies,acommonandpresentphenomenonin
Montenegro;onthebasisoftheresultsoftheresearchcarriedoutinMontenegro,itwasconcluded
thatthereisneitherasignificantamountofresearchononlineviolencenorscientificpapersregarding
thisissueandthattheresearchmostlyfocusesontheproblemofonlineviolencetowardwomen,girls
andchildren.Inaddition,recentresearchersonlyexaminedtheopinions,attitudesandperceptions
offemalesandchildren,whilethemalepopulationiscompletelyexcludedfromresearch.Thereare
alsonoscientificdataaboutonlineviolencetowardspecificmarginalizedgroups,whichcouldalso
beaveryinterestingpartoftheresearch.Ontheotherside,studiesregardingchildrenwerefocused
onviolenceingeneral,whileonlineviolencewasonlyconsideredasasegmentandwasnotgiven
appropriateimportance.However,theresearchonthetopicofonlinemediaandonlineviolence
impactingchildrenisofgreatimportance,consideringtheeffectsthatthevirtualworldhasonthe
creationoftheirattitudesandbehavior.AsthestudiesbyCastroandOsórioandbyGentileetal.
suggest,thesocialandonlinemediapressureshaveastronginfluenceonadolescents’socialnorms
andtheadoptedpatternsofbehavior,includingnegativeones[24,25].
Onlinemediamaybeconsideredaverypowerfultoolthatinfluencesopinions,perceptionsand
attitudesindifferentareas,soitisexpectedthattheirinfluenceregardingonlineviolenceis
significantaswell.Specifically,inrecentdecades,theinfluenceofonlinemediahasbeenrapidly
growing,andtheyhavebecomeanintegralpartofeverydayroutineinthemodernworld[26].In
fact,theyrepresentarealrevolutioninthecommunicationprocess[27,28]andoneofthemostcrucial
elementsofmodernhumansociety,whichsignificantlyinfluencesnotonlyitssocialnormsand
valuesbutitscultureaswell[29,30].Inthesecircumstances,theconceptofsocialmarketingisgaining
importancewiththeemergenceofnewparadigms,discourses,approachesandperspectives[31],and
ithassignificantlybroadenedanddeepeneditsscope[32]especiallyinthelastdecade.Manyauthors
statethatonlinemediamayshapeattitudesandopinionsnotonlyinapositiveway,butalsoinanegative
way,andtheybringmanynegativeeffectstotheirconsumersandsocietyasawhole[33–37].Thestudy
byBarteretal.[38]indicatedthatonlinemediatools(suchassocialnetworks)canevenincreasethe
numberofwaysinwhichbulliescanstalkandharmtheirvictimsinreallife.Additionally,the
researchofAndersonetal.[39]revealedthattheimpactofonlinemediaontheadoptionofaggressive
formsofbehavioriscommonforallsocieties,regardlessoftheirculturalnormsandbeliefs.The
Sustainability2020,12,106094of24
previouslymentionedstudiescarriedoutinMontenegropredominantlyfocusedonthesenegative
effectsofonlinemedia,andnoneofthemtreatedthepositiveeffectsofonlinemedia,especiallysocial
marketinganditspossibleuseforthepreventionofonlineviolence.
TakingintoconsiderationtherecentresearchstudiescarriedoutinMontenegro,inordertofill
theliteraturegap,theauthorsconsideredthefemalepopulation,whichrepresentsthelargestpartof
thesample,asthefocusoftheresearch,buttheyalsoconsidereditveryusefultoincludethemale
population,whichmayalsobethevictimofonlineviolence,intheresearchinordertobetteridentify
andunderstandtheexistingsituationregardingonlineviolenceinMontenegro.Contrarytosomeof
thementionedstudies,whichtargetedonlythecapitalcity,theauthorsincludedallMontenegrin
municipalitiesintheresearch.Itisalsoimportanttomentionthatnoneofthestudiesconsideredthe
possibilityoftheintroductionofpreventionofonlineviolenceinthecurriculaatdifferenteducational
levelsintheMontenegrineducationsystemanditsimportance,and,bearinginmindtheimportance
ofraisingawarenessofthelocalpopulationaboutthisissue,theauthorsincludedthissegmentinthe
researchaswell.Aswasmentionedbefore,previousresearchstudiescarriedoutinMontenegro
mostlyfocusedononlinemediaasatoolforonlineviolence,buttheauthorsofthisresearchalso
wantedtoidentifytherespondents’perceptionofonlinemedia,especiallysocialmarketing,notonly
inraisingawarenessofonlineviolencebutmoreimportantlyinitsprevention.
Theresultsoftheresearchmaybeusedasabasisforfutureresearchinthisfield,aswellasthe
guidelinesforcreatorsofpublicpolicies.Inthatsense,theauthorsbelievethat,inadditionto
researchersandscientists,theseresultsmaybeusefulforgovernmentalinstitutions,organizations,
bodies,NGOs,etc.,whichdealwithonlineviolence,aswellasformanyotherstakeholderswhomay
findthisissueinteresting.
Thepaperitselfisdividedintofivesections.Thefirstsectionprovidesanoverviewofprevious
researchstudiesthathavebeencarriedout.Inthesecondsection,theauthorsbrieflydescribethe
hypotheses,materialsandmethods,includingadetaileddescriptionoftheresearchmethodology,
whileinthethirdpart,resultsoftheresearcharepresented.Inthefourthsection,theauthorsdiscuss
theresults,whileinthefinalparttheydrawconclusions,payingspecialattentiontotheimplications
oftheresearchandthemainresearchlimitationswhileprovidingbriefandusefulrecommendations
forfutureresearchinthisfield.
2.HypothesesDevelopment,MaterialsandMethods
BasedontherelevantliteratureandusingdataobtainedfromempiricalresearchinMontenegro
aswellasinotherEuropeancountries,threehypothesesweredefinedtoinvestigatetherelationship
betweentheanalyzedvariablesandrespondents’attitudestowardonlineviolence.
Itisinterestingtopointouttheresourcetheorythatisbasedontheassumptionthatthepowerful
alwaysdominateoverthelesspowerful[40].Inthissense,thepowerfulonesaremenbecauseofthe
factthattheyhavegreaterincome,socialstandingandknowledge,skillsandcompetencesthanksto
theiremployment[41].Atthesametime,officialstatisticsfromCanadafrom2004showthatwomen
whowereseparatedreported7timesanddivorcedonestwicetheprevalenceofviolencecompared
tomarriedwomeninthesameyear[42].Somestudiesalsoshowedthatwomenwithdisabilitiesare
40%moreexposedtoviolencethanothers,andwhatisalsoworryingisthefactthattheyaremostly
exposedtosevereviolence[43].Basedontheresultsofthementionedstudiesregardingviolence,the
authorswantedtoexamineifsomespecificgroupsaremoreexposedtoonlineviolenceand,ifso,to
identifythem.Bearinginmindallofthesedata,thefirsthypothesiswasdefined:
Hypothesis1(H1).Specificvulnerablegroupssuchaswomenaremoreexposedtoonlineviolencethanother
ones.
Someresearchstudiesshowedthattherearemanynegativeemotional,socialandother
outcomesofexperiencingviolencefrommanydifferentpointsofviewandthatmostvictims
significantlychangetheirroutinesandbehaviorafteranactofviolence[44].Thechangesinbehavior
aremoreobviouswhentheviolencetookplaceinpublic,especiallyforwomenandyounggirlswho
Sustainability2020,12,106095of24
thenstarttoavoidcertainplaces,changethewaytheydressandlookinpublicandveryoftenbegin
tocarrysometoolsinordertoprotectanddefendthemselvesinpublic.Thesereactionsmaycause
differentfearsandfrustrations,especiallyamongwomenandgirls,andtheymayleadtonumerous
changesinbehavior,whichmayfurtherinfluencetheirengagementandintegrationinsocietyinthe
future[45,46].
Thefactisthatthereisadifferenceinbehaviorbetweenpeoplewhoexperiencedviolenceand
thosewhodidnot,buttheauthorswantedtogoonestepfurtherandtrytoidentifyifthereisa
differencebetweenopinionsandattitudesregardingsomegeneralissuesaboutonlineviolence
dependingonwhetherrespondentsexperienceditornot,aswellasdependingontheirageandthe
levelofeducation.Inaccordancewiththis,thesecondhypothesiswasdefined:
Hypothesis2(H2).Attitudestowardonlineviolencedependsonrespondents’onlineviolenceexperience
,
age,
maritalstatusandlevelofeducation.
Onlinemediaareconsideredstrongmarketingmedia,andtheirpopularityhascontinuously
growninthelastfewyears[47,48].Thisisespeciallytrueforsocialnetworks,whichplayacrucial
roleinthemodernworld[49].Despitetheirbenefitsfrommanydifferentpointsofview,thereare
stillmanyrisksandchallengesthatshouldbeexposed,andoneofthemisonlineviolence.Taking
intoconsiderationthefactthatthisviolenceisstronglyconnectedwithonlinemedia,theauthors
triedtoidentifyifitispossibletouseonlinemedia,aswellassocialmarketing,intheopposite
direction—asapowerfultoolforthepreventionofonlineviolence.Thisledtothethirdhypothesis:
Hypothesis3(H3).Onlinemediaandsocialmarketinghaveasignificantroleintheformationofperceptions
andattitudestowardsonlineviolenceanditsprevention.
TheconceptualmodelispresentedinFigure1below.
Figure1.Conceptualmodelofresearch(Source:Authors).
Thegivenconceptualmodelisbasedonthecausalitybetweenrespondents’attitudestowards
onlineviolenceandthreeotherconstructsoftheresearch:thebelongingtoaspecificvulnerable
group,thedemographiccharacteristicsofrespondentsandtherolethatonlinemediahaveasa
mediumofonlineviolence,aswellasaninstrumentforitspreventionatthesametime,especially
throughtheimplementationofsocialmarketing.Specifically,althoughanyuserofonlinemediacan
beapotentialvictimofonlineviolence,thisisespeciallytrueformembersofspecificvulnerable
groups,suchaswomen.Additionally,therespondents’attitudestowardsonlineviolencealso
dependonwhethertheyalreadyhadanexperiencewithonlineviolence,aswellasontheir
demographiccharacteristics,suchasage,maritalstatusandlevelofeducation.Therespondentsof
distinctivedemographiccharacteristicsarefacedwithdifferentlevelsofriskofonlineviolence,but
Sustainability2020,12,106096of24
theyalsohaveadifferentlevelofknowledgeaboutformsthatonlineviolencecantakeandtheways
inwhichtheycanprotectthemselves.Finally,therespondentsarealsoaffectedbyonlinemedia,as
thisisthemainmediumofonlineviolence,butonlinemediacanalsoserveasaveryimportant
instrumentforeducatingpeopleregardingthewaysinwhichthistypeofviolencecanberecognized
andprevented.Theunderstandingoftherelationshipsbetweentherespondents’attitudestowards
onlineviolenceandthegiventhreeconstructsisaprerequisitefortheevaluationofthebehaviorof
potentialandrealvictims,whichservesasabasisfortheimplementationofdifferentmeasuresaimedat
onlineviolencepreventionandtheusageofonlinemediaandsocialmarketingintheappropriateway.
Bearinginmindtheresearchgoals,formulatedhypotheses,methodsandresultsofprevious
studiesinthisfield,aswellastheirpreviousresearchexperienceinonlineviolence,theauthors
developedaquestionnaire(whichisgiveninAppendixA).Thequestionnairewassentto500
respondentsinMontenegrovianumerousmailinglistsandVibergroupsinOctober2019.Inorder
totestthevalidityofthequestionnaire,apilotsurveywasconductedamong20respondents.
Accordingtotheirfeedback,thecontentofthequestionnairewasimproved,andthefinalversion
wasadopted.Thepolllastedfor15days,and277participantscompletedthesurvey.Itshoweda
highanswerrateof55.4%,whichconfirmstheattractivenessofthetopicitself.
Thefinalformofthequestionnaireconsistedof17questionsdividedintofourgroups.Thefirst
groupencompassedmultiplechoicequestionsrelatedtothedemographiccharacteristicsof
respondents—theirgender,age,levelofeducationandmaritalstatus.Thesecondgroupconsistedof
questionsrelatedtotherespondents’attitudestowardsonlineviolenceingeneral,aswellasits
presenceinMontenegro.Theattitudesweremeasuredusingamultiplechoiceformofquestions,as
wellas5pointLikertscale,where1representedastrongdisagreementand5astrongagreement
withthegivenstatements.Thethirdgroupencompassedmultiplechoicequestionsrelatedtothe
onlineviolenceexperiencedbyrespondentsorpersonsclosetothem.Theaimofthesequestionswas
toenabletheidentificationoftheformsthatonlineviolenceusuallytakes,themediaitismostlybased
onandthewaysinwhichthevictimsusuallyreacttoit.Finally,thefourthgroupofmultiplechoice
questionswasrelatedtotherespondents’attitudesregardingtheeffortsmadebypublicinstitutions
andsocietyaimedatthepreventionofonlineviolence,andthecontributionthatsocialmarketing
potentiallycanmakeinthatprocess.
Althoughthetopicisratherspecific,itshouldbenotedthatthesurveywasorganizedin
completeaccordancewithethicalstandards.Theresearchdidnotexaminepatientsandmedical
documentation,butonlypeople’sattitudesandperceptionsofonlineviolence.Thesurveywas
anonymousanddidnotincludeanypersonalinformationofrespondents.Respondentsvoluntarily
participatedinthesurvey,andallofthemagreedtothepublicationoftheresearchresults.Asall
participantsgavetheirinformalconsentforinclusionbeforetheyparticipatedinthestudy,the
conductionoftheresearchdidnotrequireanyadditionalpermission.Hence,consideringall
previouslymentioned,theEthicsCommitteedidnotrequireanyadditionalpermissionfor
conductingtheresearch.
TheauthorsusedCronbach’salphatotestthereliabilityofthequestionnaire.Thecalculated
valueofCronbach’salphais0.796,andthisisasatisfactorylevelinsocialsciences,whichledtothe
conclusionthattheprovideddataareappropriateforfurtheranalysis.Inordertoidentifythe
underlyingrelationshipsbetweenspecificgroupsofvariablesderivedfromthequestionnaire,aswell
astheirimpactonrespondents’attitudestowardonlineviolence,exploratoryfactoranalysiswas
applied.Theanalysisshowedthatthemeasuredvariablesweregroupedintothreemainfactors,and
theirrelationshipisdefinedwiththegivenconceptualmodeloftheresearch.
TheSPSSprogram(Statistics20,releasedbyIBMCorp.inArmonk,NY,USA)wasusedforthe
analysisofdata,aswellasdescriptivestatistics,theANOVAtest,logisticregressionandRelative
ImportanceIndex.TheANOVAtestisalsowellknownastheanalysisofvariance,anditisusedfor
testingthesignificanceofdifferences[50,51].Thismodelisfocusednotonlyonthevariablesbutalso
ontheirinteraction,swhichrepresentsoneofitsmainadvantages.RegardingtheLikertscale,the
dataweremeasuredonanintervalscalebyplacingthemintheplaceofneitherneutralnormoderate
[52].Inthecaseofintervalscaledata,theANOVAisapplicable.FortheLikertscaledatadefined
Sustainability2020,12,106097of24
from1–5withequalintervals,themidpointismeasuredwiththevalue3[53,54].Likertscalelabeling
optionsdonotcreateanydifferenceinthedatadistance,becausethecodeisthesame.Therefore,the
usageofparametrictestsprovidesthebestresults[55].Additionally,inordertofurtherinvestigate
theimpactofonlineviolenceonwomenasaparticularlyvulnerablegroup,logisticregressionwas
applied.RelativeImportanceIndex(RII)wasusedinordertodeterminewhichfactorsoftheanalysis
areofthegreatestimportancefortheattitudesofrespondentsaboutonlineviolence.Theresultsof
theresearcharepresentedinthenextsection.
3.Results
Althoughoneofthemaingoalsofthisresearchwastopointouttheproblemandcharacteristics
ofonlineviolenceagainstwomeninMontenegro,thesurveyincludedbothwomenandmen.We
decidedattheverybeginningthatitisimportanttopresentthekindofexperiencesthepopulation
inMontenegrohaswithonlineviolence,regardlessofgender.Intheremainingpartoftheresearch,
wefocusedonamoredetailedanalysisofonlineviolenceagainstwomenasithasbeenshownthat
theyfacethisproblemmoreoftenthanmen.Inordertodetermineandexplaindifferentaspectsof
theanalysisofonlineviolence,theauthorsstartedfromtheanalysisofthecharacteristicsofthe
respondentsusingthedescriptivestatisticsmethod,whichisdescribedinTable1.
Table1.Characteristicsofrespondents.
Gender
Female19670.8
Male8129.2
AgeLevelofEducation
NWeighted% NWeighted%
18–248530.7Primaryschool10.4
25–294516.2Highschool4014.4
30–344315.5College51.8
35–405319.1Faculty12344.4
41–45279.7Specialist4014.4
45–55196.9Master’s5218.8
Morethan5551.8PhD165.8
Descriptivestatisticsobtainedbyanalyzingtheanswersfromthequestionnaireindicatesthe
basiccharacteristicsoftherespondents.Respondentsweremostlyfemale(70.8%),whilethe
participationofmaleswas29.2%.Mostoftherespondentswerefromtheyoungerpopulation:atotal
of85respondentsbelongedtotheagegroupof18–24years,whichrepresents30.7%ofthesample.
Thenextgroup,accordingtothenumberofrespondents,representspeoplebetween35and40years
old:intotal,53respondentsor19.1%ofthesample.Thenextwasthegroupofrespondentswhowere
between25and30,whichrepresents16.2%ofthesample,andagroup30–34yearsold,whichmakes
up15.5%ofthesample.Thesmallestgroupsoftherespondentsbelongtotheolderpopulation:19
respondentsfromtheagegroup45–55participatedinthesurvey,whichis6.9%ofthesample,and5
respondentswhowereover55,whichrepresents1.8%ofthesample.Inmostcases,respondentshad
auniversitydegree(124respondentsor44.4%ofthesample),108ofthemhadspecialist,masteror
Ph.D.diploma,whileonlyonerespondent,whichrepresents0.4%,completedonlyprimaryschool.
Theresultsofthesurveyshowedthat52.71%werevictimsofonlineviolence,ofwhich38.99%
werefemale,whiletheproportionofmalerespondentsinthiscategorywas13.72%.Asmanyas
32.49%ofthetotalrespondentswerewomenwhoexperiencedonlineviolencemorethanonce.
Victimsofonlineviolencewereinmostcasesmembersoftheyoungerpopulation.Specifically,atotal
of14.44%oftherespondentsbelongedtothegroupof18–24years.Theoldestpopulationof
respondents,i.e.,over55yearsofage,weretheleastvulnerabletoonlineviolence.Respondentswith
ahighschooldiplomadegreewerethemostfrequentvictimsofonlineviolence.Surveyresults
showedthat23.1%ofrespondentswithadiplomadegreeexperiencedonlineviolenceseveraltimes.
Adetailedoverviewofthecharacteristicsofrespondentswhowerevictimsofonlineviolenceisgiven
belowintheTable2.
Sustainability2020,12,106098of24
Table2.Characteristicsofrespondentswhowerevictimsofonlineviolence.
VariablesVictimsofOnlineViolence
OnceMorethanOnce
GenderFemale61.64%12.33%
Male22.60%3.42%
Age
18–2427.40%5.48%
25–298.22%3.42%
30–3415.75%2.05%
35–4017.81%3.42%
41–458.90%1.37%
45–554.79%0.00%
Morethan551.37%0.00%
Levelofeducation
Primaryschool0.00%0.00%
Highschool13.70%2.05%
College1.37%0.00%
Faculty43.84%4.79%
Specialist8.22%3.42%
Master13.70%3.42%
PhD3.42%2.05%
Basedonthecharacteristicsofrespondentswhowerevictimsofonlineviolence(Table2),itmay
beconcludedthatitiswomenwhoaremostoftenthevictimsofonlineviolence.Ofthetotalnumber
ofwomenwhohavebeenvictimsofonlineviolence,61.64%haveexperiencedonlineviolenceonce,
while12.33%haveexperiencedonlineviolencemorethanonce.Ontheotherhand,thesepercentages
aremuchlowerforthemalepopulation.Specifically,only6.17%ofmalerespondentsstatedthatthey
werevictimsofonlineviolenceonce,andthesamepercentageexperienceditmorethanonce.Hence,
itisnotsurprisingthattheparticipationofmeninthisresearchwaslower,owingtotheirlackof
interestinthetopicofonlineviolence.Theresearchconfirmsthatwomenfaceonlineviolencemore
oftenthanmen.Thiswasalsopresentedinresearchstudiesinthisfield[21,22,42]andiswhywe
focusontheminthesecondpartoftheanalysis.Furthermore,theresultsofthesurveyclearlyconfirm
thatvictimsofonlineviolenceweremostoftenmembersoftheyoungerpopulation,whichisalso
shownbyotherresearchstudiesthatwerecarriedout[20–23].Infact,theresearchshowedthat
27.40%oftherespondentswhowerevictimsofonlineviolencewerebetween18and24yearsoldand
experiencedviolenceonce.Theresultsoftheresearchconfirmedourfirsthypothesisthatspecific
vulnerablegroupssuchaswomenaremoreexposedtoonlineviolencethantheotherones,which
wasalsostatedinsomepreviousstudies[42,43].
Thesurveyalsotriedtoanswerthequestionofwhethertherespondentshadthesame
experiencewithonlineviolenceinaparticularonlinespace,regardlessofgender,ageorlevelof
education(Table3).
Table3.ANOVAtestofdifferencesincharacteristicsofrespondentsdependingontheirexperience
withonlineviolenceinaparticularonlinespace.
ANOVA
Sumof
SquaresdfMean
SquareFSig.
Gender
BetweenGroups 1.53670.2191.010.426
WithinGroups41.5191910.217
Total43.055198 
Age
BetweenGroups 62.81378.9733.737.001
WithinGroups458.6241912.401
Total521.437198 
Levelofeducation
BetweenGroups 24.88573.5551.958.063
WithinGroups346.7831911.816
Total371.668198 
Sustainability2020,12,106099of24
IntheANOVAtest,theinitialhypothesisdefinedthatrespondentshadequalexperiencewith
onlineviolenceinaparticularonlinespace,regardlessofgender,ageoreducationallevel.Theresults
oftheANOVAtestindicatethattherespondentshadthesameorsimilarexperienceofviolenceina
specificonlinespace,whetherfemaleormaleandregardlessoftheireducationallevel,withanerror
riskof5%.TheANOVAtestalsoconfirmedthatthereisasignificantdifferenceinexperiencewith
violenceonaparticularonlineplatformdependingontheageoftherespondents.Thedescriptivestatistics
confirmedtheseresults,showingthattheyoungergenerationismostlikelytoexperienceonlineviolence
onInstagram,whiletheoldergenerationisprimarilyexperiencingviolenceonFacebook.
Inordertofurtherinvestigatetheconsequencesofthepreviousconclusion,accordingtowhich
womenareaparticularlyvulnerablegroupofonlineviolence,incontinuationoftheresearch,we
examinedwhichcategoriesofthefemalepopulation,intermsofage,maritalstatusandeducation,
areparticularlyaffectedbythistypeofviolence.Inordertoreachthis,logisticregressionandRelative
ImportanceIndex(RII)wereused.
Theaimoftheapplicationofthelogisticregressionwastodeterminewhetherwomenwhowere
victimsofonlineviolencebelongedtoaspecificagegroupandwhethertheyhadaparticularmarital
statusoraspecificlevelofeducation.Inotherwords,wetriedtofindoutwhethertherewasagroup
byage,maritalstatusoreducationwithinthefemalepopulationincludedintheresearchthatwas
especiallyaffectedbyonlineviolence.Logisticregressionismostoftenusedtoquantifytheeffectsof
theinteractionbetweentheindependentvariablesaswellastoranktheirimportance[56].
Thedependentvariableinlogisticregressionistheimpactthatisexperiencedwithonline
violence,whiletheindependentvariablesarerespondents’age,maritalstatusandlevelofeducation.
Themainresultsaredescribedbelow.
Beforetheanalysisofthemodel,thehypothesisthattherewasnorelationbetweenthe
dependentandindependentvariablesinlogisticregressionwastested.Thetablebelowsummarizes
allresults(Table4).
Table4.Modelfittingtestforlogisticregressionofexperiencewithonlineviolenceofwomenin
relationtotheirage,maritalstatusandlevelofeducation.
ModelFittingInformation
ModelModelFittingCriteriaLikelihoodRatioTests
2LogLikelihoodChiSquareDfSig.
InterceptOnly109.010
Final27.68581.326140.000
Themodelwastestedbycomparingthemodelwithoutanindependentvariable(109.010)with
themodelwithanindependentvariable(27.685).With14degreesoffreedom,χ2is81.326,whichis
significantatthelevelof0%.Inotherwords,theresultsofthemodelfittingtestforlogicalregression
confirmedthatthemodelisappropriateandthatthenullhypothesis,whichreferstothenon
existenceoftherelationbetweentheindependentanddependentvariables,canberejected.
Theresultsoftheevaluationofthelogisticregressionmodelarepresentedinthefollowingtable
(Table5).
Sustainability2020,12,1060910of24
Table5.Logisticregressionofexperiencewithonlineviolenceofwomeninrelationtotheirage,
maritalstatusandlevelofeducation.
HaveYoueverBeenaVictimofOnline
Violence? BStd.ErrorWalddfSig.Exp(B)
Yes
Intercept−19.0580.98378.18310.000
Age=18–240.5670.08940.58710.0451.763
Age=25–290.5540.045151.56310.0001.740
Age=30–340.3420.032114.22310.0001.408
Age=35–400.3120.04450.28110.0401.366
Age=41–450.2250.021114.79610.0001.252
Age=45–550.2050.02949.97010.0031.228
Age=Morethan550c0 
Maritalstatus=Divorced0.5540.07751.76510.0131.740
Maritalstatus=Single0.4330.06347.23810.0441.542
Maritalstatus=Married−0.2510.04137.47810.0370.778
Maritalstatus=Widow0c0 
Levelofeducation=PhD−0.6650.07676.56310.0070.514
Levelofeducation=Faculty−0.2140.03244.72310.0250.807
Levelofeducation=Master−0.3760.04376.46110.0060.687
LevelofEducation=Specialist−0.1120.01287.11110.0000.894
Levelofeducation=Highschool0.2310.02868.06310.0101.260
Levelofeducation=College0c0 
Legend:cthereferencecategory.
Theanalysisoftheresultsshowedthatcertaingroupsofwomenweremoreaffectedbyonline
violencethanothers.Inparticular,thelogisticregressionconfirmedthatyoungwomenwerethemost
affectedbyonlineviolence.Oneofthereasonsforthisisthattheyoungerpopulationismorepresent
ononlineplatformscomparedtotheolderpopulation,butalsothefactthattheyoungerpopulation
usesonlineplatformsforworkandentertainmenteveryday,unliketheolderpopulation,whichuses
onlycertaintypesofplatforms.Theresultsshowedthatfemalerespondentsaged18to24were76.3%
moreexposedtoonlineviolencethanrespondentsover55.Furthermore,theresultsindicatethat
respondentsaged25to30are74%moreexposedtoonlineviolence,respondentsaged30to34have
a40.8%higherchancesofexperiencingonlineviolence,respondentsaged35to40are36.6%more
likelytobevictimsofonlineviolence,respondentsaged41to45havea25.2%higherchancesofbeing
victimsofonlineviolenceandrespondentswhoarebetween45and55yearsare22.8%moreexposed
toonlineviolenceincomparisonwiththerespondentsoftheoldestagegroup,thatis,thegroupover
55yearsold.
Ifweanalyzetheexperienceofwomenexperiencingonlineviolencefromtheaspectofmarital
statusandtakewidowedwomenasthebaseorreferencegroup,thentheresultsoflogisticregression
showthatdivorcedwomenare74%moreexposedtoonlineviolenceincomparisontothosewhoare
widows.Ontheotherhand,iftherespondentsaresingle,thenthechanceofbeingvictimsofonline
violenceis54.2%highercomparedtowidows.Marriedwomenare22.2%lesslikelytobevictimsof
onlineviolencethanwidowedrespondents.Theseresultsmaybeeasilyexplainedbytakinginto
considerationthefactthatthedivorcedonesmostoftenuseonlineplatformstogetintouchand
establishaconnectionwithapersonoftheoppositesexandthusbecomeaneasytargetforonline
violence.Thesamesituationistruewithrespondentswhoarealone.Ontheotherhand,itwasshown
thatmarriedrespondentsoftenvisitonlineplatformsrelatedtorunningahouseholdandfamilybut
havelessfreetimetospendononlineplatforms,sotheyarelesslikelytobevictimsofonlineviolence.
Finally,ifweobservethelevelofeducationandtakerespondentswhocompletedhighschool
asthereferencegroup,wecometosomeimportantconclusionsregardingtherelationshipbetween
thelevelofeducationandonlineviolence.Specifically,respondentswhohavecompleteddoctoral
studieshavea48.6%lowerchanceofbeingvictimsofonlineviolence;iftheyhaveamaster’sdegree,
Sustainability2020,12,1060911of24
theyare31.3%lesslikelytobevictimsofonlineviolence;thosewithafacultydegreehavea19.3%
lowerchancetobevictimsofonlineviolence;andthosewithspecialiststudiesare10.6%lesslikely
toexperienceonlineviolencecomparedtorespondentswhocompletedhighschoolonly.Itwas
consideredthatthemoreeducatedtherespondentsare,thebetterinformedtheyareaboutwhat
onlineviolenceis,howtorecognizeitandhowtoavoidit.Respondentswhohavecompletedonly
highschoolare26%moreoftenvictimsofonlineviolenceincomparisontothosewhohave
completedcollege.
Inthecontinuationoftheresearch,whichconcernsonlineviolenceandthefemalepopulation,
wewantedtoanalyzethemostimportantattitudesandopinionsofrespondentsaboutonline
violenceinMontenegro.WeperformedtheanalysisusingRelativeImportanceIndex.
Theresearchtriedtoanswerthequestionabouttheattitudeofwomentowardsonlineviolence
andwhatthekeyfactorsarethatdetermineit.Respondentsratedthesignificanceofthestated
attitudestoonlineviolenceonascalefrom1to5.Thesurveytriedtoidentifyrespondents’opinions
onwhethertheythinkthatonlineviolenceisveryfrequentnowadays,whetheritslevelis
continuouslyincreasing,whetheritsconsequencesarequitedifferentfromconsequencesofother
typesofviolence,whethertheyconsiderwomenormembersofmarginalizedgroupstobemore
exposedtoonlineviolence,whethermencommitonlineviolencemoreoftenthanwomen,whether
onlineviolenceisacommonformofpeerviolence,whetheronlineabusersareusuallyviolentinreal
lifeaswell,whetherallkindsofviolenceshouldbereportedtorelevantinstitutions,whetherthey
believethatrelevantinstitutionshaveadequatemechanismstodealwithonlineviolenceandwhether
theyconsiderthatitisnecessarytoworkcontinuouslyonraisingawarenessaboutonlineviolence
anditsconsequences,aswellasthemeasuresandactivitiesthatmaybecarriedoutinorderto
sanctionit.Inordertoexaminewhichofthesefactorshasthegreatestsignificanceinformingthe
attitudesofrespondentstoonlineviolence,butalsotorankallotherfactorsbyimportance,Relative
ImportanceIndex(RII)[48–50]wasused.
RelativeImportanceIndex(RII)inthisresearchwasappliedbyequation[48–50]:
RII=(1×NA+2×NB+3×NC+4×ND+5×NE)/(5×N)(1)
inwhich1,2,3,4and5representLikertscalevaluesusedbyrespondentsinordertoestimatethe
valueofeachobservedfactor,andNA,NB,NC,NDandNErepresentthetotalnumberofrespondents
whoestimatedaspecificvaluetotheobservedfactor.Thevalueof5isusedasthehighestvalue,
whileNstandsforthetotalnumberofrespondents.Table6presentstherankingof12attitudesor
factorsthatdefinethestateofonlineviolenceinMontenegro.
Table6.TherankingoffactorsofonlineviolenceusingRelativeImportanceIndex.
Variables12345RIIRank
Onlineviolenceisveryfrequent
nowadaysinMontenegro794069710.7918376
Thelevelofonlineviolenceis
continuouslyincreasing844363780.8030615
Consequencesofonlineviolenceare
notsignificantlydifferentfrom
consequencesofothertypesof
violence
9195172450.7275518
Girls/Womenaremoreimposedto
onlineviolencethanmen 6204951700.7622457
Marginalizedgroupsaremore
exposedtoonlineviolencethan
unmarginalizedones
11207057380.69285711
Mencommitonlineviolencemore
oftenthanwomen7295260480.7153069
Onlineviolenceisacommonform
ofpeerviolence574364770.8051024
Sustainability2020,12,1060912of24
Onlineabusersareusuallyviolent
inreallifeaswell7256753440.70408210
Allkindsofviolenceshouldbe
reportedtorelevantinstitutions6422471170.8704083
RelevantinstitutionsinMontenegro
haveadequatemechanismstodeal
withcasesofonlineviolence
4954721740.47040812
Itisnecessarytoworkcontinuously
onraisingawarenessaboutonline
violenceanditsconsequences
5711401330.8948982
Itisnecessarytoworkcontinuously
onraisingawarenessabout
measuresandactivitiesthatmaybe
carriedoutinordertosanction
onlineviolence
6512371360.8979591
BasedontheresultsofRIIanalysis,wecandrawthefollowingconclusions.Fortherespondents,
thefactthatitisnecessarytoworkcontinuouslyonraisingawarenessaboutwhatonlineviolenceis
anditsconsequences,aswellasononlineviolencesanctions,areofthegreatestimportancefor
formingtherespondents’attitudesandstateofonlineviolenceinMontenegro.Therefore,the
respondentsbelievedthatonlineviolenceisveryfrequentnowadaysinMontenegro,butthe
populationdoesnothaveenoughknowledgetorecognizeandreacttoitorsanctionitinan
appropriateway.ThisiswhythesetwoattitudestakethefirsttwoplacesontheRIIrankinglist.The
thirdmostimportantistheattitudeaccordingtowhichonlineviolenceshouldbereported.Thisthird
factorindicatesthatrespondentsinMontenegroareawareofonlineviolence,buttheybelievethat
thisawarenessofthepossibleseriousandlonglastingconsequencesofthiskindofviolenceisstill
notsufficientamongthepopulation.Therefore,theiranswersindicatethatfurtherstepsshouldbe
takentoraisetheawarenessoflocalpopulationaboutonlineviolenceandthatpeopleshouldbe
educatedtoreportonlineviolenceandsanctionitproperlyiftheyfindthemselvesintheroleof
victims.Consideringthatthevictimsaremostoftenwomenandothervulnerablegroups,thenthese
resultsshouldbekeptinmindinordertoimprovetheexistingsituation.Whatisworryingisthefact
that,intermsofimportanceonthislist,theattitudethattherelevantinstitutionsinMontenegrohave
adequatemechanismstodealwithcasesofonlineviolenceisinthelastplace.Therefore,according
tothefirstfactorsonthislist,therespondentsindicatedthattheyareawarethatonlineviolenceisa
bigandsignificantprobleminsociety,buttheyareobviouslynotsurethattherelevantinstitutions
understandthisproblemandthattheyadequatelysolveit.
Theresultsoftheresearchalsoshowedthattherespondents,whowerevictimsofonline
violence,in72.5%ofcasescharacterizedtheviolenceasharassmentbycallingandsendingmessages
bytheperpetratorofviolence;in12.2%ofcases,theviolencewascommittedbystealingidentityor
creatingafalseprofile;and5.3%ofcasesweresexualharassment.Itisimportanttomentionthat3.1%
ofrespondentsdescribedtheviolenceasthreats/insultsandpublishinganddistributionofphotos
andvideoswithoutthepermissionofthevictimofviolence,while2.3%ofcasesofonlineviolence
weremanifestedintheformofblackmailand1.5%ofcasestooktheformofstalkingandpersecution.
Inordertobetterunderstandwhathappenedaftertheexperiencewithonlineviolence,we
examinedhowtherespondentsreactedtotheviolenceandwhomtheyturnedtoforhelp.Theresults
ofourresearchshowedthattherespondents,afterexperiencingonlineviolence,predominantly
addressedpeopletheytrusted,i.e.,familymembersandfriends,andtalkedtothemaboutthis
unpleasantexperience.Fortypercentofrespondentsreactedtoonlineviolenceinthisway.Further,
20%ofrespondentswhoexperiencedonlineviolencedecidedtoblocktheperpetratorofviolenceon
socialnetworks.Interestingly,asmanyas9.6%ofrespondentswithexperiencewithonlineviolence
decidednottoreacttothistypeofviolence.Ontheotherhand,whenitcametoseekinghelp,
respondents,afterexperiencingonlineviolence,mostoftenturnedtofriendsforhelp(in48.9%of
cases).Furthermore,38.5%ofrespondentswhoexperiencedonlineviolencedecidedtoturntofamily
membersforhelp,and9.6%ofrespondentsthoughtthattheyshouldturntotherelevantinstitutions
Sustainability2020,12,1060913of24
forhelp.Thepercentageofrespondentswhoneededthehelpofapsychiatristorpsychologistwas
2.2%,and0.7%ofrespondentsturnedtofriendsfromsocialnetworks.
Inthelastpartoftheanalysis,theauthorswantedtoputemphasisontheimportanceofthe
crucialrolethatonlinemediaandotherformsofcommunicationmayhave,especiallyforthepurpose
ofpreventionofonlineviolence.Theresultsofthesurveyregardingonlinetoolsusedforspreading
onlineviolencearepresentedinthegraphbelow(Figure2).
Figure2.Onlinetoolsusedforspreadingonlineviolence.
Respondentswhohaveexperiencedonlineviolencepersonallyorhadsomeoneclosetothem
experienceitidentifiedthemainonlinemediumthatwasthetargetforthiskindofviolence.The
survey’sresultsindicatethatinMontenegro,thesocialnetworkFacebookiswhereonlineviolence
againstwomenismostcommon.Asmanyas36.89%ofthefemalerespondentshadexperiencewith
onlineviolenceonthissocialnetwork.AnothertoolisInstagram,where21.61%offemale
respondentshaveexperiencedonlineviolence,andViberwasinthirdplace.Theleastamountof
spaceforonlineviolenceinMontenegrowasreportedonYouTubeandTwitter.
Thesurveytriedtodeterminetheroleofonlinemediainthepreventionofonlineviolence.The
authorsoftheresearchconsideredthissetofquestionsveryimportant,takingintoaccountthefact
thatmostoftheresearchstudiesconsideredonlinemediaasafactorofonlineviolence,butnoneof
them,accordingtotheauthors’findings,discussedthepossibilityofusingthemasatoolforthe
preventionofonlineviolence.Theresultsareshowninthefollowinggraph(Figure3).
Figure3.Theroleof(online)mediainthepreventionofonlineviolence.
Sustainability2020,12,1060914of24
Accordingtotheresultsofthesurvey,itcanbeconcludedthatonlinemediaareextremely
importantinthepreventionofonlineviolence.Theresultsalsoshowedthatmorethanhalfofthe
respondentsbelievethattheroleofonlinemediaisofgreatimportanceinthepreventionofonline
violence.Respondentsalsobelievethatonlineviolencemaybebetterinhibitedbyusingonline
media.Veryfewrespondentsbelievedthatthemediacannotbeusedinordertopreventonline
violence.
Thesurveyalsotriedtoidentifyifsocialmarketingshouldbeusedinthepreventionofonline
violence(Figure4).
Figure4.Theuseofsocialmarketinginthepreventionofonlineviolence.
Researchfindingssuggestthatsocialmarketingshouldbeusedtoraiseawarenessofwhat
onlineviolenceisandwhatitsconsequencesareinordertopreventitinthefuture.Asmanyas76.9%
ofrespondentsbelievethatsocialmarketingshouldbecontinuallyusedtopreventonlineviolence,
whileonly1.44%ofthemthoughtthatsocialmarketingcouldnotpreventtheoccurrenceofonline
violence.Asitisalreadywellknown,onlineviolenceisaphenomenonthathasappearedandwhose
influenceisincreasingtogetherwiththeincreaseofimportanceofonlinemedia.Theresultsofthe
researchconfirmedthethirdhypothesisthatonlinemediamay,andwewouldaddshould,beused
asapowerfultoolforthepreventionofonlineviolence,andwewouldaddthatinthefuturetheir
rolemaybecomeevenmoreimportant.
Oneimportantquestionthatwasincludedinthequestionnaireandwhich,accordingtothe
findingsoftheauthors,wasnottreatedinanyresearchbefore,istheinclusionofspecificcourses
regardingthepreventionofonlineviolenceintothecurriculumofcertainlevelsoftheeducation
systeminMontenegro(Figure5).
Figure5.Inclusionofthepreventionofonlineviolenceincurricula.
Sustainability2020,12,1060915of24
Thesurveyfoundthat36.82%ofrespondentsthoughtthatthisshouldbeintroducedonlyin
primaryschools,but36.10%ofthemalsobelievedthatcoursesregardingthepreventionofonline
violenceshouldbeintroducedatalleducationallevels.Veryfewthoughtthatthisissueshouldnot
beincludedinthecurriculum(only1.44%ofrespondents),andevenfewer(0.72%)thoughtthatthis
topicshouldbeincludedonlyinthecurriculumofhighereducation.Theseresultsmaybeextremely
importantforpolicymakersineducationinordertonotonlyassurethequalityoftheeducation
systeminMontenegrobutalsotoimprovethequalityoflifebypreventionofoneofthelargest
problems,namelyonlineviolence,especiallyagainstwomen,regardingtheseparticulartarget
groups.Bearinginmindthefactthatmoderntechnologyrepresentsanintegralpartofyoung
people’slives,aswellasthefactthatonlineviolencethatisbasedonitcannotbestampedoutwith
traditionalmeasuresandinstruments,thecoursesregardingonlineviolenceshouldbeanintegral
andobligatorypartofthecurriculumatalllevelsoftheeducationalprocess.Specialattentioninthese
coursesinprimaryandsecondaryeducationshouldbeplacedondifferenttypesofonlineviolence,
theimportanceofitstimelydetection,itsconsequences,differentmodelsofpreventionandtherole
ofdifferentstakeholdersinpreventionandrespondingtoonlineviolence.Atthesametime,such
coursesshouldalsobeintroducedatahighereducationlevelwithamoredetailedoverviewofall
thementionedissues,aswellastheintroductionofthenewonessuchastheoriesofonlineviolence;
itsbiological,socialandpsychologicalcontributors;nationalandinternationalnormsandstandards
regardingthisissue;andmediaportrayalofonlineviolence.Althoughtheprecisemeasurementof
theeffectivenessofsuchprogramsisquitechallenging,the