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THE LANDSCAPE OF SMALL TOWNS IN LUBELSKIE PROVINCE.PART 2 - LANDSCAPE CHANGES AFTER 1989

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Abstract

The objective of the article is to analyse changes in landscape structure after 1989 in selected communes of the Chełm county in the Lublin Voivodeship, namely the urban commune of Rejowiec Fabryczny, and two urban-rural communes Rejowiec and Siedliszcze. The landscape structure was analysed based on data on land cover from the CORINE Land Cover data base. GIS tools were used for the analysis of landscape structure transformations with the application of landscape metrics. Moreover, an attempt was made to examine the affiliation to the Cittaslow network in the context of landscape transformations. The study showed that changes in land cover are not only related to the sprawl of building development, but also to an increase in the area of agricultural land outside the range of irrigation facilities, and an increase in the mean surface area of such land. A decline in land cover transformations has also been observed since 2012, as confirmed by the landscape structure diversity index. It may be related to the membership in the European Union (among others Common Agricultural Policy). The study showed no effect of affiliation with the Cittaslow network on landscape transformations. A continuation of the proposed analyses is required in a broader time perspective and in a specific spatial range.
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
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, Poland
Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management
e-mail: sebastian.bernat@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl, karolina.trykacz@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl


THE LANDSCAPE OF SMALL TOWNS IN LUBELSKIE PROVINCE.PART 2
LANDSCAPE CHANGES AFTER 1989
Streszczenie
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Abstract


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





Key words: 

www.cultural-landscape.us.edu.pl






-
es signatory countries to, among other things, iden-
tify landscapes in their territories, analyse land-
scape characteristics and transforming factors, and
record the related changes.


are the most important layers, landscape consti-
-
ics, transforming based on multilateral develop-
ment, both natural and planned, functional and


both on the local and regional scale, is strongly

land use depend on the economic condition of the
country and the way it is managed, particularly in
the scope of spatial economy.
-
-

as a result of political and socio-economic changes
-


also become the cause of further landscape trans-
-

state property, introduction of personal ownership
and local government, increase in the mobility of
-


legal instruments, many investments which dam-

consequences include: dispersal of building devel-

conditions, building up of landscape dominants,
and development of land suitable for investment,
e.g. in the vicinity of environmentally friendly ar-

transformations in Poland were emphasised by

changes in the quality of landscape with a local
character, or negative large-scale changes in the
structure, scenery, and texture, as well as the func-

possibilities of implementation of the European


-
-



 
 

-
-










-

-

-
-



-




-

-


-

 
-

-


negatywne wielkoprzestrzenne zmiany struktury,
-


the following as the primary threats to the quality
of landscape: very low degree of securing areas
in local spatial development plans, and as a con-
sequence dispersal of building development, and
the random character of activities based on deci-
sions about land development, as well as intensive


legal possibility for their protection outside of the
arrangements in local spatial development plans

decisions about the conditions of building devel-
opment without a plan generates spatial chaos and
degradation of the aesthetic values of landscape



potential decline of landscape identity related to
the permanence of characteristic elements of both
cultural and natural origin, developing the unique

threats to the sound values of landscape, particu-


landscape transformations has been increasing




-
-

transformations and application of the obtained
knowledge in sustainable landscape management.
Landscape transformations in small towns, how-

-

so far not been studied in selected small towns
in peripheral regions of the European Union, for

problem area characterised by the accumulation of
things such as negative socio-economic phenom-
ena, making it underdeveloped in comparison to

is manifested in, among other things, the demo-
graphic-social dimension through the unfavour-
able state of population resources, involving de-
mographic weakness and social underdevelopment
-
trialisation and high unemployment, it is one of
-

-
scowych planach zagospodarowania przestrzen-

-
spodarowaniu terenu oraz intensywne zabudowy-
wanie przedpoli widokowych panoram i sylwet


-

-



-

-



-



-







   
-
-

-
  
-
-

-

-




-





a vast potential to the region, favouring the devel-

-

term decrease in population in many areas of the

observed in many aspects of socio-economic life

to the complete disappearance of municipalities




in the structure of the landscapes of selected small

selected case study involved the urban commune
-
-


area covering mutually neighbouring communes
with similar environmental and landscape condi-







-

town with the remaining towns of the county would

changes in the landscape structure.


of the potential of small towns as an alternative to
living in large, busy urban centres full of progress-

to the network emphasise the quality of life of resi-
dents in harmony with nature, landscape, and local
-
-
ties for the restoration and valorisation of the centre


-


-
-

-
-

-
no-gospodarczego oraz w ich przestrzeni geogra-






 -

-
-







-

-
-




-
-


-




-
-



-

-
eral region of the European Union.



-
nomic transformation, and before and after Poland’s

all geospatial analyses will be the current commune







-
plexity is manifested in three aspects: spatial, func-

often involves the application of land cover data
-


  
-
-
-




-

-
-




-


-
 -
-






Tab. 1.

Commune

County


Total
population

2)
Area in km2


2)
Population density
(numer of persons
per 1 km2)


Year of obtaining
town status


municipal commune
    



urban-rural commune
    -

town     



urban-rural commune
    -

 town     

Sour


provides vector data on land cover for Europe for





-
cussed communes, the analyses were conducted for




wektorowych o pokryciu terenu dla Europy dla lat


-



gminach analizy przeprowadzono dla trzeciego

-




Tab. 2.


Land cover 
Characteristics

Main forms

Code

Basic types


Articial
surfaces
 
Discontinuous urban fabric
-



        

 
lub handlowe



        

 


-




Agricultural
areas
 


       

        

         

land are also included
 



          
are visible
 



        
         

           
            
         
included
 


Land principally occupied by

areas of natural vegetation


zbiornikami wodnymi
   



-

Source: 



Forest and semi
natural areas
 

       

 

 Lasy iglaste





 Lasy mieszane

       -



 
w stanie zmian

       

 



Wetlands
 






Water bodies
 
Water bodies




 









 Obliczenie zmian powierzchni





  
and their share in the total area of


 Obliczenie wybranych metryk





 -


change
 


latach


 

omawianymi gminami



 -

zmiany w pokryciu terenu


in land cover

Fig. 1.Source: 





analyses also involved the application of the Excel

-


-
termination of the rate and directions of changes

covered changes both between subsequent editions



-

of landscape metrics, i.e. indicators used for structure
analyses at the level of single patches, their class, or

-

-
ber of designated basic forms of land cover patches
1,
2, and
3




-

area of each basic type of land cover in the total area
of the commune was compared to the corresponding
-

 

 
lower the value, the more complex the patch geometry.
-

 
  




 




Pozyskane dane o pokryciu terenu opracowa-
no, przeanalizowano i zwizualizowano przy po-
  

-




   
zmian w pokryciu terenu w ostatnim trzydziestole-





-
-


     

-

-
1
2-
3
-
-
.



-


 -
-

 -
-


 




 -

-






cover for the commune in a given period provided
the value of the landscape structure variability in-



the percentage share of anthropogenic areas to the
remaining main forms of land cover occurring in
the area of particular communes.
   
results and determination of the changes in land
-




Further perspectives of the research were deter-
mined as well.

preceded by a determination of characteristics of
the studied towns and communes prepared based
-


performed, documented with photographs.



-


landscape with extensive peatlands and post-exca-

-

-




belonging to the Lublin Upland macroregion.
-






-
-





-






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-





-

    
-




   
-

-
-
mi torfowiskami i powyrobiskowymi zbiornikami

-
-
-






-

-




-
tures residential housing and main service facilities,













-
-
dant material evidence of its multicultural past:



-

-


-
-


-
  

     





-




opracowanie

Fig. 2.
Source: 



Photo 1. 

Photo 3.

Photo 2.

Photo 4.

Photo 5.

Photo 6.


-
-



-


 


-



-
-


-


-



-
-

-

Siedliszcze is the smallest of the analysed towns.
    
recently, although it did constitute a town in the
  



-

construction of a brown coal mine is also planned
in the commune.
     
indices of the selected towns pointed to their prob-
lematic character related to negative natural growth,
low migration balance, and the number of business

-





-

were included in the most abundant group of urban
centres of concentration of the basic functions, and
development of supralocal specialised functions.

designated for strengthening national and regional
-


Photo 7.

Photo 8.







   
-


-

-
   
-


-
-




-
-

  
-



   

     
  

limit the possibilities of their self-development

-

-

-


should cooperate in the scope of functional relations




of smart economic specialisations of the region in

processing of foods produced with ecological meth-
-


to shape the town as a centre of industrial devel-
opment was particularly emphasised, including in-
dustry related to mining, and as a reloading-ware-
housing centre for rail and road transport. Moreover,

role of the service sector in the economy, includ-
ing services of sports, recreation, and tourism, and
-


together with public spaces, services infrastructure,







Average
3-year natu-
ral growth
rate 2016-
2018




Average 3-year
internal
migration
balance ratio
2016-2018




Average 3-year
foreign migration
balance ratio
2016-2018




Number of
working
persons
per 1000
inhabi-
tants in
2018



Number of private
sector businesses
per 1000 inhabitants
in 2018






Share of section I+R
in total number of
economic entites in
2018 ( %)


     
      
 brak danych     

Tab. 3.

Source: 


     

    
 
   
 
wraz z przestrzeniami publicznymi, terenami
      


    







tereny antropogeniczne, tereny rolne oraz lasy
    





   

    

        
  



   

   

antropogenicznych, w ostatnim trzydziestoleciu
       



  

   

    
of interconnection nodes integrating transport sys-

of development of the towns as centres of industrial
development was pointed out, including the food
processing industry, and increasing the role of the
service sector in the economy, particularly the ser-
vices of recreation and tourism, as well as services
for the mining sector.






be included in the CLC base. Only this urban com-


  




-

-


area of the commune is occupied by forests and semi

an increase in its contribution has been observed
  
-



    

of the commune is occupied by non-irrigated ar-
 



     
-

-

a considerable share of the commune was primarily



     
         



        


  




     
  








      -
-

occupied by land principally occupied by agricul-




of the area of the commune, and land principally




in the northern part of the commune, belong to the

Discontinuous urban fabric occupied a relatively
-
er contribution was only reached by industrial and




constituting the second largest area after non-irri-



part of the town, Siedliszczki, has also been de-

central part of the area is separated by agricultural
land and a railway line. Mineral extraction sites in



Source: 


Tab. 4.


Main forms

Code
 
         


Articial
surfaces
          
          
          

Areas
agricultural
          
          
          
    x x    x x


Forest and semi
natural areas
    x x    x x
          
 x x    x x   




-

    -


-

-








 -





-
,




-

 ,

the north-western part of the commune have not

-
tion pit of the former open cast mine of marl the
resources of which provided the raw material base


-
mune, however, stipulates restoration of the eco-

-

to local plans, the western part of the area is also
designated for building development. Discontinu-
ous urban fabric might therefore increase its share
of land cover here, replacing complex cultivation

-
versity of the main forms of land cover in the period

-

and seminatural areas, wetlands, and water bodies,
although wetlands have not occurred in the area
-
cussed commune, the largest area is still occupied by
agricultural areas, although its share decreased over

-

-

 



Fig. 3.




antropogeniczne, tereny rolne, lasy i ekosystemy







-


 

-
-



-




-

-





  
-

-
-

-




-
-

-

-




share have also increased, occupy a relatively small




   
dominated by non-irrigated arable land, occupying




was primarily occupied by land principally


       

concerned land in the western and southern parts


units, arable land, pastures, water bodies and




arable land and urban fabric. Pastures are the only
basic types of land cover among agricultural areas
which increased their area over the discussed years.


they were primarily located in the northern and

also expanded westwards into land previously

areas of natural vegetation. .






-
-
formed into mixed forests, and occupied approxi-



-



-
-


-

-










-







water bodies that were not included in the CLC base.
Discontinuous urban fabric does not occupy



-




eastern, and south-eastern directions. Urban fabric


for housing development in local plans, the contri-
bution of discontinuous urban fabric can possibly
increase in the future, including in the north-west-

 

Main forms


 
         


Articial
surfaces
          
          

Areas
agricultural
          
          
          
          


Forest and semi
natural areas
          
          
          
  x    x  


Wetlands
   x x x   xxx

Water bodies           


Tab. 5.




Source: 


     

       







    



are located in the north-eastern part of the commune,


Like in the previously discussed commune, in
the urban-rural commune of Siedliszcze, in the


forest and seminatural areas, wetlands, and water


areas, dominating over the remaining main forms.
       


Fig. 4.Source:




      
 

  





tereny antropogeniczne, tereny rolne, lasy i ekosys-


-
-





-


 -


-

-


-


 
-




      

   
     




 
commune is continuously decreasing, it still exceeds




largest area is occupied by forest and seminatural



their contribution in the area of the commune is


















the area of arable land systematically increased until

the area of the commune, land principally occupied

-




within the boundaries of the commune, with the
exception of the south-western part of the area with


and seminatural areas , the largest area is constantly



is located in the vicinity of the retention reservoir.
Discontinuous urban fabric is concentrated in the






     



    


      
      
    
   

     
   
   
    

   




rural commune of Siedliszcze include no industrial
, this


land is designated for exploitation of deposits and
  
of the built-up area in the vicinity of the retention








observed in the Siedliszcze commune. Eight basic
 

Main forms



         


Articial
surfaces
          

Areas
agricultural
          
          
          
          



Forest and semi
natural areas
          
          
 x x    x x   


Wetlands
          

Water bodies  x x    x x   


Tab. 6.




Source: 





-



-

,
 
types of land cover occurred in the commune in





land cover: land primarily occupied by agriculture,
with significant areas of natural vegetation,
coniferous forests, transitional woodland-shrub,

showing diversity in the landscape structure is the



Fig. 5. Source: 


-
-



-

    
    -
    -

       
     -
     
-

-
-

-
-
   







     
-











-
-

the highest diversity in the case of the urban-rural





-

commune showed the lowest diversity of landscape
-
opted the highest values in the urban commune of





i.e. an increase in irregularity of shapes was evident.

decreased in the discussed years. Fluctuations were





Tab. 7.

   
              
               
         
               
               
               

Source: 



    



-

-


-



-


-

-
-




-
-

 
-

-

-


-
 -

    

  -









-



the calculation of the anthropogenic landscape
    
-
-


discussed communes, the lowest index value for
each year was, however, recorded not for the ur-


commune of Siedliszcze also represents lower val-



commune according to the type of commune, the
largest area of anthropogenic land is located in the




surfaces is the smallest there among all the analysed
communes.

conducting the analysis of an additional index, i.e.

accordance with the previously provided method-

-



that it also changed the most intensively in the said


    

 
  
-

for illustrating the variability of the entire analysed




situation was similar in the remaining communes.



-


-
-

-

omawianych gmin.
-

-

-



-



-






-


-
-


-


therefore important to inhibit changes in the land-


-
munes showed an negligible increase in the number



was observed in land principally occupied by agri-

-


communes, an increase in the value of the MPS in-
dex for pastures was also observed.



Tab. 8.
    


Commune

    

     
     
     


Source: 



Tab. 9.

Commune

     

      
      
      

Source: 



-
-


-

-

-
-


-

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



-





   -



 
-





w formie pokryciu terenu w tym okresie. Oczywi-


-
nione.
-

index values, i.e. an increase in the irregularity of

-



cover began adopting more regular shapes.
    

changes in land cover in the urban commune of


a complete decline in changes in all the discussed

determined within forest and seminatural areas in



to no changes in the form of land cover in the same


down the changes.




Tab. 10. 


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  
              
               
               
               
               
               
               
  - -    - -    - -
  - -    - -    - -
          
 - -  - -    - -   

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Code
  
              
 7             
               
             
               
             
               
     7         
               
               
  -    -    -  
  ---   - - -   - - -
               
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              
               
               
               
               
               
          
               
 - -  - -    - -   
               
 - -  - -    - -   

Source: 



  
-


-
-



-
-



   


-


-


-
-










    

-






-
-







Siedliszcze showed that changes in land cover are
not only related to the sprawl of building devel-

the area of each commune increased in the period

of land cover for the discussed communes. Over the

increased, along with an increase in mean patch
-
-


changes in land cover for the entire country, also

most substantial changes, primarily with regard
-
tention to the role of membership in the European
Union in the context of changes that occur in land
-
-



index shows the highest variability in the analysed


development, including in relation to mining.
-
sising the importance of pro-environmental and



but it appears to be of key importance in continuing
the research, expanding it not only to the remaining
Polish member towns, but also to other countries.



the network on landscape changes in either quan-
-


-

-
ply comparative analyses between members of the



-


-



-
-


-



-
-




-
-

pozwoli na ograniczenie dalszych, niekorzystnych






-




 

-
-


    
-



-

do not permit detailed research to be conducted on
landscape structures, but they do allow researchers

-
-
ed to compare them with each other, because the
application of only selected ones can lead to inac-

data, and their international range, permit similar
research to be conducted not only for a selected area
-

only analyses of changes in the landscape structure


useful for the determination of a spatial policy for
these areas that would allow further unfavourable
landscape transformations to be limited.

changes in Czechia During the period of tran-


   



-





-











-


-


-
lins San Francisco.
-
thods: developing spatially explicit economic
-

-
-
-



-
-
-

   
-



-

-


management and landscape changes towards
-

-

    
-
polska region. Landscape and Urban Planning,





-


-
bertinum, Lublin.


zachowania dziedzictwa kulturowego poprzez



-

-
-

-
-


     




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

w Lesznie


-


-
-
szawa.
    
-






-
-


 -
 

.pdf

forces of main landscape change processes from
-
tween old democratic and post-socialist countries.


  

 
 


-

boundaries on the basis of contemporary spatial


  
Lublin.
-



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Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this article is to indicate transport accessibility (according to two criteria: fly & 60 and 6x60x60) and information accessibility (on the Internet) of all Polish (28) and all Nordic (9) towns – members of the International Network of Cities Where Living is Good. The research was conducted using the non-reactive methods: content analysis and desk research. The analysis has shown that the fly&60 criterion is met by eight Cittaslow towns (seven Polish and one Nordic), and the 6x60x60 criterion – by five towns (four Polish and one Nordic), that confirms the thesis on the peripheral nature of Cittaslow cities, what in fact may be perceived as an attracting factor. Their location, away from frequently used routes, may attract (some of them already do so) tourists seeking alternative forms of leisure, following a growing global trend of sustainable tourism. The level of accessibility to online information on the Cittaslow towns is varied, but rather low.
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We wrześniu 2015 r. na skutek wejścia w życie tzw. „ustawy krajobrazowej” nastąpiła znacząca zmiana przepisów dotyczących planowania przestrzennego w Polsce. Jest ona związana przede wszystkim z koniecznością opracowania raz na 20 lat audytu krajobrazowego na poziomie regionalnym, który będzie dokumentem wpływającym na kształt m.in. studiów uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego, miejscowych planów zagospodarowania przestrzennego oraz planów ochrony różnych form ochrony przyrody. Ma być odpowiedzią na postępującą degradację polskiego krajobrazu, a także sposobem implementacji zapisów Europejskiej Konwencji Krajobrazowej do polskiego prawa, po niemal 12 latach od momentu jej ratyfikowania. Jednym ze środków realizacji zapisów tego dokumentu, oprócz identyfikacji krajobrazów, jest także odnotowanie ich zmian w czasie wraz z określeniem przekształcających je sił i presji. W niniejszym artykule dokonano oceny realizacji wytycznych Europejskiej Konwencji Krajobrazowej w tym zakresie analizując projektowaną zawartość audytu krajobrazowego. Zaproponowano także metodę oceny wskaźnika zmienności krajobrazu, jako sposobu odnotowania poziomu zmian, jakie zaszły w krajobrazie oraz identyfikacji typów tych Piotr Krajewski 90 przekształceń. Za główny cel badań przyjęto ocenę możliwości wykorzystania przyjętej metodyki w audycie krajobrazowym. Oceny dokonano na przykładzie obszarów położonych w granicach Ślężańskiego Parku Krajobrazowego. Na bazie opracowanych map struktury krajobrazu dla lat 2004-2009-2014 określono poziom zmian, jakie zaszły w krajobrazie oraz wskazano podstawowe typy i podtypy tych przekształceń. Przeprowadzone analizy pozwalają twierdzić, że przyjęta metodologia będzie mogła być wykorzystywana również do monitorowania zmian, jakie zaszły w krajobrazie od momentu wykonania poprzedniego audytu.