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Discourse Analysis Beyond the Speech Event

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... In order to better map the events that led to the debate on abortion in which people with disabilities were positioned as a vehicle for discussing such issues as reproductive rights and reproductive labor, this study also employs a method of discourse analysis of archival data developed by Stanton Wortham and Angela Reyes. In their book Discourse Analysis beyond the Speech Event Wortham and Reyes (2015) argue that what distinguishes discourse analysis of archival data from other types of discourse analysis is that narrating events in archival studies "are more obviously cross-event phenomena, because they involve linked events of production and reception" (112). Henceforth, their model of discourse analysis of archival data consists of the following components: mapping narrated events, selecting indexicals/relevant context, configuring indexicals, and identifying positioning/action in narrating an event (Wortham and Reyes 2015). ...
... In their book Discourse Analysis beyond the Speech Event Wortham and Reyes (2015) argue that what distinguishes discourse analysis of archival data from other types of discourse analysis is that narrating events in archival studies "are more obviously cross-event phenomena, because they involve linked events of production and reception" (112). Henceforth, their model of discourse analysis of archival data consists of the following components: mapping narrated events, selecting indexicals/relevant context, configuring indexicals, and identifying positioning/action in narrating an event (Wortham and Reyes 2015). Following Wortham's and Reyes's argumentation, the letters to the editor and editorials selected for the purpose of this study cannot be fully understood not only without considering the historical events that have shaped attitudes toward abortion, disability, and caregiving in Poland over the past six decades, but also without examining who speaks to whom, on whose behalf, and about what in the sources analyzed in this paper. ...
... Since this excerpt is a direct quote from the Facebook post, the narrating event involves, on the one hand, the act of writing, with Mikołaj's mother writing, presumably, to her Facebook friends and aiming for certain effects on that audience. On the other hand, the narrating event includes many events of reading (Wortham and Reyes 2015) in which people interpret Mikołaj's mother's writing in various contexts. In the narrating event, Mikołaj's mother describes what it means to have a disabled (or terminally ill) child -she knows about the narrated events she describes through personal experience. ...
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The article is devoted to the issue of disability, embedded in the Polish - post-socialist - reality. The author focused on presenting both the political situation in the country and the media discourse around disabled people and their keepers. The background of the ongoing public discussion on people with disabilities is the topic of abortion, also widely present in the Polish media. The analysis of the press discourse (Gazeta Wyborcza) carried out for the purposes of this article not only provides a bitter summary of the situation of this neglected social group, but is also an opportunity to show the real life problems faced by the weakest representatives of Polish society every day life.
... Building on research in the ethnography of communication (Hymes, 1974;Wortham & Reyes, 2015), this study examined classroom interaction among a group of multilingual immigrant and refugee ELs from the DRC enrolled in a high school in a small urban midwestern U.S. community. As a subgroup of ELs in the United States, the population of those who self-identify as African immigrants and refugees has more than doubled since 2000 (Anderson, 2015). ...
... The research design developed for this study focuses on capturing patterns of language used by members of particular sociocultural groups to reflect and create their social worlds (Wortham & Reyes, 2015). The communicative event and learners' microecological orbits are central to this analysis. ...
... I conducted a total of 49 observations of individual class periods (roughly 1-2 per week), resulting in 130 pages of field notes. Observations allowed me to explore the linguistic ecosystems of each classroom and then investigate specific conversations in greater detail beyond an individual speech event (Wortham & Reyes, 2015). Drawing on principles of ethnographic monitoring (observation and description, analysis and interpretation, and assessment for social change; De Korne & Hornberger, 2017), my presence, actions, and positionality in the focal classrooms may have changed the ways in which the students thought about their own and others' language practices. ...
Article
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This article explores how peer and teacher–student interactions in linguistically diverse high school English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms produce changes in learners’ uptake of different languages and cultures. Data presented are from a 2‐year ethnography of communication focusing on adolescent multilingual English learners’ language use in three ESL classrooms in the United States. The study participants’ primary languages were French, Lingala, and Tshiluba, and the dominant language spoken by the students in class was Spanish. The data include recordings of peer group classroom interactions, individual and focus group interviews, and field notes from classroom observations. Analyzed through an ecology of language framework (van Lier, 2004) and heteroglossic perspectives on language learning and use (Bakhtin, 1981), the findings reveal a gradual ideological and pragmatic shift among the focal students from resenting the predominant use of Spanish by their teachers and peers during Year 1 of the study to using Spanish words and phrases during Year 2 for two distinct purposes: peer socialization and learning English. The article concludes by highlighting the importance of attending to students’ language experiences to harness metacognitive thinking, critical multilingual language awareness, and linguistic creativity.
... The notion of raciolinguistic ideology (Flores & Rosa, 2015) and linguistic anthropological analyses that apply this construct specifically examine how ideologies of race and language are intertwined, thereby unpacking how intersectional identities are formed in practice. Under this framework, the discourse analyst traces the pathways of communicative acts that make and remake students' social identities or personae (Wortham & Reyes, 2015) to uncover the practices that build these social identities over time in particular communities and to identify the pathways of socialization of individual participants. Key to this process is Agha's (2007) notion of register, "a model of discursive behavior that links signsways of speaking or behavingwith evaluative typifications about people" (Wortham & Reyes, 2015, p. 18). ...
... Additionally, the accumulative property of linguistic or communicative pathways overlaps with Van Horne and Bell (2017) and Bell et al.'s (2012) notion of cultural learning pathways in science which operate, "from the theoretical stance that stabilized identities result from a constellation of situated events that occur over time and typically across many settings" (Van Horne & Bell, 2017). The pathway-based approach used here (Wortham & Reyes, 2015) differs from Van Horne and Bell's (2017) approach due to its specific focus on linguistic practices and indexical relationships as reflective and constitutive of social relations and ideologies. I choose to apply Wortham and Reyes' (2015) model for discourse analysis beyond the speech event because it allows for a dual gaze between what are traditionally described as "micro" and "macro"-level phenomena. ...
... The pathway-based approach used here (Wortham & Reyes, 2015) differs from Van Horne and Bell's (2017) approach due to its specific focus on linguistic practices and indexical relationships as reflective and constitutive of social relations and ideologies. I choose to apply Wortham and Reyes' (2015) model for discourse analysis beyond the speech event because it allows for a dual gaze between what are traditionally described as "micro" and "macro"-level phenomena. Instead, as will become clear in my analysis of Mock Spanish, my approach attempts to subvert the false dichotomy of "micro" and "macro" to show how the micro is always inextricably linked to and constitutive of macro-level phenomena and vice versa (Agha, 2007;Wortham, 2006). ...
Article
This linguistic anthropological case study demonstrates the ways in which a heterogeneous lab group of adolescents in a ninth-grade physics classroom constructed raciolinguistic ideologies that intersected with their locally constructed notions of science expertise. Using ethnography and discourse analysis this study unpacks how students in one lab group, guided by their teacher’s instruction, constructed a model of personhood for science expertise that largely excluded female and Latinx students. Mock Spanish emerged as a central practice through which this marginalization was achieved. Implications for promoting equity for multilingual youth in heterogeneous classrooms are discussed.
... Drawing on an ethnographic English for academic purposes (EAP) classroom case study, this article explores how particular meanings of Islam were framed and challenged in this classroom context by examining how an instructor and her two Muslim students engaged with these discourses featured in a panel discussion video. Employing a mediated discourse analysis approach (Scollon & Scollon, 2004;Wortham & Reyes, 2015), two interrelated aspects are examined: In what ways did the participants engage with the video's discursive framings of Islam to open up critical and dialogic spaces to contest particular pernicious discourses about Islam? And what emerges from the instructor's ensuing reflections on her classroom approaches in addressing the controversial topic of religion with her students that can help further critical theories and practices in English language teaching (ELT) classrooms? ...
... Drawing on one thread from a nearly yearlong ethnographic English for academic purposes (EAP) classroom case study in a Canadian city, this article explores how the discourses and representations of Islam featured in a video posted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on its MIT Tech TV website were mediated and challenged by the instructor's two self-identified Muslim students through their emergent dialogic co-constructed alternative framings in this classroom context. Employing a mediated discourse analysis approach (Jones, 2016;Scollon & Scollon, 2004;Wortham & Reyes, 2015), three questions are addressed: In what ways did the participants engage with the video's discursive framings to open up critical and dialogic spaces in this classroom? How did these engagements enable the students' academic literacies skills in taking on agentive roles as knowledge producers in challenging hegemonic representations of their religion in the context of prevailing ideological and Westernized notions of Islam and democracy? ...
... The discourse analysis approach (Jones, 2016;Scollon & Scollon, 2003Wortham & Reyes, 2015) used here in analyzing the classroom exchange in the mediation of the MIT video dovetails with this dialogical perspective. Volo sinov (1973) argued the aim of inquiry is to address the "dynamic interrelationship" of "the speech being reported (the other person's speech) and the speech doing the reporting (the author's speech)" (p. ...
Article
Little research has been done exploring how Islam has been mediated by English language teachers and learners in the classroom through the prism of dominant discourses in social circulation. Drawing on an ethnographic English for academic purposes (EAP) classroom case study, this article explores how particular meanings of Islam were framed and challenged in this classroom context by examining how an instructor and her two Muslim students engaged with these discourses featured in a panel discussion video. Employing a mediated discourse analysis approach (Scollon & Scollon, 2004; Wortham & Reyes, 2015), two interrelated aspects are examined: In what ways did the participants engage with the video's discursive framings of Islam to open up critical and dialogic spaces to contest particular pernicious discourses about Islam? And what emerges from the instructor's ensuing reflections on her classroom approaches in addressing the controversial topic of religion with her students that can help further critical theories and practices in English language teaching (ELT) classrooms? The article argues that the dialogic spaces the instructor co‐constructed with her students allowed both the development of the students’ literacy skills and important mutual learning moments in which dominant discourses were questioned and challenged. The article concludes with these implications for EAP pedagogy.
... Recent research on small stories has highlighted the need to attend to what the study of fleeting small stories reveals in terms of the relatively stable aspects of who the story tellers are (Georgakopoulou, 2013). This drive beyond the transience of the moment of narration also finds expression in recent efforts aimed at unraveling the links across stories and events (Wortham & Reyes, 2015). ...
... Recent research, however, has pointed to the necessity of going beyond the analysis of one story to explore how iterativity may inform issues of identity (e.g. Georgakopoulou, 2011Georgakopoulou, , 2013Wortham & Reyes, 2015). This orientation entails 'a shift from an emphasis on this story to an emphasis on this type of story (Georgakopoulou, 2013, p. 5, emphasis in the original). ...
... This orientation entails 'a shift from an emphasis on this story to an emphasis on this type of story (Georgakopoulou, 2013, p. 5, emphasis in the original). The search for how the 'here-and-now storytelling moment figures within the teller's biographical trajectory' (Georgakopoulou, 2013, p. 6) and the constitution of action across linked narrative events (Agha, 2005;Wortham & Reyes, 2015) draws attention to more stable aspects of identity beyond a single story, which is particularly worthy of attention in the context of research in second language use and learning and intercultural communication as repetition of types of stories may signify stable change in practices of intercultural identity construction. Likewise, given the issues surrounding the ownership of language and the NS/NNS speaker dichotomy (Canagarajah, 2005;Norton, 1997), the construction of second language speaker identities across more than one occasion of story-telling may constitute a means of reconfiguring power relations by second language speakers. ...
Article
The study examines second language identities constructed in small stories around intercultural communication. It presents a detailed narrated-event and narrating-event analysis of small stories narrated by an Iranian user of English as a second language (ESL). The analysis suggests that small stories can become a site where second language speakers can accomplish several social actions concerning their intercultural identities. The participant of the study employed various discursive strategies to create a sense of affinity with the interviewer, convey a sense of his own distinction and reconfigure native/nonnative speaker (NS/NNS) power relations in discourse.
... Definitions of head movements from Altorfer et al. (2000) have also been used to indicate how head positioning, shaking, and nodding gain significance in interaction emerge as part of posture. Beyond the tools described, I rely on elements such as deictic speech (Wortham & Reyes, 2015), intonation and stress, and overlapping speech (Tannen, 1986) from sociolinguistics to describe Marian's speech. While analysts may be concerned about individuals in multimodal interaction, meaning is always co-constructed, and thus modes are not only connected to broader social and cultural practices but realized with the reactions of interlocutors (Norris, 2004). ...
... In elementary school reading standards, students are typically expected to verbalize text evidence to show their understanding (Common Core State Standards, 2018). In lines 7 and 8, Marian uses deictic speech with "look" and "you see?" and with her gestures pointing to the text (Norris, 2004;Wortham & Reyes, 2015) which allude to the evidence in the text that supports her assertion. Ms. J somewhat acknowledges Marian's text evidence in line 10 but encourages everyone to find the text evidence. ...
Article
Despite the rise in multiliteracies and multilingual orientations to literacy learning, there has been little attention to multimodality in how younger emergent bilinguals demonstrate and respond to reading comprehension practices and pedagogies. This study, which took place in the midwestern United States, examines how Marian (pseudonym), a second-grade emergent bilingual (eight years old) made sense of texts using a variety of semiotic resources. The study also focuses on how her use of such resources demonstrated her engagement with texts and reading comprehension pedagogies during small-group reading in her classroom. Findings show that Marian used a variety of semiotic resources to convey her understanding of texts, some of which aligned with and resisted typical reading comprehension pedagogies in classrooms. Additionally, analysis demonstrates that reading comprehension pedagogies may have inhibited her sensemaking. Implications include further attention to how teachers, policy-makers, and researchers can recognize and make space for the multimodal and dynamic ways in which emergent bilinguals make sense of texts.
... Additionally, the invocation of certain chronotopes sometimes makes ethnic and/ or national identities salient centers of orientation, and some other times, the chronotopes they invoke lead to the construction of transnational and in-between identities. The examples I provide in this chapter attempt to challenge simplistic characterization of the heterogeneity of migrant identities in terms of bounded categories such as gender, age, and ethnicity, and instead, argue for a focus on the multiple co-present dimensions of these identities and their interaction with individuals' life trajectories and socialization histories (Blommaert & Rampton, 2011;Karimzad, 2016Karimzad, , 2019Lo & Park, 2017;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). ...
... In this complex sociolinguistic system, identities are no longer understood in terms of discrete and bounded categories, nor are languages and cultures, and as a result, the sharedness of norms, values, and identities are not assumed, but are rather investigated through ethnographic studies of individual pathways and lived experiences (Blommaert & Rampton, 2011;Karimzad, 2019;Wortham & Reyes, 2015; for an overview, see Goebel, 2018;Hall & Nilep, 2015;Jacquemet, 2016). Similarly, the micro-macro distinction in the study of discourse is challenged, and scholars are instead urged to focus on the varying interacting small-and largescale contexts and centers drawn upon in participants' discursive acts of identification (Blommaert, 2015;Blommaert & De Fina, 2017;Karimzad & Catedral, 2018a). ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, I draw on my ethnographic study of Iranian Azerbaijanis in the U.S. to illustrate how participants simultaneously draw on multiple scaled chronotopes (Bakhtin, 1981) to position themselves relative to notions of ethnicity, identity, and language. At times, the scope of the chronotopes participants invoke is so broad as to include all Turks beyond the limits of nation-states, while at times it is narrowed down to address local differences. Additionally, the invocation of certain chronotopes sometimes make ethnic and/or national identities salient centers of orientation, and some other times, the chronotopes they invoke lead to the construction of transnational and in-between identities. In re-conceptualizing diasporic identities, I argue for a focus on the multiple co-present dimensions of these identities and their interaction with individuals’ life trajectories and socialization histories.
... The research design developed for this study is based on Hymes's (1974) ethnography of communication, for which the focus is on capturing patterns of language use by members of particular sociocultural groups to reflect and create their social worlds (Wortham & Reyes, 2015). The communicative event is central to this analysis. ...
... Data analysis occurred continuously and in several stages and centered around when humorous occasions occurred in the classroom, how humor was invoked through language and by whom, as well as the broader significance of humor in relation to students' identity construction and language learning. Following discourse analytic procedures (Wortham & Reyes, 2015), after transcription of interviews and classroom interaction was complete, I read through the data and generated codes from the interview responses, background literature, and conceptual framework. Constant comparative analysis was conducted to compare patterns across participants and classroom contexts, and to ground my findings in the data (Strauss & Corbin, 1998). ...
Article
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Creative manipulations of language have long been recognized as important aspects of second language development. Research has largely examined playful language within adult foreign language classrooms; however, less attention has been given to the pragmatic use of humor among adolescent multilingual learners of English. Drawing on oral interactional and interview data in racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse high school English as a second language (ESL) classrooms in the United States, this article examines humor and playful talk in the translanguaging practices of adolescent multilingual Central African immigrant and refugee students whose common languages are French and English. Data are analyzed through discursive identity frameworks that view identities produced through interaction, through heteroglossic perspectives on language use and development, and through a raciolinguistic lens. Findings reveal that everyday comedic classroom interaction afforded students opportunities to negotiate macro‐processes of social, racial, and economic marginalization in and outside of school, and fostered group cohesion and metalinguistic awareness. This article concludes by presenting pedagogical implications of valuing and harnessing student‐generated humorous interaction for meaningful language and content learning.
... These studies are, rather, investigations of how emotion-in-interaction emerges as a historically and politically situated form of embodied social action. Linguistic anthropologists, for example, conduct detailed analyses of interactions, including lexis but also silence, overlap, grammar, prosody, turn-taking, and embodied markers of stance (to name just a few) in order to document not just that emotion or any other culturally situated process occurs but how it occurs in situated interactions over time (Kulick & Schieffelin 2004, Wortham & Reyes 2015. As past reviewers have noted (Besnier 1990, Wilce 2009, McElhinny 2010, linguistic anthropologists thus identify emotion as both (a) emergent within and inseparable from interaction (Ochs & Schieffelin 1989, Besnier 1992, Haviland 2003, Jaffe 2009, Wilce 2014; and (b) emergent within and inseparable from the multiple cultural, economic, and political processes mediating human experience (Irvine 1990, McElhinny 2010, McIntosh & Mendoza-Denton 2020. ...
... Agency-in-interaction, however, is also always "embedded within a larger social matrix" that simultaneously affords the very possibility of agency in the first place (Goodwin 2018, p. 440). Wortham & Reyes (2015) thus argue that it is only through research that prioritizes the linking of "connected events over time" in temporally unfolding processes that we can understand how "agency" is mediated by political, economic, linguistic, and social constraints (p. 10). ...
Article
Previous research on language and emotion in anthropology has demonstrated that rather than being a private, subjective, and prediscursive experience belonging to individuals, emotion is an intersubjective, emergent process that is not only everywhere in language but also everywhere language is. In this review, I discuss how recent research in linguistic anthropology and related fields has continued to build on such insights in investigations of the flow of affect across bodies, the ways in which politically situated ideologies of language and emotion function at various institutional scales, and the role of language and emotion in the enactment of agency. Overall, my discussion is framed in a consideration of how this body of work contributes both theoretically and methodologically to understanding the role that language and emotion play in mediating the dynamic relationship between vulnerability and political agency. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 49 is October 21, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... In order to better understand the role of repeated patterns of language use in family interactions (cf. Gordon 2009), I draw on Wortham and Reyes' (2015) analytical frame for examining how discourse travels across multiple events. Deictics are a particularly useful linguistic category to better understand how subject positions are interactionally negotiated (Wortham and Reyes 2015). ...
... Gordon 2009), I draw on Wortham and Reyes' (2015) analytical frame for examining how discourse travels across multiple events. Deictics are a particularly useful linguistic category to better understand how subject positions are interactionally negotiated (Wortham and Reyes 2015). That is, a focus on deictics can help analysts to 'infer crucial information […] that may be relevant to understanding the positioning of interlocutors' (Wortham and Reyes 2015, 49). ...
Article
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This article examines the affective dimension of the linguistic repertoire of multilingual families. Specifically, resulting from a three-year ethnographic project in Norway, this study sets out to better understand the role of affect in parent–child interactions as members of two Brazilian-Norwegian families draw on their multilingual linguistic repertoires in the ongoing construction of their familial ties. A discursive analytical approach was employed to examine audio-recordings made by one of the parents of each family (i.e. around 15 h of recordings in total). The analysis demonstrates how certain linguistic features (i.e. terms of endearment and the ‘you are ... ’-format), combined with the use of the participants’ multilingual repertoire, accomplish three interrelated social actions; they: (i) convey parental value-laden aspirations of child-rearing, (ii) position children according to expected social roles, and (iii) forge parent–child ties. These findings are supplemented with interview data, which serve to illustrate the role of home-external contexts in encouraging the parents to use Portuguese with their children in the home. Focusing on the affective dimension of parent–child interactions as they draw on their multilingual repertoires to construct familial bonds contributes to an underexplored area in family multilingualism studies.
... These models of mathematical engagement value students' linguistic interaction highly. A longstanding position in linguistic anthropology holds that speakers constitute, organize, or in other words, "facilitate" social action by using one lexical and syntactic form rather than another (Ahearn, 2017;Wortham, 2006;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). When the social action is problem-solving, poetic structure analysis can represent the dialogicality and emergence of mathematical action that underlies these theories' vision of learning. ...
... The "longest poetic stretch" method incorporates more of the recorded talk into the interpretation, improving the validity of the analysis (Gee, 2014). The idea that a future comment can change our interpretation or understanding of a current comment is supported by the linguistic anthropological concept of emergence and the Bakhtinian concept of unfinalizability, that the meaning of speech is never completely established (Wortham & Reyes, 2015;Bahktin, 1981). ...
Article
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This paper outlines a new method of mathematical discourse analysis focused on identifying poetic structures in students’ mathematical conversations. Following the linguistic anthropology tradition inspired by Roman Jakobson, poetic structures refer to any conversational repetition of sounds, words or syntax; this repetition draws attention to the form of the message. In mathematical conversations, poetic structures can express patterns, rhythms, similarities or dissimilarities associated with a task. Methodological dilemmas associated with identifying and representing poetic structures and pragmatic responses are highlighted. An analysis of a nine minute algebraic problem-solving conversation revealed eight types of mathematical poetic structures that collectively assisted all of the students’ vital mathematical insights. The paper aims to demonstrate that poetic analysis of mathematical conversations can bridge the illusory distinction between mathematical discourse and mathematical reasoning.
... One particularly important resource that helps to constitute migrant pathways is the migration stories told and heard by migrants and longstanding residents. Stories are powerful means for communicating evaluations of individuals and groups, because storytellers cannot help but position themselves with respect to the characters they narrate (Bakhtin, 1935(Bakhtin, /1981Wortham, 2001;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). Migration stories can shape people's evaluations of and actions toward migrants and others, even when those stories are false or oversimplified. ...
... Leo was not alone in telling inaccurate but powerful stories about other migrant groups, and inaccurate stories were told about groups besides African Americans. Like people everywhere, Marshall residents positioned themselves with respect to various ethnic and racial others through the stories they told about one another (Wortham, 2001;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). Throughout the book we describe these varied stories about and actions toward each other, and we will show how both accurate and inaccurate stories influenced residents' beliefs and actions. ...
Book
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This book describes an American town that became home to thousands of Mexican migrants between 1995-2016, where the Mexican population increased by over 1000% and Mexicans became almost a third of the town. We explore how the descendants of earlier migrants interacted with Mexican newcomers, describing how experiences of and stories about migration unfolded across institutional spaces—residential neighborhoods, politics, businesses, public spaces, churches, schools, community organizations. We emphasize the ongoing changes in prior migrant communities and the interactions these groups had with Mexicans, showing how interethnic relations played a central role in newcomers’ pathways. The book richly represents the voices of Irish, Italian, African American and Mexican residents. The book shows how Mexicans’ experiences were shaped by stories about the town’s earlier cycles of migration. Many Irish, Italian and African American residents narrated an idealized but partly accurate history in which their ancestors came as migrants and traveled pathways from struggle to success—“up and out” of the less desirable downtown neighborhoods. We trace how these stories were often inaccurate, but nonetheless influenced the realities of migrant life. The town in which this ethnography took place represents similar communities across the United States and around the world that have received large numbers of immigrants in a short time. We must document the complexities that migrants and hosts experience in towns like this if we hope to respond intelligently to the politically-motivated stories that oversimplify migration across the contemporary world.
... We also recognize the fleeting nature of these interactions, and one might wonder what impact such moments may have on a particular student's long-term trajectory as a reader. We believe that it is in the collection of these moments that identities-ininteraction emerge and are made more durable (Bucholtz, Barnwell, Skapoulli, & Lee, 2012;Bucholtz & Hall, 2005;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). As Bucholtz et al. (2012) articulate, "within the span of a few minutes, a great deal of consequential identity work can be interactionally carried out." ...
... We argue that these interactions, along with the many others that happened within this classroom and school context on a daily basis, contributed to larger patterns of interaction with and around Camilo and Irving as readers. As suggested, the more often one is positioned in a particular way, the more likely one is to be similarly positioned in the future (Bucholtz et al., 2012;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). That is, the more often Camilo is positioned within interactions with the teacher, and publicly within his class, as a successful reader, the more likely he is to be positioned thusly subsequently. ...
Article
Over the last few decades, scholars have conceptualized academic struggle, including learning disabilities, as socially constructed. When students, especially students of color, are constructed as struggling with school-based literacy, they can experience a variety of negative outcomes including higher dropout rates. In an attempt to unpack how academic struggle was constructed and deconstructed for two fifth-grade readers of color, we conducted a micoanalysis of the interactions between these readers and their teacher in one-on-one reading conferences. We examine how positions of struggle were (de)constructed, and findings suggest that the interactional key of the conferences, which was set by the teacher, seemed to contribute to how the students were positioned as readers within the conferring space.
... These emergent interactions occurred at busy roadsides, along trajectories of movement, and in momentary moments of recognition in market places. Routine thus invites analyses of verbal behavior that does not merely begin and end in so many neatly bounded speech events (Wortham and Reyes 2015;Gumperz and Hymes 1991). ...
... Rather than positing a "location" for resistance or critique (see (J. C. Scott 1990;Gal 1995), the perspective of teasing allows for an analysis of how everyday routines of contestation relate to broader rituals and events or how they circulate through interdiscursive pathways as part of speech chains (Wortham and Reyes 2015). While Douglas and Bakhtin display a strong view of humor's purpose to subvert normative orders, teasing can be an effective strategy particularly because those teased most often respond seriously and entertain their claims in conversation whereas teasers may eschew personal responsibility (Drew 1987). ...
Thesis
The Poetics of Relationality studies linguistic routines through which increasingly mobile communities manage sociability and interpret one another in a borderland region that is the site of expanding gold mining, the risk of Ebola in nearby Guinea, and infrastructure expansion. It begins with an interactional analysis of sanakuyaagal, a so-called joking relationship of categorical license (i.e. teasing or insults) between individuals based on patronymic, generational, or ethnic grounds. However, this research subsumes these routines within larger strategies of verbal creativity through which interlocutors reinterpret principles of relationality across West Africa. As such, ostensibly distinct practices such as teasing and honorification offer analogous principles of sociality through which mobile individuals cultivate social networks across increasingly dispersed sites. This research draws on the analytic of routine to show firstly, how interlocutors may adopt strategies to insulate themselves from these powerful routines of social inertia through which their names or origins may be implicated into larger webs of relationality. Secondly, this research pays attention to moments of breakdown, precarity, and negotiation as moments of dialogic reflexivity in which particular relationships between signs and social types, or other naturalized assumptions come to be objectified. For instance, the sociality of road travel provides a particular frame through which changing forms of social evaluation are mobilized. In so doing, this research examines routines of linguistic creativity that might have been categorized as mere verbal art as situated modalities of social action through which individuals negotiate status, bait others into participant frameworks, or contest access to material resources.
... It is not just learning opportunities they seek from the group but also the development of locality-based solidary relationships with people who share similar values and goals. Through a discourse analysis (Wortham & Reyes, 2015) of 15 hours of audio recordings from participant-observation in the learning activities of the group that involve simultaneous use of English and Korean -translanguaging (Garcia, 2009) -as well as interviews with key informants, I underline locally emerging values of English, not only as symbolic capital for socioeconomic advancement in the globalized job market, but also as a resource and a reference point of phatic communication in a community of practice of the self-enrichment discourse. ...
Presentation
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The purpose of this research is to evaluate student-centered practices used in classrooms in teacher training programs in the United States of America through in-class observations for learning and teaching processes. A qualitative research method was used in the research. Qualitative research is a multifaceted, long-term and indepth study of a specific phenomenon or event within its natural environment. The researcher collected data via direct participation and unstructured observation. The observer is required to undertake the tasks of synthesizing, abstracting and organizing information. In the participatory observation approach, the observer performs the observation without any external influence. The researcher made observations in three different classes during the spring semester of the 2017-2018 academic year. The study group of the observation was composed of three teachers. The classes in which the observations were made were the departments of social studies teaching, psychological counseling and guidance teaching, and classroom teaching. The researcher kept the duration of the observations long so as to make sure that the students and the teacher could see the researcher as a member of the class. This measure is necessary to capture the natural atmosphere of the classroom and to minimize artificial behaviors. This measure positively affects the validity and reliability of the study. The research process still continues. The possible conclusion of the research is that the most used teaching method in the classroom is direct instruction, which is followed by the question-answer technique. Doing scientific research and preparing presentations for the lessons are also some of the practices used in the classrooms. Key words: Teacher training, program evaluation, teaching methods
... Due to the large amount of video and other recorded data collected, the videos were reviewed to identify segments that included actual Latino immigrant participation or talk about Latino immigrant participation. 3 Once the segments were identified, they were transcribed and imported into NVivo data-analysis software (see Appendix A for transcription conventions). The transcripts were then coded for discussion topics using discourse analysis (Wortham & Reyes, 2015). The salient topics related to Latino immigrant participation were mapped across time to determine their trajectories and the boundaries for the cases. ...
Article
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A common theme of research on participatory democracy and citizen engagement centres on the need for empirical studies that conduct a deep exploration of the nuances and complexities of these processes. This article offers a distinct response to this need through an examination of two ethnographic case studies of a participatory budgeting process in a multilingual, highly diverse community in which Spanish-speaking Latino immigrants were involved. By analyzing participants discourse from the case studies, the findings highlight the risks and rewards of reframing participatory processes as design decisions rather than static procedures.
... Jean and Abdulsamad segmented the story threads into stanzas (cf. Wortham & Reyes, 2015) to facilitate our ongoing analysis. Selected story threads were then analayzed thematically in accordance with Boyatzis (1998) and Saldaña (2016) to identify patterns and themes and capture key ideas central to our research questions. ...
Article
This article employs counterstorytelling to present a layered, nuanced rendering of two bilingual, bicultural Latinas’ school leaving. Data were taken from an ethnographic narrative inquiry into the literacy identities of five women who participated in a women’s literacy initiative. Situated within a critical race feminista praxis, we interpret linkages between participants’ school experiences and transformational resistance. Findings indicate the women experienced a history of microaggressions and apathy, affecting their soul, mind, and spirit and moving them to take action. The women’s stories illuminate transformative ruptures that empowered them to refashion their lives and literate identities.
... As stories are told and evaluated, our sense of ourselves and our relationships with others are transformed (cf. Dyson & Genishi, 1994;Genishi & Dyson, 2009;Georgakopoulou, 2006;Wortham & Reyes, 2015), as are the spaces in which stories are made (De Certeau, 1984;Maira & Soep, 2005;Medina, 2010). I argue that the politics of storytelling and evaluation in everyday life must also be understood as the politics of imagination in globalized communities and classrooms. ...
Article
Drawing on a multi‐year qualitative study of immigrant and non‐immigrant youth storytelling, I describe youth's imaginative labour as they constructed and moved into one another's worlds. I argue that although multicultural literature is vital for affirming and expanding youth perspectives on their own and others' worlds, the publishing industry lags behind the immediate needs of immigrant youth to be understood and heard as fully human. Storytelling, in the form of co‐narration, creates an imaginative space of uncertainty and playfulness for inviting possible futures into mutual awareness and interpretation. Using two storytelling episodes as illustrations and drawing on contemporary sociocultural and decolonizing theories, I outline four ways future‐oriented teaching and research may be realized: (1) rename the world, by considering ‘what if’, (2) reframe narratives of damage so that narratives of desire may be foregrounded, (3) contribute to a more just and equal world rather than merely participate in existing practices and (4) reclaim childhoods for freedom and exploration, especially in our relations with Black and Brown youth who are perceived in adult terms much earlier than their White peers. I argue, overall, that we must understand and develop a contemporary theory of imagination in order to meet the challenges of future‐oriented literacy teaching and research.
... Among the aspects coded were which hashtag(s) were used and whether the tweet was largely expressing support for the reforms, criticizing them, or neither. Following the recommendations of Wortham and Reyes (2015), this was an iterative process, allowing multiple passes to identify recurring themes in tweets. Together, these methods comprise a fairly comprehensive set of data concerning these speakers' attitudes toward the rectifications. ...
Article
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This paper addresses the role of bottom-up prescriptive pressures in language policy debates and their interplay with institution-driven, top-down influences. I approach this issue through an analysis of social media data concerning debates surrounding recent orthographic reform in France. Building on Heyd’s (Lang Soc 43: 489–514, 2014) discussion of grassroots prescriptivism, I illustrate how French speakers on Twitter oppose the suggested changes through a set of common strategies. I argue that these strategies largely hinge upon the mobilization of particular discourses, especially that of the ideal French speaker. This ideal French speaker is presented as a figure with which speakers in opposition to the reforms may align themselves, thus casting those in favour of the reform as “bad” French speakers. The dynamic in these social media discourses shifts the traditional balance of prescriptivist power away from the institutional level and toward the public. I conclude by arguing that prescriptivist ideologies need to be understood in terms of the interaction of top-down and bottom-up pressures, and in this context the role of policymakers in language planning projects becomes more challenging.
... Alinho-me ainda a Bastos; Biar (2015: 97) na adoção de "uma lente discursiva e interacional para o tratamento analítico das narrativas". A concretização dessa lente se dá com base em Wortham;Reyes (2015). ...
Article
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RESUMO Tendo como pano de fundo cenários de diversidade e multilinguismo ao longo de minha trajetória de pesquisa, focalizo, neste artigo, a migração haitiana no Brasil, migração essa que tomo como epítome do movimento acelerado de mudança na paisagem espaço temporal (e linguístico-comunicativa)no país.
... This article draws primarily on interview, observational, and video recorded data from teachers regarding their languaging practices and ideologies about those practices. Analysis in both studies is ethnographic (Emerson, Fretz, & Shaw, 2011;Kaplan-Weinger & Ullman, 2015;LeCompte & Schensul, 1999;Maxwell, 1996) and discourse analytic (Wortham & Reyes, 2015;Gee, 1999;Gee, 2011). ...
Article
While language hegemonies often take the form of one language imposed upon speakers of another, this article focuses on the hegemony of language boundaries themselves imposed upon everyday language practices, and in particular, upon those of teachers and students in bilingual classrooms. This examination of two different borderland contexts—El Paso, Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border and a central Paraguayan community on an urban-rural Spanish-Guarani speaking border—illustrates how similar dominant ideologies and discourses worked in both places to make it seem as if what participants saw as “language separation” was pedagogically and socially superior to what they saw as people’s everyday “mixed” language use. While teachers’ languaging in practice refused these boundaries, it remained unaffirmed by any explicitly positive discourse. With others, I argue that discourses that explicitly affirm and valorize translanguaging practices must become more available to teachers as ways to name, understand, and evaluate their own (and students’) language use. And specifically, here I highlight the embracing of translanguaging in formal, public events beyond the classroom as key to this process, illustrating this proposal with two such moments in the El Paso and Paraguayan borderland contexts.
... In the lines that follow, SK outlines other major world languages like French and Chinese and suggests that, while they may fail, N'ko (Manding) does not. This "narrated event" (Wortham and Reyes 2015) is interesting because it powerfully shows the stakes of reading and writing in kángbε-it is the linguistic means by which West Africans can put themselves on equal footing and work to match the accomplishments (and development levels) of other major countries or even civilizations of the world. From this perspective, N'ko and kángbε together become a tool to discipline the various earthly forms of Manding that have-like all dialects-deviated from the proper and powerful form that one cultivates in a continual pursuit of kángbε. ...
Article
“Register” has become an essential tool in analyzing languages as sociocultural artifacts. Used in tandem with the concept of language ideology, scholars have elucidated the central role of linguistic work in defining African language and dialect boundaries as we know them today. The role of such ideas in current activist efforts to remake languages and society, however, remains obscure. Here, I focus on the N’ko movement of West Africa, which promotes a non-Latin-, non-Arabic script invented in 1949 for mother-tongue education. Today, through a language register known as kángbɛ ‘clear language’, N’ko activists are altering conceptions of Manding varieties as distinct entities into a single language spoken by tens of millions across West Africa. Such a shift is in part made possible by the compelling sociohistorical linguistic analysis laid out pedagogically in N’ko grammar books and classrooms. Equally important, however, is kángbɛ as a means to discursively cultivate oneself into a new kind of citizen; one that is savvy, hard-working, and just—the opposite of West African elites, who are seen as failing their people. Register is therefore not just an analytic tool but also a resource for cultivating empowering language ideologies to forge new educational opportunities and societal possibilities.
... In short, 'figure' may suggest less materiality than 'object'; note that in Du think' is closer to the animator, but note how a distance is created between the animator and accountability for the assertion in the lower clauses. Kockelman (2004) terms the imagined world of the animator the speech event and that of the discourse the narrated event, showing that much of epistemicity can be accounted for by various work to align and disalign figures in these two event types (see also Wortham and Reyes 2015). ...
Book
Taking Elinor Ochs’s (1992) notion of indirect indexicality as a starting point, this chapter explores the significance of stance for studies of sexuality. Stance helps organize identity registers and is thus central in the creation and display of sexuality. After defining stance and reviewing ways in which it has been used in studies of language and sexuality, the chapter analyzes representations of two sexual identity registers: a ‘gay voice’ homosexual identity and a ‘brospeak’ heterosexual identity. The analysis reveals how these representations are based on different configurations of stances that in turn constitute differentially enregistered personae or characterological figures. The chapter concludes with an outline of the ways that the concept of stance may be used in further research, especially with respect to the analysis of sexuality in interaction.
... We choose discourse analysis as the analytical tool of media coverage of AV1. Discourse analysis is a research method that provides systematic evidence about social processes by examination of speech, writing and other forms of communication in the media (Talja, 1999;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). While common in social sciences, discourse analysis is not used that frequently within other research fields. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we discuss the media coverage of a research product made for social innovation and its implications on our research and commercialization of the product that followed. We were interested in how media coverage shaped socio-technological imaginaries, cultural and social views of people around this new technology. The research product that was in the eye of the media interest was a networked artifact in the shape of a small robot called AV1, developed to reduce isolation among long-term ill children and adolescents. Discourse analysis was used to examine 170 news articles to explore diverse perspectives on AV1. Our work uncovers potential opportunities and challenges for researchers working with responsible social innovation and research products before commercialization. Further, it highlights the opportunities for research products to surface deeper entanglements between socio-cultural factors and technology innovation.
... Organized by year of publication, this corpus consisted of transcriptions of each token's immediate context, on which we conducted close textual analysis of the kind outlined in Wortham & Reyes [26], who propose methods for understanding reiterative instantiations of linguistic forms as part of broader discourse. With this in mind, for each token we recorded whom it referenced (who was "coming out?") and took note of what we termed "voice"-that is, the subject position from which the loanword was uttered: editorial, from the magazine's/journalist's perspective; reported, in interviews and quotations; and reader, in the form of letters to the magazine. ...
Article
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In this paper we investigate the sociocultural dimensions of lexical borrowing by focusing on the diachronic use of a socially charged English loanword—le coming out—in Têtu, a popular gay lifestyle magazine that was published in French from 1995 to 2015. We created a comprehensive corpus of tokens of the borrowing from twenty-one issues (one per year) of the magazine. Our discourse analysis of these tokens shows not only a change in the loanword's form (le come-out eventually transforms into le coming out); it also illustrates a striking change in the contexts of its use. Whereas the term initially references the coming out of notable Anglo-American public figures, over time it is used increasingly to refer to French public figures and then to “ordinary” French people meant to reflect the magazine's readers. We argue that the magazine does not just feature this (and other) anglicisms in editorial content, but that it also models how such terms should be used by the community of readers that it addresses. Ultimately, our study reveals how a mass-mediated artifact such as Têtu works to establish and solidify the link between semiotic forms such as lexical borrowings and the social types of which (imagined) communities are comprised.
... Taking an ethnographic perspective of a study in education (Green & Bloome, 1997), I drew on a combination of methods from the ethnography of communication (Green and Bloome, 1983;Heath, 1983;Heath & Street, 2008) and discourse analysis (Bloome et al., 2004;Wortham & Reyes, 2015) to gather appropriate data to answer my research questions. Ethnographic analysis is a qualitative approach to research rooted in Anthropology and allows for the study of cultures. ...
Thesis
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Although most of the writing in high school English Language Arts (ELA) classrooms is about literature and although there have been incessant calls for changing the practices of teaching and learning literature, only meager amounts of research have been conducted in these interrelated domains of the field. Accordingly, this dissertation seeks to address these issues by examining the process of a teacher transitioning her teaching practice to literary argumentation. The ethnographic and discourse analytic case study reported here was part of an eight-year, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) funded research project on teaching and learning argumentative writing in high school ELA classrooms. As part of the larger project, this dissertation study was embedded in a yearlong study of teaching and learning of literary argumentation in an Honor American Literature course at “Davis High School”. The teacher was a white female in her seventh year teaching ELA while the students were in both tenth and eleventh grade and were comprised of 18 students, ten females and eight males. Of the 18 students, 16 students identified as white while two identified as Asian-American. Using microethnographic methods, I examined the contextual factors shaping a teacher’s changing approach to literary argumentation, how she and her 10th and 11th grade students’ instructional conversations fostered a shared understanding for literary argumentation; and finally to consider how the context and argumentative writing practices shaped student learning, I traced a case study student’s essay for sources and processes related to the curricular context. This study of changing approaches to the teaching of writing about literature is framed by theories of teacher change and a microethnographic approach to discourse analysis. Findings demonstrated that the teacher attempted to change her literature instruction by introducing literary argumentative practices into her teaching through writing assignments as she worked to cultivate a shared reading to frame her curriculum and to inform and shape her students’ writing about The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald, 1925). Findings also indicated that instructional conversations were inconsistent with how and when they contributed to the literacy practices the teacher attempted to bring about as they were influenced by both the teacher’s and students’ previous experiences interpreting literature. The contextualized analysis of student writing revealed that the student negotiated the literary argumentation practices the teacher attempted to bring about through her use of the curricular context. Change for the teacher was a complex process, including relatively easy efforts to develop writing prompts and assignments to foster learning while struggling to modify her uses of instructional conversations to shift to more dialogic practices requiring student ideas. This study contributes to the knowledge base for the teaching and learning of literary argumentation as an understanding of the complexity of teacher change within the legacy of a teacher’s own experiences and within the institutional demands of teaching canonical interpretations of literature.
... The interlocutors' choices and attitudes are intertwined with their political realities, language ideologies, and views on the world and themselves (Pavlenko & Blackledge 2004;Hall & Nilep 2015). Additionally, globalization has set in motion a mobility of linguistic resources, people, and contexts (Jacquemet 2005;Blommaert 2010;Wortham & Reyes 2015;Lo & Park 2017). This mobility has been said to set off certain anxieties about the status of familiar aspects of social life including language(s) (Park & Wee 2013;Hall 2014). ...
Article
With the spread of English in Bahrain, ‘chicken nugget’ emerged as a term aimed at English-dominant, typically private-school-educated youth. Drawing on data from Bahraini youth, I show how participants orient to different timespaces as they negotiate their identities relative to the ‘chicken nugget’ figure of personhood. Applying discourse analytic methods to participants’ metacommentaries, I demonstrate how they utilize scaling to elevate this label to a fractally recursive bundle of discursive processes, deeming a wider range of people as chicken nuggets depending on the chronotopic conditions of different timespaces. I further show how speakers evoke different exogenous and endogenous styles of English to allow for complex identification processes: the English of chicken nuggets is excessive and exaggerated, as opposed to English as a necessary communication tool in neoliberal contexts. Thus, this article has implications for our understandings of fractal recursivity, English use in globalized contexts, and the sociolinguistics of identity. (Scales and scaling, chronotope, center-periphery, English/Englishes, authenticity, bilingualism, Bahrain, Arabic)*
... This study has demonstrated the methodological potential of microethnographic discourse analysis to illuminate the subtle (and not-so-subtle) ways that identities and ideologies emerge in/through TWBE classroom language events. That said, it is important to address the limitations of this methodology, with its focus on moment-to-moment interaction, and acknowledge the need for discourse analysis across speech events (Wortham & Reyes, 2015) and for longitudinal studies that might reveal how, over time, repeated positioning contributes to more enduring identity positions (Anderson, 2009;Bucholtz & Hall, 2005). Additionally, there is a need for additional research on how non-Latinx students of color experience TWBE programs. ...
Article
There is ongoing debate within the field of bilingual education concerning the extent to which instructional languages should be separated. However, neither side has sufficiently addressed how language practices and policies shape the ideological space of the classroom, and the concomitant implications for student learning and sense-making around bilingualism. This article interrogates how programmatic binaries within a second-grade two-way bilingual education (TWBE) classroom emerge in and through classroom discourse in ways that (re)enforce the ideological construction of “two” languages and “two” groups of learners. Drawing upon microethnographic discourse analysis and positioning theory, I conduct a close analysis of one illustrative classroom language event, revealing how students are discursively positioned as either Spanish-speakers/Latinos or English-speakers/Anglos. Through this analysis, I demonstrate the complexity of identity positioning in TWBE, revealing how the reification of binaries affirms Latinx student identities while simultaneously reinforcing monoglossic framings of bilingualism and overly simplistic understandings of students’ linguistic identities. Findings point to the need to critically reimagine how two-ness is constructed and negotiated in TWBE and to better account for the interrelation among classroom practices, language ideologies, and student identities.
... Varis suggests that digital ethnography is novel in its assumption of a 'changing media and communication landscape', but as we see in the chapters that follow, all ethnographers grapple with the challenge of following people and their social practices over time (see also methodological discussions in Goldstein 2020;Hall 2009;Wortham 2006;Wortham and Reyes 2015). In fact, Philips asserts in her chapter on Tongan gender ideology that we can truly understand larger systems of social organisation only by examining the ways 'talk at different points in time are related'. ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on ethnography as a multi-method research approach in the study of language, gender, and sexuality. The approach is especially appropriate to the field's understanding of gender and sexuality as intertwined social systems that are brought into being through situated discursive practice. Yet the dynamism of gender and sexuality is difficult to capture in published work: How can researchers write about a particular time and place in a way that acknowledges the ongoing processual nature of that particularity? The chapter illustrates how ethnography answers this question through its attention to the conceptual triad of practice, ideology, and theory. Drawing from fieldwork among groups in the United States and India associated with systems of gender outside colonial cisnormativity and heteropatriarchy, the discussion demonstrates the advantages of ethnography for assessing how gender and sexuality come to matter in the semiotic exchange of everyday life.
... (Silverstein 2003, 194). Clearly, the notion and the relation of indexicality presupposes prior contexts of use and anticipates coming situations (Silverstein 2003, 193), thereby relating one situation to other situations through speech chains (Wortham and Reyes 2015). This is, I argue, what happens with regard to pigs and pork in the Danish context. ...
... To understand context while following language, it is also very important to work on the ways people create connections between two or more instances of discourse (e.g. Wortham and Reyes, 2015). The analysis of this type of interdiscursivity is crucial to understanding how the present moment can become imbricated with multiple and, more often than not, clashing ways of understanding what the relevant context is, and who does, and does not belong, as well as how people render, and maintain identities while traversing boundaries. ...
Article
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This paper deals with the discursive constructions of transformative, agentive and creative ethnolinguistic self-conceptualizations and positionings of some select members of the approximately 3000-member Greek diasporic community in the State of Qatar. It is a digital and linguistic ethnographic study focusing on the linguistic and semiotic ways whereby Greeks in Qatar negotiate, challenge, process and ultimately respond to the sociopolitical and cultural narratives that constitute “nostalgia,” namely remembrance and homesickness for Greece. The main argument put forward is that multimodal and translanguaging group styling is employed for the construction of diasporic nostalgia discourse, and the assertion of nostalgic diasporic identities, which in unison construct community membership anew all the time. Nostalgia, as a constructed discourse with (in)authenticity-related spatiotemporal dimensions, and diaspora, as a web of creatively styled sociolinguistic and semiotic identities, are two concepts found in tension primarily due to the contextual precarity Greeks in Qatar live in. The paper contributes empirical and methodological knowledge to the field of language and identity in diaspora by focusing on an under-researched diasporic group, and by employing an emic ethnographic perspective in its discursive and sociolinguistic practices.
... Interviews were transcribed following common conventions in linguistic anthropology (a modified version of Du Bois, Cumming, Schuetze-Coburn, & Paolino, 1992). Transcripts were then subjected to an iterative analysis following "discourse analysis beyond the speech event" (Wortham & Reyes, 2015). The first phase included visually mapping the narrated events of the conversation which included topics and social roles explicitly stated by participants. ...
Article
Mass-media representations of the stereotypical science nerd position scientists as white, male, and largely English-speaking. Teachers and students who state a desire to work in equitable science learning communities may nonetheless reproduce inequities through their classroom practices which either embody or validate the science nerd stereotype. This study compares secondary students’ metacommentary on the science nerd trope in a mass-media representation to their metacommentary on their own and their peers’ classroom practices and sheds light on design elements for Critical Race Media Literacy (Yosso, 2002) tasks that may promote equity in science education spaces.
... I situate discourse and policy-making within an approach to bi/multilingual education understood in terms of the relationship between the various interest groups in a power conflict ( Paulston, 1992 ). In line with the recent reconceptualisation of the macro-micro distinction in language policy ( Johnson & Stephens, 2018 ), discursive events are understood as interactional practices at different scales and moving across social domains that are intended to lead to meaningful action on language management ( Wortham & Reyes, 2015 ). ...
Article
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This paper aims to investigate the politics of plurilingualism in education and, more concretely, the various interests at play behind the introduction of innovations by education authorities in Catalonia, Spain. To do this, the paper critically examines the linguistic model of language in education and the public debate that its introduction generated, focusing on three themes: immersion, translanguaging, and school autonomy. The model, which acknowledges cultural diversity and values plurilingualism, would appear to embrace developments in the field of multi/plurilingual research, although there have been disparate interpretations of the policy. But this case also represents the “politics of innovation”, that is, the invocation of international educational trends for political purposes. The paper (a) argues that sociolinguistic scholars should seriously scrutinise how research may become a sociopolitical tool external to sociolinguistics, and (b) claims that sociolinguists should be more attentive to how we lend our own professional concepts to political agendas.
... A theme that emerged at the event was that the predominantly Spanishspeaking, marginalized groups lacked moment-to-moment acknowledgment in the speeches of state agents. For example, a mestiza-identifying, Spanish-speaking 17. Linguistic anthropologists consider iconization across speech events in how linguistic forms resemble ideas (Urban 1986;Lempert 2012;Wortham and Reyes 2015). I more fully examine this process elsewhere (Limerick 2018). ...
... In this way, I argue, researchers can better understand how ideologies can be sustained and legitimized in Northern Italy. It is thus key to explore narratives across time and space instead of analyzing stories within a short time frame, as scholars working on longitudinal studies have also convincingly indicated (Wortham 2004(Wortham , 2006Wortham and Reyes 2015;Woolard 2016). This is, indeed, one of the main contributions of this book. ...
Book
This book reflects on the myriad ways in which forms of exclusion and inclusion play out in narratives of migration, focusing on the case of Northern Italian narratives in today’s superdiverse Italy. Drawing on over a decade of the author’s fieldwork in the region, the volume examines the emergence of racialized language in conversations about migrants or migration issues in light of increasing recent migratory flows in the European Union, couched in the broader context of changing socio-political forces such as anti-immigration policies and nativist discourse in political communication in Italy. The book highlights case studies from everyday discourse in both villages and cities and at different levels of society to explore these "intimacies of exclusion," the varying degrees to which inclusion and exclusion manifest themselves in conversation on migration. The book also employs a narrative practice-based approach which considers storytelling as a more dynamic form of discourse, thus allowing for equally new ways of analyzing their content and impact. Offering a valuable contribution to the growing literature on narratives of migration, this volume is key reading for graduate students and scholars in linguistic anthropology, sociolinguistics, sociocultural anthropology, language and politics, and migration studies.
... Finally, I analysed the role the PDSs had in encouraging or hindering Emma's multilingual language use. Attending to the reflexivity of qualitative data analysis, the iterative aspect of the analysis allowed me to move back and forth between the three distinct, yet interrelated, analytical steps in a non-sequential way (Srivastava and Hopwood 2009;Wortham and Reyes 2015). In the following subsections, I unpack each stage of this three-step analysis. ...
Article
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This article sets out to explore the relationships between parental language ideologies, and language use and negotiation in parent–child interaction. The primary dataset is composed of around 10 h of audio recordings of everyday interactions of family members (i.e. a Brazilian mother, a Norwegian father, and a 3-year old Norwegian born daughter) during a three-year ethnographically-oriented project undertaken in Norway. A discourse analytical approach with a focus on instances of language negotiation led to the identification of a set of seven parental discourse strategies in the corpus: addressee-bound, code-bound, code rebuttal, filling gaps, rephrase, say ‘x’, and ‘what is–’ frame. Results indicate that, contrary to what parents might expect, drawing on discourse strategies that make explicit references to language names might hinder the active use of the child’s full linguistic repertoire. Conversely, discourse strategies that only implicitly serve as requests to use a given language can foster continuous multilingual language use. Finally, I suggest that strategies that make explicit references to named languages could be linked to a one-person-one-language-one-nation ideology, and I demonstrate how these strategies help us understand the ways family members navigate their complex national affiliations and talk their multilingual selves into being.
... Sociocultural linguistics affords an interdisciplinary understanding of how meaning emerges and changes in and across interactions, by bringing together insights from sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, linguistic ethnography, and related fields (Bucholtz & Hall, 2008). From this perspective, discourse is situated, indexical, and dialogic (Bakhtin, 1981;Wortham & Reyes, 2015). Meanwhile, the overlapping body of work on the ethnography of language policy calls attention to the people, practices, and perspectives that comprise language policy (McCarty, 2011). ...
Article
en Recent work on scale has emphasized upscaling, or the ways people try to make their discourse seem more universal and authoritative. To explore how people engage in other kinds of scale jumping, I examine how scaling practices vary among policymakers and activists in the US English‐only movement. This ethnographic, discourse analytic study focuses on people who shape language policy in four counties in the state of Maryland as well as the organizations U.S. English and ProEnglish. Drawing on interviews, observations, and texts, I argue that upscaling and downscaling can both play a key role in successfully developing linguistic authority, legitimizing English‐only ideologies, and enacting new English‐only policies. At the same time, when people mix different scaling practices in interaction, the combination may occasionally come across as more dissonant to their interlocutors. Ultimately, the US English‐only movement's penchant for scale jumping has led to more restrictive local language policies but also to more opportunities for questioning and resisting those policies. Abstract es Investigaciones recientes sobre la escala ha enfatizado el movimiento vertical de una escala a otra más alta, o las formas en que la gente intenta que su discurso parezca más universal y autoritativo. Para explorar la forma en que la gente se involucra en otros tipos de saltos de escala, examino de qué manera las prácticas de escala varían entre formadores de políticas y activistas en el movimiento ‘English‐only’ (solo inglés) en los EE.UU. Este estudio etnográfico y analítico del discurso se centra en quienes formulan la política lingüística en cuatro condados del estado de Maryland, así como en las organizaciones ‘U.S. English’ y ‘ProEnglish’. Basándome en entrevistas, observaciones y textos, sostengo que el aumento y la reducción de escala pueden cumplir una función clave en el desarrollo exitoso de la autoridad lingüística, con la legitimación de ideologías ‘solo inglés’ y la promulgación de nuevas políticas ‘solo inglés’. Al mismo tiempo, cuando la gente mezcla diferentes prácticas de escala en interacción, esta combinación puede parecer ocasionalmente más disonante para sus interlocutores. En última instancia, la inclinación del movimiento ‘solo inglés’ en los EE.UU. hacia saltos de escala ha llevado a políticas de idioma local más restrictivas, pero también a más oportunidades para cuestionarlas y resistirlas.
... In doing so, Ibram proposed not only the use of Sabil's name within his text, but also the inclusion of Sabil himself as a character. By languaging Sabil within his text, Ibram was languaging his relationship with Sabil (Wortham and Reyes, 2015). Sabil, showing a keen awareness of the power of language, and perhaps unsure as to how Ibram would decide to portray this Sabil character, was also hesitant to allow Ibram to write about him (line 9). ...
Article
Under dominant, autonomous views of literacy, students’ humorous language use during literacy events is often dismissed as ‘off task’ behaviour. Taking a languaging perspective, this paper considers how third-grade, emergent bilingual students’ humorous language use functioned in both ‘official’ and ‘peer’ worlds during eBook composing events across one year. Microethnographic analyses of humorous events suggest that students’ humorous languaging practices not only supported the work of composing texts but also helped them connect to peers and construct their own and others’ social positions within the classroom. Implications for pedagogy, including the importance of creating classroom spaces where students can talk and interact with one another while composing, are discussed.
... In other words, the object and the addressee change according to the scale that we choose, in the sense of . And although we are interested in the specific children, and in doing an emic analysis, of the situations located in time and space, we believe that it is also worthwhile to take the step beyond the speech event (Wortham & Reyes, 2015), which of course is an unavailable choice for the participants themselves. Analytically we include considerations of form (linguistic features), usage (use and avoidance of language, forms of participation) and ideological perceptions (implicitly or explicitly activated) (cf. ...
Book
The concept of chronotopicity is increasingly used in sociolinguistic theorizing as a new way of looking at context and scale in studies of language, culture and identity. This volume brings together empirical work that puts flesh on the bones of this rather abstract chronotopical theorizing, especially focusing on the discursive construction of chronotopic identities. The case studies in this volume address chronotopic identity work in several sites (in Denmark, Indonesia, Mongolia, China, Belgium and The Netherlands). The book will be of interest to students and researchers in applied linguistics and sociolinguistics, as well as related fields such as anthropology, sociology and cultural studies.
... These stories are not self-evident in the visual artifact and must be uncovered through conversation and work with/around the photographs with participants. Further, following classic distinctions in narrative analysis (Bauman, 1986;Wortham & Reyes, 2015), narrative conversations around photographs reflect the divisions between the narrated event, the original event and episode captured in the photograph(s), and the narrative event, how this event is retold and reinterpreted in subsequent conversations and encounters around the photograph. ...
Article
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This methodological paper discusses how photographs can be used in multi-layered data projects with children and families. We present photographs as a versatile low-fi digital artifact that can be used under a variety of research circumstances and critically discuss this particular visual tool in the context of the growing body of visual and multimodal research with children and families. The critical discussion draws on a series of research projects in which we have employed photographs (topics of the projects include family diversity or children's routines). The comparisons between projects highlights some of the procedural and analytical choices that are opened up when using photographs. In particular, we focus on two issues: (a) differences that emerge when materials are created by participants or are elicited by researchers, and; (b) the metaphors that are applied to interpret and work with photographs.
Article
This article analyzes how public policymakers responded to CCCC's 1988 National Language Policy. While many treated CCCC as a leading critic of English-only policies, others interpreted the organization to be more of a hesitant critic, or even an outright ally of the English-only movement. Rather than cede rhetorical ground to monolingual ideologies, policies, and movements, I argue for language policies that place less emphasis on English, and more on language as a right and a translingual practice.
Article
This study brings together the field of language socialization and narrative analysis to investigate agentive identity construction in a professional community in China. It proposes a conceptual model of agentive identity construction and tracks a novice member’s identity trajectory. The study illustrates how her narratives moved from negative to positive over time, ultimately aligned with the habitual narrative practices of identity in the community. I argue, contrary to previous studies, the identity trajectory in this community is predictable across four stages. This study draws attention to narrative action in progress at multiple levels of positioning in the process of professional socialization.
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https://www.academia.edu/40015745/TRANSNATIONAL_LITERACY_AUTOBIOGRAPHIES_AS_TRANSLINGUAL_WRITING_Preview_chapters_
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This volume is a collection of essays that applies to the book of James linguistic methods of analysis that are based on the same theoretical framework, namely Systemic-Functional Linguistics. This volume is unique in that it provides a theoretically consistent and unified approach to a single New Testament book, which makes the whole volume useful for researchers and students of James. Each essay makes its own creative use of this linguistic perspective to engage important critical questions and to pave new ground for Jacobean scholarship based on linguistic analysis. Various topics in this volume include the textual structure and cohesion of the letter, intertextuality, rhetorical strategies, ideological struggle, interpersonal relations, and other topics related to the letter’s social context and language use.
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Stereotypes are chronotopic (Bakhtin, 1994) in the sense that they make good use of character types in time and space to utter identifiable speech forms and make evident other semiotic displays. This paper argues for sociolinguistics to expand its interpretation of the chronotope to encompass the relationship between “character” and “author” in identity texts. It suggests that conflating author and character in identity scholarship, as is the case in much sociolinguistic research, risks losing an opportunity to understand how people author characters in their narratives to project sets of values and beliefs. Using linguistic ethnography, we report on two migrant women and their interactions among colleagues to illustrate their authoring of two characters, namely the peasant and the cosmopolitan. We show how these specific women mobilize these characters in narrative production to refute harmful traditions and ethnolinguistic stereotypes in favour of cosmopolitan identities which draw on broader geographical and social scales associated with the city. 成见是具有时空性的表达,是从时间和空间中抽取不同特征来呈现当下可辨识的话语形式,同时为其它符号展示阐明意义。本文旨在拓展社会语言学中对时空体这一概念的阐述,以此涵盖身份认同文本中“角色”和“创作者”之间的关系分析。 本文指出,如大多数社会语言学研究所示,在身份认同学术讨论中,对创作者和角色进行异文合并,使得我们失去了理解人们如何在此类叙述中投射特定价值和观念的机会。 通过使用语言人种志研究方法,我们对两位女性移民与其同事之间的话语互动进行分析报告,重点说明她们在互动中如何创作两个角色:农民和世界主义者。我们展示这两位特定的女性如何在叙述过程中流动化她们的上述角色,如何通过反驳有害的传统认识和人种志语言偏见,来彰显她们的世界主义者身份认同,她们来自与城市紧密连接的、更广泛的地理性社会性规模的身份认同。
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Adolescent newcomer programs respond to superdiverse demographic shifts and, in the United States, are designed to support students with English language acquisition and preparation for mainstream or bilingual education. This eight-month micro-ethnographic study examines a specific multilingual, multicultural group in an ESL biology classroom at a Central Ohio adolescent newcomer program and explores the stances group members take toward a Somali female student, Farin. Employing evaluating and positioning as stance-taking (Du Bois, 2007), we investigate how Farin's participation is evaluated and how her social identities are constructed in her group interaction. Over a series of classroom events, the group members take up regressive stances based on local ideologies about silence and appropriate group participation. These thicken over time despite various moves Farin makes to assert a positive group identity. This study underscores the potential consequences of teacher's evaluation of students' language in that students often employ the stance in constructing their relationships and identities, thus reinforcing particular ideologies associated with teacher's epistemic stance.
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This article explores the gendered sound world of anti-abortion protests outside U.S. abortion clinics. These clinics are spaces of dissent where, on a daily basis, protesters congregate to vocalize their opposition to abortion. We employ the concept of sonic patriarchy, the sonic counterpart to the male gaze, to explore how anti-abortion protesting dominates the aural space surrounding abortion clinics and is used as a vehicle for controlling gendered bodies. Protesters use megaphones, speakers, and yelling to infuse the soundscape of the abortion clinic with an overwhelming cacophony that people must enter to receive care. This article reconceptualizes how we think about sound and violence by emphasizing how the everyday sounds of anti-abortion protesting are perceived and experienced as violence by people seeking abortion services. This domination of the sound world engenders a form of nonconsensual listening, in which it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to ignore the sonic performances of protesters. We also discuss the additional labor that clinic staff and volunteers must provide to shield patients against this volume of sound, as well as the affective and physical consequences of entering this sound world to receive healthcare. Furthermore, we describe the inherent difficulties in regulating sound and the importance of understanding the intent and context of sound-making in identifying certain sounds as violent. We argue for a more rigorous regulation of sound-making outside of clinics, as it perpetuates not only abortion stigma but also gendered sonic violence on all people who enter abortion clinics.
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Building on prior analyses of storytelling in migrant and transnational contexts (e.g. Baynham, 2014; De Fina, 2003; Haviland, 2005; Warriner, 2013), this article draws on research with transfronterizo (border-crossing) university students in South Texas to explore how transnational speakers use narrative to craft moral arguments in trying times. The article focuses on a single, lengthy narrative from a transfronteriza undergraduate named Araís in order to demonstrate how her narrative practice contributes to her “ideological becoming” (Bakhtin, 1981). That is, the analysis shows that the structural, textual, and dialogic features of Araís’s narrative are connected both to her emergent, dialogic understanding of her self and to value projects, or efforts to (re)shape the social world, implied in her narrative (Agha, 2015). The analysis illuminates the ethical affordances of transfronterizo narrative—i.e., the opportunities that storytelling offered transfronterizo students to evaluate their own and others’ actions in moral terms. Based on this analysis, I suggest implications for our understanding of narrative and moral personhood among transfronterizo students and other migrant and transnational subjects.
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As immigration becomes an ever-more divisive topic in the US, immigrants – particularly undocumented youth – experience unique pressures in classroom settings associated with their statuses. With approximately one million undocumented children in America, it is important for educators and researchers to understand how this population navigates such pressures in these environments. Through a sociocultural understanding of identity and an acknowledgment of the relationship between language and power, we utilize elements of microethnographic and critical discourse analysis to examine how four immigrant students used language to position undocumented immigrants in a diverse and purposefully-inclusive high school history class. Findings reveal that the undocumented students positioned fellow undocumented immigrants in a positive and agentive light, while the documented student was often negative in her positioning of undocumented immigrants – though this position occasionally shifted in response to her undocumented peers’ arguments. We also discuss implications of this work and areas for further inquiry.
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