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HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GINGER IMPROVE KIDNEY FUNCTION IN OBESE MALE RATS

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Aside from being a social stigma, obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance, in turn linked to development of type II diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis – the so-called metabolic syndrome.This study investigated the biochemical changes in serum urea and creatinine levels in obese male rats treated with aqueous ginger extract. Forty age-matched adult male wister rats (90-110) gm were divided into four groups of ten rats each: Group I, Control group; Group II: Obese group. Group III: Low ginger dose (200 mg/kg body weight) treated obese group; Group IV: High ginger dose (400 mg/kg body weight) treated obese group.The obese group exhibited hyperglycemia accompanied with increasing in serum levels of Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Total Cholesterol (TC) levels. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Ginger was effective in lowering all previous mentioned biochemical parameters and HDL-C level was increased significantly. Serum urea and creatinine levels showed a significant increase in obese rats. Otherwise, obese rats treated with ginger at either dose revealed a significant decrease as compared to obese group. These results indicated that the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous ginger extract (200, 400 mg/kg/day) could ameliorate obesity related kidney dysfunction.
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Bull. Pharm. Sci., Assiut University, Vol. 42, 2019, pp. 19-29.
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Assiut University
Website: http://www.aun.edu.eg/faculty_pharmacy/index.php
e-mail: bullpharm@aun.edu.eg
ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
Received in 18/4/2019 & Accepted in 5/5/2019
*Corresponding author: Shimaa Abd El-Nasser, E-mail: dr.shimaa1992@hotmail.com
HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GINGER
IMPROVE KIDNEY FUNCTION IN OBESE MALE RATS
Amira M. El-Noweihi1, NaglaTaha Elmelegy1, Sally M. Bakar1 and Shimaa Abd El-Nasser2*
1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt
2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, South Valley University, Egypt
Aside from being a social stigma, obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance,
in turn linked to development of type II diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and
atherosclerosis – the so-called metabolic syndrome.This study investigated the biochemical
changes in serum urea and creatinine levels in obese male rats treated with aqueous ginger
extract. Forty age-matched adult male wister rats (90-110) gm were divided into four groups of
ten rats each: Group I, Control group; Group II: Obese group. Group III: Low ginger dose
(200 mg/kg body weight) treated obese group; Group IV: High ginger dose (400 mg/kg body
weight) treated obese group.The obese group exhibited hyperglycemia accompanied with
increasing in serum levels of Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C),
Total Cholesterol (TC) levels. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in High
Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Ginger was effective in lowering all previous
mentioned biochemical parameters and HDL-C level was increased significantly. Serum urea
and creatinine levels showed a significant increase in obese rats. Otherwise, obese rats treated
with ginger at either dose revealed a significant decrease as compared to obese group. These
results indicated that the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous ginger extract
(200, 400 mg/kg/day) could ameliorate obesity related kidney dysfunction.
INTRODUCTION
The global prevalence of obesity has been
approximately 3-fold higher compared to 19751
and is suggested to still rise in future2. Over the
last three decades, body mass index (BMI) has
increased worldwide by 0.4 kg.m-2 per decade3.
According to World Health Organization
(WHO), Obesity is defined as a profuse
accumulation of fat caused by an imbalance in
intake and consumption of energy accompanied
by insufficient physical activity1.
Obesity may be associated with renal
disease4. It increases the incidence of
predisposing factors of chronic kidney disease
(CKD), like hypertension and diabetes5.
Increased renal filtration occurs in obese
individuals to meet the elevated metabolic
demands of raised body weight4. The hyper-
intraglomerular pressure can destroy the kidney
and increase the risk of developing CKD by
time6.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale family,
Zingiberacae) is one of the most widely
consumed spices worldwide. It was reported
that ginger also has a therapeutic benefits in
cancer, clotting, inflammation, and analgesic
activities7. The renoprotective effects of ginger
have also been reported in the animal models
of ischemia/reperfusion8, and streptozotocin9
induced renal injuries. However, the efficacy of
ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated
kidney damages in HFSD-induced obese rats
remains unknown. In the present study, the
impact of ginger on HFSD-induced kidney
injury in rats was investigated.
Amira M. El-Noweihi, et al.
20
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental animals
Forty age-matched adult male wister rats
with initial body weights ranging from 90-110
gm were chosen as an animal model for this
study. They were obtained from animal house,
Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut,
Egypt. They were maintained on a balanced
diet of bread with water supply till the start of
experiment. The experiment ran according to
Institutional Animal Ethic Committee
guidelines for care and use of laboratory
animals10.
Preparation of aqueous ginger extract
Aqueous ginger extract was prepared as
reported by Al-Amin et al.11. Ginger powder
was purchased from Dop Organik Company for
Pharmaceutical Industries, Turkey.
Induction of obesity
After two weeks of acclimatization, the
rats were randomly divided into: Group I:
Control group (10 rats), they were fed a
standard diet throughout the experimental
period. The remaining 30 rats were daily fed a
high fat, sucrose diet (HFSD) which was
composed of 55% standard diet, 15% beef
tallow, 20% sucrose, 5% roasted peanuts, 5%
milk powder, 5% egg, 3% sesame oil and 2%
NaCl as reported by Ragab et al. (2015)12.
After eight weeks, according to BMI, oral daily
administration of aqueous ginger extract was
started in concomitant with continuation of
HFSD feeding for another eight weeks as
follows; Group II: Obese group (10 rats), they
were left untreated. Group III: Low ginger dose
treated obese group (LGD, 10 rats), they were
received aqueous ginger extract(200 mg/kg
body weight). Group IV: High ginger dose
treated obese group (HGD, 10 rats), they were
received aqueous ginger extract (400 mg/kg
body weight) according to Bhandari et al.13.
Rats’ body weight (BW) was measured at
the end of experiment and BMI was calculated
as follows:
BMI =body weight (kg)/length2 (m2).
Sample collection
At the end of this period (16 weeks),
animals fasted overnight; venous blood
samples (3-5ml) were taken from the retro-
orbital sinus via glass capillaries under light
anesthesia with diethyl ether to reduce animals'
excitability14. These samples were put in
Wassermann empty tube, left to clot at room
temperature for 30 min then centrifuged at
3000 rpm for 10 min, then the serum was
separated immediately and divided into
aliquots for the measurement of serum fasting
glucose, the lipid profile parameters, urea and
creatinine levels.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results
Effect of oral daily administration of
aqueous ginger extract (200, 400 mg/kg body
weight) on body weight, BMI, serum glucose
and parameters of lipid profile in obese male
rats
Obese group showed a significant increase
in body weight, BMI, and the mean serum
levels of glucose, TC, TG, and LDL-C as
compared to those of control group (p< 0.001,
Table 1, Fig. 1). It also showed a significant
decrease in the mean serum level of HLD-C as
compared to that of control group (p< 0.001,
Table 1, Fig. 1). Also, treatment of rats with
200 mg/kg/day ginger extract orally for 8
weeks produced a significant decrease in body
weight, BMI, and the mean serum levels of
glucose, TC, TG, and LDL-C as compared to
those of obese group (p< 0.001, Table 1, Fig. 1)
and a significant increase in the mean serum
level of HLD-C as compared to that of obese
group (p< 0.001, Table 1, Fig. 1). Moreover,
the daily administration of 400 mg/kg ginger
extract produced a significant decrease in body
weight, and the mean serum levels of glucose,
TC, TG, and LDL-C as compared to those of
obese and LGD treated obese groups (p< 0.001,
Table 1, Fig. 1), while, BMI showed a
significant decrease as compared to that of
obese group (p< 0.001, Table 1, Fig. 1) and no
sigificant change as compared to LGD treated
obese group. It also showed a highly significant
increase in the mean serum level of HLD-C as
compared to that of obese and LGD treated
obese groups (p< 0.001, Table 1, Fig. 1).
21
Table 1: Effect of oral daily administration of aqueous ginger extract (200, 400 mg/kg) on body
weight, BMI, serum glucose and parameters of lipid profile in obese male rats.
Group
Parameter
Control group
n=10
Obese group
n=10
LGD treated
obese group
n=10
HGD treated
obese group
n=10
Body Weight
(gm)
175.3±18.54 374.9±32.49
a***
270.9±13.07
a***
b***
207.7±16.15
a***
b***
c***
BMI
(Kg/m2)
1.80±0.55 7.34±1.30
a***
2.36±0.65
ans
b***
2.66±0.91
ans
b***
cns
Fasting blood
glucose level
(mmol/l)
5.34±0.33 8.42±0.67
a***
7.28±0.48
a***
b***
6.43±0.40
a***
b***
c**
TC
(mg/dl)
101.99±22.55 207.14±42.76
a***
137.80±12.98
a***
b***
109.02±6.80
ans
b***
c***
TG
(mg/dl)
77.35±46.43 256.93±67.47
a***
173.72±16.79
a***
b***
113.78±17.64
a***
b***
c***
HDL-C
(mg/dl)
61.45±17.54 15.52±3.23
a***
29.38±6.27
a***
b***
44.26±5.64
a***
b***
c***
LDL-C
(mg/dl)
25.07±28.97 140.23±32.62
a***
73.68±15.43
a***
b***
42.01±8.56
a***
b***
c***
BMI, body mass index; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein
cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; LGD, low ginger dose; HGD, high ginger
dose.
Results were expressed by Mean ± S.D.
a compared to control group.
b compared to obese group.
c compared to LGD treated obese group.
* P< 0.05, ** P< 0.01, *** P< 0.001.
Amira M. El-Noweihi, et al.
22
Fig. 1: Effect of oral daily administration of aqueous ginger extract (200, 400 mg/kg) on body weight, BMI,
serum glucose and parameters of lipid profile in obese male rats.
BMI, body mass index; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein
cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; LGD, low ginger dose; HGD, high ginger
dose.
Results were expressed by Mean ± S.D.
a compared to control group.
b compared to obese group.
c compared to LGD treated obese group.
* P< 0.05, ** P< 0.01, *** P< 0.001.
Effect of oral daily administration of
aqueous ginger extract (200,400 mg/kg body
weight) on serum levels of urea and
creatinine in obese male rats
Obese group showed a highly significant
increase in the mean serum levels of urea and
creatinine as compared to those of control
group (p< 0.001, Table 2, Fig. 2). Treatment of
rats with 200 mg/kg/day ginger extract orally
for 8 weeks produced a highly significant
decrease in the mean serum level of creatinine
as compared to those of obese group (p< 0.001,
Table 2, Fig. 2), while, the mean serum level of
urea was showed no significant difference as
compared to that of obese group. Also,
administration of 400 mg/kg ginger extract
produced a significant decrease in the mean
serum levels of urea and creatinine as
compared to those of obese and LGD treated
obese groups (p< 0.01, Table 2, Fig. 2).
23
Table 2: Effect of oral daily administration of aqueous ginger extract (200, 400 mg/kg) on serum
levels of urea and creatinine in obese male rats.
Group
Parameter
Control group
n=10
Obese group
n=10
LGD treated
obese group
n=10
HGD treated
obese group
n=10
Urea
(mg/dl)
31. ± 5.48 46.31±9.21
a***
47.50±7.46
a***
bns
35.40±4.18
ans
b**
c**
Creatinine
(mg/dl)
0.52±0.10 0.84±0.05
a***
0.74±0.05
a***
b**
0.62±0.04
a**
b**
c**
LGD, low ginger dose; HGD, high ginger dose.
Results were expressed by Mean ± S.D.
a compared to control group.
b compared to obese group.
c compared to LGD treated obese group.
* P< 0.05, ** P< 0.01, *** P< 0.001.
Fig. 2: Effect of oral daily administration of aqueous ginger extract (200, 400 mg/kg) on serum levels of urea
and creatinine in obese male rats.
Results were expressed by Mean ± S.D.
a compared to control group.
b compared to obese group.
c compared to LGD treated obese group.
* P< 0.05, ** P< 0.01, *** P< 0.001.
Discussion
Obesity is a serious nutritional problem, as
it increases the risk of morbidity from several
pathologies15. Obesity, especially the central or
visceral type, is a predisposing factor for the
development of type II diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, and cardiovascular disease
(CVD)16. Recently, dietary polyphenols and
their roles in the prevention of obesity and
obesity-related chronic and metabolic diseases
have received research attention. Whether a
spice, vegetable, or traditional medicine, ginger
is well-known for its therapeutic effects on
obesity17. In the present study, the effect of
aqueous ginger extract on some biochemical
parameters in obese male rats was investigated.
Rats fed a HFSD showed visceral
adiposity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia,
Amira M. El-Noweihi, et al.
24
hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress, meta-
inflammation, hepatic and renal dysfunction,
which are distinctly linked with human
obesity18. Excessive growth of adipose tissue
results in obesity, which includes two growth
mechanisms: hyperplastic (an increase in cell
number) and hypertrophic (an increase in cell
size)19. In the present study, obese rats showed
a significant increase in body weight and body
mass index. The increased in body weight and
body mass index found in HFSD fed rats might
be due to the consumption of a diet rich in
energy. These findings are in agreement with
Liu et al. and Lomba et al.20 &21 who stated that
HFSD induced weight gain and obesity.
In the present study, treatment with ginger
showed a significant decrease in body weight
and BMI. These results are in consistence with
Ebrahimzadeh et al., Saravanan et al. and Lu et
al.22-24. Ginger suppresses body weight gain
induced by HFD feeding via the regulation of
fatty acid metabolism25 and inhibiting
adipocyte differentiation26&27. In adipocytes,
PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α are the key transcription
regulator genes involved in adipogenesis28&29.
Recent studies indicated that PPARs are the
major mediators of the anti-obesity and anti-
diabetic effects of ginger and its constituent
compounds30&31. 6-Shogaol reduced the
expression of PPAR-γ-associated genes and
reduced adipogenesis in the cell line32.
However, 6-gingerol could inhibit adipocyte
differentiation by attenuating the Akt/GSK-3β
pathway33 and activating the Wnt/β-catenin
signaling pathway34.
In the present study, the obese rats showed
mild hyperglycemia as compared to control
group. HFSD has been shown to induce mild
hyperglycemia by different mechanisms but
considered mainly through the Randle or
glucose–fatty acid cycle which is a biochemical
mechanism involving the competition between
glucose and fatty acids for their oxidation and
uptake in muscle and adipose tissue35.
Inflammation also contributes to the insulin
signaling activity in adipocytes and hepatocytes
through inhibition of insulin binding to its
receptor, receptor phosphorylation, tyrosine
kinase activity, and phosphorylation of IRSs36.
These findings are in agreement with Liang et
al.37 and Kothari et al.38.
In the present study, ginger treated obese
group showed a significant decrease in fasting
blood glucose as compared to obese group.
These finding could by explained by the study
of Zhu et al. who found that ginger promotes
insulin sensitivity39, thus lowering insulin
resistance in obese rats, possibly by regulating
the cell energy metabolism or reducing free
fatty acids23. Ginger has been reported to
increase the activity of hepatic glycolytic
enzymes, including glucokinase,
phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase.
Ginger increased peripheral glucose utilization
and decreased gluconeogenesis in the liver
through its insulin mimetic effect40. These
results are in consistence with Maharlouei et
al., Iranloye et al. and Silveira et al.41-43.
HFSD supplementation resulted in
dyslipidemic changes; increasing in serum TG,
TC and LDL-C levels and decreasing in serum
level of HDL-C44. High levels of TC, TG,
LDL-C are the risk factor for CVD45. The
alteration of lipid profile induced by HFSD
might be caused by the activation of gastric
lipases, intestinal fat absorption and the
lipolysis. Also, impaired insulin action is
associated with an over-supply of lipids.
Diminished hepatic and muscular uptake of
glucose produced hyperlipidemia due to
increased fat mobilization from adipose tissue
and resistance to the anti-lipolytic actions of
insulin46. In the present study, supplementation
of HFSD increased the lipid profile in plasma
of experimental rats. These findings are in
agreement withYamamoto et al.47.
In the current study, ginger treated obese
rats showed a significant reduction TG, TC and
LDL-C levels and increase in serum level of
HDL-C as compared to obese group. The
suppression of plasma lipids by ginger may
result from the reduction of the absorption of
fat and cholesterol by inhibiting the activity of
pancreatic lipase23. Consistent with this study,
studies reported that the ginger extracts
produced a significant reduction of TC, TG,
and LDL-C levels when compared to different
models of obese rats11&48-50.
In addition, recent studies have identified
oxidative stress as a key player in obesity
associated kidney dysfunction51. Rosas-
Villegas et al., indicated that the exposure to
HFSD, rats promotes the antioxidant system
depression due to the increase of lipid
peroxidation and decrease of GSH amount in
the kidneys52. In the present study, obese rats
25
showed a significant increase in serum
creatinine and urea levels. Increased creatinine
and urea levels indicate a lower degree of pore
shrinkage due to cell proliferation and fibrosis
of renal tubules53. The mechanism through
which HFSD induced cell proliferation and
fibrosis is not fully understood.
Accordingly, if HFSD consumption
induces some functional abnormalities in
kidneys through hyperglycemia and
hyperlipidemia, as confirmed by present study
and some previous ones, the effect of ginger
supplementation on these abnormalities will be
decreased. In the present study, Ginger treated
obese rats showed a significant reduction in
serum urea and creatinine. In agreement with
Tzang et al., Gabr et al. and Mehradad et al.9&
54&55 who stated that ginger and its active
component improves obesity associated kidney
dysfunction.
In Conclusion, The current study has
demonstrated that ginger has protective effects
on obesity and obesity-related chronic kidney
diseases through its hypoglycemic and
hypolipidemic effects.
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29
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        
  
  
  
  
  
١
١١
١
،،א،אאא
،،א،אאא،،א،אאא
،،א،אאא 
  
 
٢
٢٢
٢
، !אא"#،$א،אא
، !אא"#،$א،אא، !אא"#،$א،אא
، !אא"#،$א،אא
  
 
            
             
       .       
           .  
         ) (     
    :          :
   .   :      
)  /    (   :    
  )  /    .(     
         )TG (     
  )LDL-C (    )TC .(       
       )HDL-C .(      
             
)HDL-C (  .          
          .     
     )   /    /  ( 
           .
Bull. Pharm. Sci., Assiut University, Vol. 42, 2019, pp. 19-29.
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Aim: This study aimed to assess magnitude of the problem of overweight and obesity among elderly population residing a rural community in an Upper Egypt governorate and to identify status of associated co-morbidity factors. Subjests And Methods: a cross-sectional community based study, conducted on a random sample of elderly people aged 60 years or more in a village; located to the north of El-Minia city, El-Minia governorate. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire at a home visit during the period from January 2012 through June 2012. Weight, height, and BMI were measured using reliable and standardized methods. History of chronic diseases as diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and depression was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 319 elderly persons (35.1% males and 64.9% females) were included in the study. The age of the subjects ranged between 60-93 years (mean age in males 68.5 ± 6.1 & mean age in females 67.6 5 ± 6.8). Body Mass Index (BMI) among the studied population shows that nearly 60% are either overweight or obese (in different grades) and only 2.2 % are underweight. Overweight and obesity are significantly more prevalent among persons in age group 60-69 years than among those in 70-79 and ≥80 year's old categories (68.4% vs. 47.3% and 22.2% respectively). Obesity is significantly more predominant among elderly with hypertension and osteoarthritis (60.3%, 41.2%) while overweight was more significantly prevalent among diabetics (44%). As BMI increase, the risk and severity of depression among elderly population increase significantly and an obvious noticeable trend appears in this relation between depression and BMI. Conclusion: There is an increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight more among young old population in rural Minia. As BMI increase, the risk of hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes significantly increased and severity of depression among elderly population increase significantly.
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The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunction induced by western diet consumption. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with a control diet (Control, n = 12) or a high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 12). The HSF group also received water + sucrose (25%). Evaluations included feed and caloric intake; body weight; plasma glucose; insulin; uric acid; HOMA-IR; lipid profile: [total cholesterol (T-chol), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL Chol, triglycerides (TG)]; systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Compared to the control group, animals that consumed the HSF diet presented higher weight gain, caloric intake, feed efficiency, insulin, HOMA-IR, and glucose levels, and lipid profile impairment (higher TG, T-chol, non-HDL chol and lower HDL). HSF diet was also associated with atrial-ventricular structural impairment and systolic-diastolic dysfunction. Positive correlation was also found among the following parameters: insulin versus estimated LV mass (r = 0.90, p = 0.001); non-HDL versus deceleration time (r = 0.46, p = 0.02); TG versus deceleration time (r = 0.50, p = 0.01). In summary, our results suggest cardiac remodeling lead by western diet is associated with metabolic parameters.
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Objective This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. Results 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was −1.00, (95% CI: −1.56, −0.44; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (−21.24; 95% CI: −33.21, −9.26; P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Conclusion Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS.
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Our aim was to evaluate the protective and antioxidant effects of ginger extract against cadmium-induced renal toxicity in animal models and to support the use of ginger as anti-renal failure natural remedy. Seventy rats were examined in a 4-week experiment to evaluate the effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) at doses of 100 and 200. mg/kg body weight on molecular DNA content, antioxidant status, and renal function in rats intoxicated with cadmium at dose of (5. mg/kg) using biochemical and histological analysis. Renal dysfunction, kidney tissue damage, and oxidative effect were evident in cadmium intoxicated rats as estimated by significant increase in (creatinine, urea), decrease in (creatinine clearance and reabsorption rate of urine albumin), increase in MDA, decrease in total antioxidant status (TAC), reduction in DNA content, and histopathological changes of kidneys' tissues compared to control rats. Treatment with ginger resulted in significant restoring of renal function biomarkers, TAC, molecular DNA, and histological improvements which occurs via free radical scavenging and regenerative mechanisms. The activity of ginger was supported by estimation of bioactive phenolic and falvinods constituents. Twenty-eight polyphenolic compounds were estimated in ginger extract; [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, citral and pyrogallol were the highest amounts in ginger, and supposed to be responsible for its major antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as shown by In vitro DPPH/β-carotene-linolic acid assay tests. Consequently, ginger extracts could have a potent protective effects against nephrotoxicity induced by various toxicants.
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Objective: Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. Materials and methods: 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. Results: The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. Conclusions: The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.
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Obesity is a health concern related with many metabolic disorders. In the prevention and treatment of overweight, medicines and bariatric surgeries are major strategies but with side effects. A variety of naturally occurring bioactive ingredients derived from common spices, including cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, pepper, saffron, garlic, onion and turmeric, have been proved to have weight-loss effects. In this work, the molecular mechanisms of anti-obesity effect of eight common spices are reviewed and evaluated in cell models, animal models and human subjects. Bioactive compounds from these spices are able to reduce lipid accumulation in fat cells and adipose tissues through regulating the expressions of related transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR); modulating activities of certain enzymes related with lipogenesis, such as acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and others. The induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells, promoted thermogenesis in adipose tissues, decreased body weight gain in obese animal models and human participants have also been reported after the oral treatment of spice extracts, providing theoretical basis for these functional food compounds to be developed into dietary supplements against obesity.
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This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effect of ginger intake on weight loss, glycemic control and lipid profiles among overweight and obese subjects. We searched the following databases through November 2017: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The relevant data were extracted and assessed for quality of the studies according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and I-squared tests (I²). Overall, 14 studies were included in the meta-analyses. Fourteen RCTs with 473 subjects were included in our meta-analysis. The results indicated that the supplementation with ginger significantly decreased body weight (BW) (SMD −0.66; 95% CI, −1.31, −0.01; P = 0.04), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (SMD −0.49; 95% CI, −0.82, −0.17; P = 0.003), hip ratio (HR) (SMD −0.42; 95% CI, −0.77, −0.08; P = 0.01), fasting glucose (SMD −0.68; 95% CI, −1.23, −0.05; P = 0.03) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (SMD −1.67; 95% CI, −2.86, −0.48; P = 0.006), and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels (SMD 0.40; 95% CI, 0.10, 0.70; P = 0.009). We found no detrimental effect of ginger on body mass index (BMI) (SMD −0.65; 95% CI, −1.36, 0.06; P = 0.074), insulin (SMD −0.54; 95% CI, −1.43, 0.35; P = 0.23), triglycerides (SMD −0.27; 95% CI, −0.71, 0.18; P = 0.24), total- (SMD −0.20; 95% CI, −0.58, 0.18; P = 0.30) and LDL-cholesterol (SMD −0.13; 95% CI, −0.51, 0.24; P = 0.48). Overall, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that ginger intake reduced BW, WHR, HR, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR, and increased HDL-cholesterol, but did not affect insulin, BMI, triglycerides, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels.
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Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials.
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Lipid oxidation—a major cause of food product deterioration—necessitates the use of food additives to inhibit food oxidation. Ginger extract (GE) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. However, components isolated from ginger have been rarely reported to inhibit fat oxidation. Herein, antioxidant properties of GE and four pure components derived from it (6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol) were examined and their properties were compared to those of butylated hydroxytoluene. GE and the constituent components exhibited antioxidant properties that might be attributed to their hydroxyl groups and suitable solubilizing side chains. 6-Shogaol and 10-gingerol exhibited higher activity at 60 °C than 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. Low antioxidant activity was detected at high temperatures (120/180 °C). Overall, GE displayed the strongest dose-dependent antioxidant properties, especially at high temperatures, thereby demonstrating that GE can be employed as a natural antioxidant in lipid-containing processed foods.
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Scope: Ginger exerts protective effects on obesity and its complications. Our objectives here are to identify bioactive compounds that inhibit adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in vitro, elucidate the anti-obesity effect of gingerenone A (GA) in diet-induced obesity (DIO), and investigate whether GA affects adipose tissue inflammation (ATI). Methods and results: Oil red O staining showed that GA had the most potent inhibitory effect on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells among ginger components tested at a single concentration (40 μM). Consistent with in vitro data, GA attenuates DIO by reducing fat mass in mice. This was accompanied by a modulation of fatty acid metabolism via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, GA suppressed ATI by inhibiting macrophage recruitment and downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: These results suggest that GA may be used as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and its complications by suppressing adipose expansion and inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.