Article

Downregulation of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase by UVA suppresses melanoma progression via triggering oxidative stress and altering energy metabolism

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  • Gachongil College
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Abstract

Melanoma, the most severe form of skin cancer, has poor prognosis and is resistant to chemotherapy. Targeting cancer metabolism is a promising approach in cancer therapeutics. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) is a mitochondrial enzyme with diaphorase activity. Here we report a pivotal role of DLD in melanoma cell progression and proliferation. Suppression DLD expression by low intensity UVA (125 mJ/cm²) increased intracellular ROS production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential thereby inducing autophagy cell death which were confirmed by increased LC3BII and decreased p62 expression in melanoma cells. Knockdown of DLD in melanoma cells also showed similar results. More so, suppression of DLD significantly inhibits in vivo melanoma growth and tumor proliferation. In addition, suppression of DLD increased the NAD+/NADH ratio in melanoma cells and also inhibits TCA cycle related metabolites. DLD downregulation markedly increased α-ketoglutarate and decreased succinic acid suggesting that DLD suppression may have decreased TCA cycle downstream metabolites, resulting in the alteration of mitochondrial energy metabolism Thus the downregulation of DLD induced autophagic cell death in melanoma cells and inhibits in vivo tumor growth and proliferation by increasing ROS production and altering energy metabolism. Our findings suggest that DLD plays a pivotal role in melanoma progression and proliferation.

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... However, the moonlight activity of DLDH may act on DNA alkylation for cancer treatment [120]. Due to the vulnerability of DLDH, another anticancer approach utilizing UVA to suppress DLDH expression showed ROS provocation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to autophagic cell death and mitigated tumor growth in melanoma cells [121]. In head and neck cancer, genetic silencing of DLDH blocked cystine deprivation-induced ferroptosis [91], suggesting that DLDH mediates the cystine-regulated ferroptosis. ...
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... 9-Phenyl acridine + UV-A treatment induced cell cycle arrest and thus cell death; autophagy and a high level of ROS were also observed. In another study, the role of mitochondrial flavoprotein dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase protein, which was downregulated by low intensity UV-A, was assessed in MNT1 and A375 cell lines [141]. Results showed that low levels of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase induced autophagic cell death and inhibited in vivo tumour growth and proliferation by increasing ROS production and altering energy metabolism. ...
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Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the fastest increasing cancers with an incidence that has more than doubled in the last 25 years. Sunlight exposure is strongly implicated in the etiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma and the UV portion of the sunlight spectrum is considered responsible. Data are, however, conflicting on the roles of ultraviolet B [UVB; 280-320 nanometers (nm)] and ultraviolet A (UVA; 320-400 nm), which differ in their ability to initiate DNA damage, cell signaling pathways and immune alterations. To address this issue, we have used specialized optical sources, emitting isolated or combined UVB or UVA wavebands or solar simulating radiation, together with our hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma that uniquely recapitulates human disease. Only UVB-containing sources initiated melanoma. These were the isolated UVB waveband (>96% 280-320 nm), the unfiltered F40 sunlamp (250-800 nm) and the solar simulator (290-800 nm). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the isolated UVB waveband was more effective in initiating melanoma than either the F40 sunlamp or the solar simulator (modified log rank P < 0.02). The latter two sources showed similar melanoma effectiveness (P = 0.38). In contrast, transgenic mice irradiated with either the isolated UVA waveband (>99.9% 320-400 nm, 150 kJ/m2), or an F40 sunlamp filtered to remove > 96% of the UVB, responded like unirradiated control animals. We conclude that, within the constraints of this animal model, UVB is responsible for the induction of mammalian cutaneous malignant melanoma whereas UVA is ineffective even at doses considered physiologically relevant. This finding may have major implications with respect both to risk assessment from exposure to solar and artificial UVB, and to development of effective protection strategies against melanoma induction by UVB. Moreover, these differences in wavelength effectiveness can now be exploited to identify UV pathways relevant to melanomagenesis.
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The dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding protein (E3BP) and the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) component enzyme form the structural core of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by providing the binding sites for two other component proteins, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), as well as pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases and phosphatases. Despite a high similarity between the primary structures of E3BP and E2, the E3-binding domain of human E3BP is highly specific to human E3, whereas the E1-binding domain of human E2 is highly specific to human E1. In this study, we characterized binding of human E3 to the E3-binding domain of E3BP by x-ray crystallography at 2.6-angstroms resolution, and we used this structural information to interpret the specificity for selective binding. Two subunits of E3 form a single recognition site for the E3-binding domain of E3BP through their hydrophobic interface. The hydrophobic residues Pro133, Pro154, and Ile157 in the E3-binding domain of E3BP insert themselves into the surface of both E3 polypeptide chains. Numerous ionic and hydrogen bonds between the residues of three interacting polypeptide chains adjacent to the central hydrophobic patch add to the stability of the subcomplex. The specificity of pairing for human E3BP with E3 is interpreted from its subcomplex structure to be most likely due to conformational rigidity of the binding fragment of the E3-binding domain of E3BP and its exquisite amino acid match with the E3 target interface.
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a plethora of effects on human tissues. In the UV spectrum, wavelengths above 320nm fall into the UVA‐range and for these it has been shown that they induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA mutations and are capable to induce melanoma in mice. In addition to this it was recently shown that UVA irradiation and UVA‐induced ROS also increase glucose metabolism of melanoma cells. UVA irradiation causes a persistent increase in glucose consumption, accompanied by increased glycolysis, increased lactic acid production and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway. Furthermore it was shown that the enhanced secretion of lactic acid is important for invasion of melanoma in‐vitro. The current knowledge of this link between UVA, metabolism and melanoma, possible mechanisms of UVA induced glucose metabolism and their starting points are discussed in this review with focus on ROS and UVA induced cellular stress signaling, DNA damage signaling and DNA repair systems. When looking at the benefits of UVA induced glucose metabolism it becomes apparent that there are more advantages of these metabolic changes than one would expect. Besides the role of lactic acid as initiator of protease expression and invasion its role for immune escape of melanoma cells and the pentose phosphate pathway derived Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as part of a ROS detoxification strategy are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Purpose: Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of UVA radiation and psoralens: 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) on melanoma cells viability. Materials and methods: The amelanotic C32 and melanotic COLO829 human melanoma cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of psoralens (0.1-100 μM) in the presence or absence of UVA radiation. Cell viability was evaluated by the WST-1 assay. Results: We demonstrated that 8-MOP, in contrast to 5-MOP, has no cytotoxic effect on both melanoma cell lines. Simultaneous exposure of cells to 8-MOP and UVA radiation caused significant cytotoxic response in C32 cells where the EC50 value was estimated to be 131.0 μM (UVA dose: 1.3 J/cm(2)) and 105.3 μM (UVA dose: 2.6 J/cm(2)). The cytotoxicity of 5-MOP on both C32 and COLO829 cells was significantly augmented by UVA radiation - the EC50 was estimated to be 22.7 or 7.9 μM (UVA dose: 1.3 J/cm(2)) and 24.2 or 7.0 μM (UVA dose: 2.6 J/cm(2)), respectively. Conclusions: The demonstrated high cytotoxic response after simultaneous exposure of melanoma cells to psoralens and UVA radiation in vitro suggests the usefulness of PUVA therapy to treat melanoma in vivo.
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The altered metabolism of tumor cells confers a selective advantage for survival and proliferation, and studies have shown that targeting such metabolic shifts may be a useful therapeutic strategy. We developed an intensely fluorescent, rapidly responsive, pH-resistant, genetically encoded sensor of wide dynamic range, denoted SoNar, for tracking cytosolic NAD(+) and NADH redox states in living cells and in vivo. SoNar responds to subtle perturbations of various pathways of energy metabolism in real time, and allowed high-throughput screening for new agents targeting tumor metabolism. Among > 5,500 unique compounds, we identified KP372-1 as a potent NQO1-mediated redox cycling agent that produced extreme oxidative stress, selectively induced cancer cell apoptosis, and effectively decreased tumor growth in vivo. This study demonstrates that genetically encoded sensor-based metabolic screening could serve as a valuable approach for drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Unlabelled: Photodamage is extrinsically induced by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and it increases the risk of various skin disorders. Therefore, discovery of novel biomarkers of photodamage is important. In this study, using LC-MS/MS analysis of epidermis from UVB-irradiated hairless mice, we identified 57 proteins whose levels changed after UVB exposure, and selected 7 proteins related to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through pathway analysis. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) was the only TCA cycle-associated protein that showed a decreased expression after the UVB exposure. We also performed targeted analysis to detect intermediates and products of the TCA cycle using GC-TOF-MS. Interestingly, malic acid and fumaric acid levels significantly decreased in the UVB-treated group. Our results demonstrate that DLD and its associated metabolites, malic acid and fumaric acid, may be candidate biomarkers of UVB-induced skin photoaging. Additionally, we showed that Aloe vera, a natural skin moisturizer, regulated DLD, malic acid and fumaric acid levels in UVB-exposed epidermis. Our strategy to integrate the proteome and targeted metabolite to detect novel UVB targets will lead to a better understanding of skin photoaging and photodamage. Our study also supports that A. vera exerts significant anti-photodamage activity via regulation of DLD, a novel UVB target, in the epidermis. Biological significance: This study is the first example of an integration of proteomic and metabolite analysis techniques to find new biomarker candidates for the regulation of the UVB-induced skin photoaging. DLD, malic acid, and fumaric acid can be used for development of cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals regulating the change of skin metabolism induced by the UVB overexposure. Moreover, this is also the first attempt to investigate the role of the TCA cycle in photodamaged epidermis. Our integration of the proteomic and targeted metabolite analyses will lead to a better understanding of the unidentified photobiological results from UVB-irradiated models and can elicit new diagnostic and treatment strategies based on altered metabolism.
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Background: Melanoma is a potentially curable cancer, but around 20% of patients will develop disease which is beyond surgical clearance. Rising incidence alongside breakthroughs in understanding the molecular biology of this disease identifying systemic therapies offering survival gains now demand a more proactive, integrated approach to melanoma management. Sources of data: PubMed references relating to aspects of melanoma research and treatment. Areas of agreement: Rapidly rising incidence throughout the world. Effective surgery as well as new molecular targeted systemic biological agents and immunotherapies necessitating early diagnosis and multidisciplinary therapeutic interventions. Areas of controversy: Role of screening and prevention. Benefit of interventions for locoregional melanoma, including role of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Integration and sequencing of treatments for unresectable melanoma. Growing points: Molecular determinants of melanoma influencing disease outcome and treatment decisions. Areas timely for developing research: Education and training of patient and healthcare professionals. Role of screening, surveillance and follow-up strategies. Biology of melanoma guiding treatment decisions.
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Under oxidative stress conditions, mitochondria are the major site for cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and H2O2 that can attack numerous mitochondrial proteins including dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH). While DLDH is known to be vulnerable to oxidative inactivation, the mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The present study was therefore designed to investigate the mechanisms of DLDH oxidative inactivation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria, isolated from rat brain, were incubated with mitochondrial respiratory substrates such as pyruvate/malate or succinate in the presence of electron transport chain inhibitors such as rotenone or antimycin A. This is followed by enzyme activity assay and gel-based proteomic analysis. The present study also examined whether ROS-induced DLDH oxidative inactivation could be reversed by reducing reagents such as DTT, cysteine, and glutathione. Results show that DLDH could only be inactivated by complex III- but not complex I-derived ROS; and the accompanying loss of activity due to the inactivation could be restored by cysteine and glutathione, indicating that DLDH oxidative inactivation by complex III-derived ROS was a reversible process. Further studies using catalase indicate that it was H2O2 instead of superoxide anion that was responsible for DLDH inactivation. Moreover, using sulfenic acid-specific labeling techniques in conjunction with two-dimensional Western blot analysis, we show that protein sulfenic acid formation (also known as sulfenation) was associated with the loss of DLDH enzymatic activity observed under our experimental conditions. Additionally, such oxidative modification was shown to be associated with preventing DLDH from further inactivation by the thiol-reactive reagent N-ethylmaleimide. Taken together, the present study provides insights into the mechanisms of DLDH oxidative inactivation by mitochondrial H2O2.
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The expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, encoded by the Met oncogene, is elevated in ovarian and a variety of cancers. Here we show that human ovarian cancer cells with high Met expression were more sensitive to the cell motility and invasion effect of HGF. Met down-regulation by small interfering RNAs or K252a resulted in reduced migration in response to HGF. The invasive/migratory phenotype activated by HGF can be blocked by specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) cascade, inhibitor of p70(S6K), and also the expression of a dominant-negative Akt, demonstrating that HGF transmits the motogenic signal through PI3K and Akt to p70(S6K). A significant role for p70(S6K) in cell invasion is further supported by the observation that expression of constitutively active forms of p70(S6K) is sufficient to induce invasive and migratory phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. Importantly, activation of p70(S6K) stimulated expression and proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and cellular invasion, whereas it had little effect on MMP-2, suggesting for the first time that MMP-9 up-regulation by p70(S6K) as a key step for HGF-induced invasion and migration. These data suggest that interfering p70(S6K) may provide a novel means of controlling tumor cell invasiveness.
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Since the 1940s, chemotherapy has been the treatment of choice for metastatic disease. Chemotherapeutic agents target proliferating cells, inducing cell death. For most of the history of chemotherapy, apoptosis was thought to be the only mechanism of drug-induced cell death. More recently, a second type of cell death pathway has emerged: autophagy, also called type II programmed cell death. Autophagy is a tightly regulated process by which selected components of a cell are degraded. It primarily functions as a cell survival adaptive mechanism during stress conditions. However, persistent stress can also promote extensive autophagy, leading to cell death, hence its name. Alterations in the autophagy pathway have been described in cancer cells that suggest a tumor-suppressive function in early tumorigenesis, but a tumor-promoting function in established tumors. Moreover, accumulating data indicate a role for autophagy in chemotherapy-induced cancer cell death. Here, we discuss some of the evidence showing autophagy-dependent cell death induced by anti-neoplastic agents in different cancer models. On the other hand, in some other examples, autophagy dampens treatment efficacy, hence providing a therapeutic target to enhance cancer cell killing. In this paper, we propose a putative mechanism that could reconcile these two opposite observations.
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a key modulator of trastuzumab sensitivity in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Because PTEN opposes the downstream signaling of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), we investigated the role of PTEN and other components of the PI3K pathway in trastuzumab resistance. We analyzed the status of PTEN, p-AKT-Ser473, and p-p70S6K-Thr389 using immunohistochemistry. PIK3CA mutation status was analyzed by direct sequencing. Primary tumor tissue was available from 137 patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer who had received trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. We observed that each of the four biomarkers alone did not significantly correlate with trastuzumab response, whereas PTEN loss alone significantly correlated with shorter survival times (P = 0.023). PI3K pathway activation, defined as PTEN loss and/or PIK3CA mutation, was associated with a poor response to trastuzumab (P = 0.047) and a shorter survival time (P = 0.015). PTEN loss was significantly associated with a poor response to trastuzumab (P = 0.028) and shorter survival time (P = 0.008) in patients who had received first-line trastuzumab and in patients with estrogen receptor- (P = 0.029) and progesterone receptor-negative tumors (P = 0.033). p-AKT-Ser473 and p-p70S6K-Thr389 each had a limited correlation with trastuzumab response. When these markers were combined with PTEN loss, an increased correlation with patient outcome was observed. In conclusion, PI3K pathway activation plays a pivotal role in trastuzumab resistance. Our findings may facilitate the evaluation of tumor response to trastuzumab-based and targeted therapies.
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To revise the staging system for cutaneous melanoma on the basis of data from an expanded American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging Database. The melanoma staging recommendations were made on the basis of a multivariate analysis of 30,946 patients with stages I, II, and III melanoma and 7,972 patients with stage IV melanoma to revise and clarify TNM classifications and stage grouping criteria. Findings and new definitions include the following: (1) in patients with localized melanoma, tumor thickness, mitotic rate (histologically defined as mitoses/mm(2)), and ulceration were the most dominant prognostic factors. (2) Mitotic rate replaces level of invasion as a primary criterion for defining T1b melanomas. (3) Among the 3,307 patients with regional metastases, components that defined the N category were the number of metastatic nodes, tumor burden, and ulceration of the primary melanoma. (4) For staging purposes, all patients with microscopic nodal metastases, regardless of extent of tumor burden, are classified as stage III. Micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry are specifically included. (5) On the basis of a multivariate analysis of patients with distant metastases, the two dominant components in defining the M category continue to be the site of distant metastases (nonvisceral v lung v all other visceral metastatic sites) and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level. Using an evidence-based approach, revisions to the AJCC melanoma staging system have been made that reflect our improved understanding of this disease. These revisions will be formally incorporated into the seventh edition (2009) of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual and implemented by early 2010.
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Radiation has long been a useful component of the treatment regimen for solid tumors. However, some malignancies are relatively resistant to radiation treatment while even tumors that may initially respond (to both radiation and chemotherapy) may eventually recover proliferative capacity. A variety of approaches have been utilized in the efforts to enhance radiation sensitivity. Recent studies have identified autophagy as a cell death pathway that may mediate the radiosensitizing effects of selected treatments. Studies in our laboratory support the premise that radiosensitization of breast tumor cells by vitamin D or vitamin D analogs is mediated through autophagy. In addition, promotion of autophagic cell death by a vitamin D analog in irradiated breast tumor cells delays and attenuates the proliferative recovery that may be a preclinical indicator of disease recurrence.
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To evaluate the activation level of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in Chinese patients with prostate cancer, as this pathway is over-activated in many human cancers and is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the activation level of five important markers of the mTOR pathway, including PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K and p-4E-BP1, in tissues from 182 patients with prostate cancer, 20 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10 with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). The expression levels of these five markers were associated with patient clinical and pathological characteristics. Expression levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K were significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues than in BPH and HGPIN tissues. In 182 patients with prostate cancer the p-mTOR expression level significantly and positively correlated with its upstream p-Akt and downstream p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K expression levels. The cancer Gleason score was significantly correlated with p-Akt and p-mTOR expression level but not with p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K expression level. However, the p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K expression levels in primary cancer lesions were statistically significantly correlated with patient T stage and distant metastases. Most patients with prostate cancer have at least one component of the mTOR signalling pathway activated. The activation of the mTOR pathway might be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. The association between activation of mTOR pathway and patient clinicopathological variables suggested that not all patients are equally amenable to treatment strategies targeting the mTOR pathway.
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Macroautophagy is a regulated bulk degradation process of cellular components, mainly long-lived proteins or cytoplasmic organelles. Nutrient depletion is a classic inducer of macroautophagy. In this report, we have induced heat-mediated macroautophagy in several cell lines in the absence of nutrient depletion. Heat treatment increased the autophagic markers LC3-I and LC3-II at the protein levels. Interestingly, expression of a constitutively active HSF1 mutant suppressed basal LC3-II protein level and heat-induced increase of LC3-II. Our results provide evidence that heat is a potent inducer of macroautophagy in mammalian cells, and implicate the negative role of active HSF1 in this process.
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L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (L-S,R-BSO) was enriched for the active L-buthionine-S-sulfoximine (L-S-BSO) diastereomer. Comparative analysis was performed to determine if this enriched form possessed an increased capacity to deplete glutathione (GSH), and to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cell lines and fresh human tumor samples. Increased activity was observed for the enriched preparation of L-S-BSO in direct proportion to its increased L-S-diastereomeric percentage. Significant antitumor activity towards melanoma, breast and ovarian carcinoma specimens was noted, with the greatest activity directed against malignant melanoma. The activity of BSO on melanoma specimens was found to be correlated with their melanin content, suggesting that free radicals generated during melanin synthesis may become cytotoxic after GSH-dependent scavenging has been eliminated by BSO treatment. The antimelanoma activity of melphalan and BCNU were found to be significantly enhanced in combination with L-S-BSO. With respect to the mechanism of L-S-BSO synergy with alkylators, L-S-BSO treatment of M14 and ZAZ human melanoma cell lines resulted in decreased GSH levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Western and Northern blot analyses indicated that GST-mu was the predominant isozyme downregulated after L-S-BSO treatment. Both M14 and ZAZ cell lines selected for resistance to L-S-BSO also showed decreased levels of GST-mu expression. However, in drug free media GST enzyme activity returned to pre-treatment levels without altering the BSO-resistance status of the cell lines. We conclude that L-S-BSO may be an active agent in the treatment of melanoma, and that it may enhance alkylator activity on melanoma through depletion of GSH and down-regulation of GST expression. Purified L-S-BSO should be explored clinically as an active agent for the treatment of melanoma.
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Retrospective epidemiological data have indicated that cutaneous malignant melanoma may arise as a consequence of intense, intermittent exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation, particularly in children, rather than from the cumulative lifetime exposure that is associated with other forms of skin cancer. Here we use a genetically engineered mouse model to show that a single dose of burning ultraviolet radiation to neonates, but not adults, is necessary and sufficient to induce tumours with high penetrance which are reminiscent of human melanoma. Our results provide experimental support for epidemiological evidence that childhood sunburn poses a significant risk of developing this potentially fatal disease.
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There are three major subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK): the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK MAPK); the c-jun N-terminal kinase or stress-activated protein kinases (JNK or SAPK); and MAPK14. The ERK MAPK pathway is one of the most important for cell proliferation. The MAPK pathways are located downstream of many growth-factor receptors, including that for epidermal growth factor. Overexpression and activation of this receptor are commonly detected in colorectal cancer, and several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression and activation of ERK MAPK play an important part in progression of this cancer. ERK MAPK could be a molecular target for treatment of the disorder. This review focuses on the ERK MAPK signal-transduction pathway, the consequences of its dysregulation in colorectal cancer, and its potential as an approach to cancer treatment. Future challenges for the assessment of these targeted agents in the clinic are also presented.