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Nutrient composition of Blaptica dubia (Order: Blattodea) as an alternative protein source



Blaptica dubia is a cockroach that used as feed for most reptiles and amphibians because of itnutritive value. Its alternative protein sources can replace the current high priced imported animalfeed such as fishmeal, soybeans and meat. It has potential as an animal feed and minimize highlivestock farming cost of the farmers. A study was conducted to determine the nutritionalcomposition (moisture, ash, crude protein, chitin and fat) of B. dubia in different growth stages.Moisture and ash determine using AOAC protocol, protein using Kjeldahl method, chitin usingchemical treatment and fat analysis using soxhlet extraction method. The proximate analysis ofadults and nymph of B. dubia contained 59.06-62.70% moisture, 2.47-4.17% ash, 47.50-54.32%crude protein, 3.83-5.58 % chitin and 35.49-44.22% fat on dry weight. Thus, the tested feed pelletscould be an alternative protein source as the animal feed especially in pet industry.
J. Trop. Resour. Sustain. Sci.
6 (2018)
: 88-92
eISSN Number: 2462-2389
© 2018
UMK Publisher. All rights reserved.
Nutrient composition of Blaptica dubia (Order: Blattodea) as an alternative protein
Lam Pei Yee1, Nurul Syaza Abdul Latif 1, Kumara Thevan1,*, Paspuleti Visweswara Rao2, Wan Zahari Wan
1Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Locked Bag No.100, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
2Institute of Food Security & Sustainable Agriculture, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia.
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Locked Bag No.36, 16100 Pengkalan Chepa, Kota Bharu, Kelantan,
Received 7 February 2018
Accepted 26 May 2018
Online 17 December 2018
Blaptica dubia, animal, feed,
protein, livestock
*Corresponding a
Dr. Kumara Thevan,
Faculty of Agro Based Industry,
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan,
Locked Bag No.100, 17600 Jeli,
Kelantan, Malaysia
Blaptica dubia is a cockroach that used as feed for most reptiles and amphibians because of it
nutritive value. Its alternative protein sources can replace the current high priced imported animal
feed such as fishmeal, soybeans and meat. It has potential as an animal feed and minimize high
livestock farming cost of the farmers. A study was conducted to determine the nutritional
composition (moisture, ash, crude protein, chitin and fat) of B. dubia in different growth stages.
Moisture and ash determine using AOAC protocol, protein using Kjeldahl method, chitin using
chemical treatment and fat analysis using soxhlet extraction method. The proximate analysis of
adults and nymph of B. dubia contained 59.06-62.70% moisture, 2.47-4.17% ash, 47.50-54.32%
crude protein, 3.83-5.58 % chitin and 35.49-44.22% fat on dry weight. Thus, the tested feed pellets
could be an alternative protein source as the animal feed especially in pet industry.
2018 UMK Publisher
. All
rights reserved.
In 2050, the world population is predicted to reach
9 billion people and minimum 70% risen of global
harvested yields are required to provide sufficient food
sources (Finley & Seiber, 2014). The increasing world
population bring up the issues of food insecurity due to the
production of food sources are unable to support for human
and livestock consumption. Sustainable food and feed
sources are needed to produce adequate food supply
continuously for the growing population. Insects will be a
newly alternative choice. Entomophagy which means
insects eating is becoming economic importance for feed
and food sources due to the nutritive components, low
costing and the fast reproduction rate of the insects
(Anankware et al., 2015).
Insects can be used as food because of its absolute
protein levels and protein quality (Yi et al., 2013). Insects
give a high food conversion efficiency when compared
with conventional livestock due to its shorter life cycle.
The production of protein sources from insects will cause
less environmental effects than the breeding of livestock,
which producing greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions.
Thus, the culturing of insects can be introduced as a
sustainable farming of protein production.
Dubia cockroach (Blaptica dubia) also known as
South-American Dubia cockroach and Orange-spotted
cockroach, is a large, sexually dimorphic blaberid
cockroach. The wings are fully developed in the males
adults but they have a poor development of arolium
between their claws which make them unable to climb on
smooth surfaces; neither nymph nor adult stages (Wu et al.,
2013). This species is reared as feed for most of the reptiles
and amphibians. Blaptica dubia consists of higher protein
content compared to other insect sources such as crickets
which are commonly used. Its rearing method is easy to be
maintained with minimum smell compared to other
cockroaches. Low-technique is required in rearing the
insects as they are easily feed on organic waste materials
and convert it into protein (van Huis et al., 2013).
Dubia cockroach can be a good alternative source
of protein with less environmental impact, short life cycle
and able to be reared in a huge production. Malaysia is a
tropical country which provides a suitable climate in term
of temperature and humidity for the breeding of Dubia
cockroach. However, far too little attention has been paid
to culture and convert its protein content into animal feed
in this country. In this scenario, our aim is to determine the
nutrient composition of B. dubia at adults and nymph
J. Trop. Resour. Sustain. Sci.
6 (2018)
: 88-92
eISSN Number: 2462-2389
© 2018
UMK Publisher. All rights reserved.
2.1. Rearing
Blaptica dubia colonies were reared at a mean
room temperature of 26.16 ± 2.5˚C with about 75.34 ±
6.98% of relative humidity. They were maintained in the
plastics box [35(h) x45(w) x60(l) cm]. The plastics boxes
were covered with netted lids (Ø 2mm) to provide air
circulation for the colony. The egg cardboards were
provided and stacked horizontally inside the plastics box to
act as shelter, hiding and breeding sides. The colonies were
supplied with kitchen waste and water sources in the
corners directly on the container floor.
2.2. Nutrition analysis
Blaptica dubia which are adult male, adult female
and nymph (Figure 1) were sampled and analysed for
moisture, ash, protein, chitin and fat content. The moisture
content was determined by drying 2g sample at 135°C for
two hours (AOAC, 2005b; Undersander, et al., 1993). The
ash content was determined by burning 5g sample in a
muffle furnace at 550°C for three hours (AOAC, 2005a).
Analysis of protein content was done using Kjeldahl
method (FOSS, 2003). Chitin extraction was using
chemical treatment method suggested by Majtán et al.
(2007). Soxhlet extraction method was used to analyse fat
content (Anderson, 2004). All of the analysis conducted for
five replicates.
Figure 1: Appearance of Blaptica dubia. (a) Female adult, (b)
Male adult, (c) Nymph
2.3. Statistical analysis
One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
used to measure the significance of the differences
between the nutrient contents in nymph and adult stages of
B. dubia. All statistical test was performed using SPSS
(IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22). For graphical
representation of nutritional value, a radar chart was
develop using Microsft Excel 2012.
Table 1 shows the proximate nutrient composition
of B. dubia for male, female and nymph that determined on
dry matter basis. Male had the higher moisture content of
62.70% while nymph had the lower moisture content
which is 59.06%. The study found that no significant
difference in the moisture content between male, female
and nymph (p-values >0.05).
The result in Table 1 show higher ash content
(4.17%) in male compared with female and nymph which
are 3.69% and 2.47%, respectively. However, significant
difference was found in between ash content of male,
female and nymph (F(2,12) = 3012.665, p = .000).
Male consist of the highest protein content which
was 54.32% follow by female (52.87%) and the least in
nymph which was 47.50% (Table 1 & Fig. 2). The protein
content in male showed significant difference compare
with female and nymph of B. dubia though(F(2,12) = 37.984,
p = .000). However, no significant difference was found in
between female and nymph (post hoc Tukey test, p =
Table 1: Proximate nutrient composition of Blaptica dubia in
male, female and nymph.
62.70 ±
4.17 ±
54.32 ±
4.38 ±
35.51 ±
61.46 ±
3.69 ±
52.87 ±
5.58 ±
35.49 ±
59.06 ±
2.47 ±
47.50 ±
3.83 ±
44.22 ±
Result represent the Mean ± SD of the five estimations.
*The percentage of Ash, Protein, Chitin and Fat are based on the dry
basis of the sample.
a b c represents the significant different (p<0.05) of respective
composition among the male, female and nymph.
Figure 2: Radar chart of nutritional value of B. dubia according
to the male, female and nymph.
The chitin content observed in female was 5.58%
which was higher than male (4.38%) and nymph (3.83%).
There are significant difference of chitin value among the
adults and nymph(F(2,12) = 14.961, p = .001). .
The nymph had high amount of fat (44.22%) than
male and female which were similar of 35%. Significant
difference was found in fat content between male to nymph
and female to nymph.
Insects are being used for its multiple purposes,
such as human food and animal feeds as an alternative
nutritional sources. Blaptica dubia is increasing popularity
among western countries to use as feeder insects for
J. Trop. Resour. Sustain. Sci.
6 (2018)
: 88-92
eISSN Number: 2462-2389
© 2018
UMK Publisher. All rights reserved.
reptiles and amphibians or even able to act as additive
value for broiler chicken feeds as stated by Bildan et al.
(2012). The nutritive value in cockroach can be act as
healthy food and feed materials, also the food safety
evaluation have confirmed that cockroach is not poisonous
to animals and human Feng et al. (2014).
The ranges of moisture content of B. dubia in this
study were similar with the moisture of Argentinean
cockroach (59.63%) and American cockroach (61.30%) as
stated by Young (2010). The moisture content found in the
study also match with the general moisture presented in
raw insects (55 to 85%) and low moisture content in whole
insects usually indicated high fat composition (Finke,
2008). Similarly, the nymph of B. dubia shown lower
moisture content when compare with adults but highest
value of crude fat. The moisture content found in other
insects are 3.63% in adult Holotrichia parallela (beetle)
(Yang et al., 2014) and 56.82% in Rhychophorus
phoenicus (weevil) (Amadi et al., 2014). Higher moisture
content may increase the microbial activities and caused
deterioration during storage (Siulapwa et al., 2014).
The lower of ash content in B. dubia was
indicated that there was lacking of minerals it contains
which lower than other insects like the larva of Cirina
forda (10.26 ± 0.01%) that considered minerals-rich insect
(Omotoso, 2006). Ash content of B. dubia in this study also
lower than the great minerals source of cricket
(Brachytrupes membranaceus) that consist of 6.4% (Paiko
et al., 2013).
Significant difference found in protein value
between B. dubia adults (male and female) and nymph
stage is due to the adult has high crude protein content
(54.32% and 52.87%) than the nymph (47.50%). Bigger
sized adults have form harden cuticle than the smaller
nymph stage which have a less nitrogenous soft cuticle.
The reason is the adult stages are covered with a nitrogen-
hydrogen bonded chitin layer that increase the N content in
the calculation of protein content (Pretorius, 2011), due to
the analysis method used (Kjeldahl method (FOSS, 2003)).
Besides, Mayer (2014) stated that adult insects of crickets,
houseflies, fruit flies, hissing cockroaches and Turkestan
cockroaches consist of higher protein content than the
juvenile cockroaches and nymph crickets. Mbah and
Elekima (2007) found that the Componotus sp. (carpenter
ants) could be used as feed in livestock supplement as it
consists of high crude protein (40.10%) whereby, B. dubia
probably is more suitable for the feed production due to a
higher protein content. Longvah et al., (2011) also
suggested that the protein content from defatted eri
silkworm (Samia ricinii) pupae was suitable to use as
animal nutrition in pet food or poultry industry.
When comparing to other protein sources
(Pretorius, 2011), the protein content of common housefly
(Musca domestica) larvae (60.38%), pupae meal (76.23%)
and fish meal (69.13) are higher than the B. dubia while
protein content in soya oil cake meal (49.44%) is slightly
lower. Blaptica dubia also has a higher protein content than
the long-horned grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) which
has a value of 37.1% for green coloured grasshopper and
35.3% for brown coloured grasshopper stated in Kinyuru
et al. (2011). Higher protein content are available in insects
when comparing to lean red meat sources of beef (23.2%),
veal (24.8%) and mutton (21.5%) (Kinyuru et al., 2011).
Although livestock by-products such as chicken offal
which consists of 65.8% crude protein are lower prices
than fish meals (Omole et al., 2008), this cheap protein
sources are lacking of essential biological values of amino
acids (Shariff & Mona, 2013). Therefore, B. dubia could
be used to replace the meat protein sources as it is easy to
maintain in the small area of farm because rearing of this
insects are inside the storage boxes that can be piled one
above another.
The result shown in Table 1 and Figure 2 was
against with Oonincx and Dierenfeld (2012) stated that
higher protein and lower fat content in nymph stage of
development as nymph had the least protein and highest fat
percentages when compared with the adult stage of the
same species. However, the protein content in male, female
and nymph of B. dubia still remain in the ranges of
cockroach species which was 38% to 76% dry matter that
stated in the literature (Oonincx & Dierenfeld, 2012).
Higher chitin contents were found in adults of B.
dubia than the nymph (3.83 ± 0.36%) but the female (5.58
± 0.23%) was higher than male (4.38 ± 0.79%) in this
study. However, the larval and pupal cuticles of the
tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) consist of higher
(14% and 25%) chitin content than the adult cuticles (7%)
(Kramer & Muthukrishnan, 2009). Lower chitin also was
found in B. dubia when compared with adult Holotrichia
parallela which was 10.47 ± 0.53% (Yang et al., 2014)
and 9.1% crude chitin from housefly larvae (Zhang et al.,
2011). Although high yield of chitin can get from
crustacean shells such as crab (13 to 26%), shrimp (14 to
42%) and krill (34 to 49%), the chitin extraction process
from them is expensive (Tajik et al., 2008; Zhang et al.,
2011). Thus, the chitin value available in insects can be
another alternative source for extraction.
The fats available in diets play important roles to
enhance the palatability of food, function of the cells and
transportation of the vitamins (Omotoso, 2006). The crude
fat content in nymph of the B. dubia was quite high, 44.22
± 1.05%, when compared with the adults. Higher crude fat
content also found in B. dubia when compared with
Argentinean cockroach (34.88%) and American cockroach
(28.4%) (Young, 2010). The nymph of B. dubia was
similar to six-spotted cockroach nymph (Eublaberus
distanti) in the past study of Oonincx and Dierenfeld
(2012) which had more fat value and less protein content
that could provide higher calorie as animal feed. Mayer
(2014) also stated that the juvenile stage of beetles and
J. Trop. Resour. Sustain. Sci.
6 (2018)
: 88-92
eISSN Number: 2462-2389
© 2018
UMK Publisher. All rights reserved.
cockroaches have higher fat value than the adult stage.
Since the nymphs are younger than adults, the higher fat
content in the nymph could be used as cheaper animal fat
and oil-based products from insects (Mbah & Elekima,
2007). However, the result in this study shown is
diversed from Yi et al. (2013) which stated that B. dubia
consist of 67.4 ± 2.1% moisture content, 19.3 ± 0.9% crude
protein and 7.7 ± 0.1% fat content. This might due to
different stages of B. dubia, segment of the insects’ body,
feeding materials and growing environment of the insect
will affect the composition of the analysis.
Digestibility is important to determine the
utilization of protein which provide the actual amount of
nutrients consumed and absorbed by the animals as poor
quality of protein and diets will give low digestibility
(Badina, 2012). Low quality of protein will cause poor
absorption in the animal and may influence health of the
animals (Shariff & Mona, 2013). According to Oonincx
and Dierenfeld (2012), the nutritional content that
available in insects are able to achieve the domestic
carnivores feeding requirements. However, the
invertebrate cuticle or exoskeleton of various insect consist
certain amount of chitin that can decrease the digestibility
of the whole insect diet (Arbuckle, 2009).
Generally, 80% or higher protein digestibility was
found in pet foods which will closely meet the amino acid
and protein quality required by the animals (Buffington,
1991). The apparent digestibility of B. dubia feed pellets
was consider high that having an average of 81.57%.
However, it was similar to the apparent crude protein
digestibility of high-protein extruded (81.6%) in cats but
lower than the raw beef-based and cooked beef-based diet
which were 93.3% and 92.9% Kerr et al. (2012). Schiavone
et al. (2014) suggested that Hermetia illucens and Tenebrio
molitor meals are suitable to use in feed for broiler chicken
as alternative protein source due to their significant values
of apparent digestibility of crude protein (69.1% and
66.1%). Finke (2008) indicated rats, chickens and fish
which were fed with insects, such as flies, crickets and
mealworms have been found to grow healthily due to the
good palatability and absent of anti-nutritional factor.
There is limited reports on the essential
requirement of amino acids, fatty acids and its composition
in the insects that could be use as feed (Oonincx &
Dierenfeld, 2012). Further research to be conducted to
identify the specific nutrients elements in B. dubia as the
additive value or alternative protein source that suitable for
animal consumption.
Dubia cockroaches were found to have higher
protein content when compared with other feeding sources.
This enables to support the growing demand of protein
sources for animal feed requirement. Insect farming has the
advantages of low costing and fast reproduction rate if
compared to animal livestock farming. Blaptica dubia also
easy to maintain than the shorter lifespan crickets rearing
that will make noise, smell and escape from the rearing
colonies easily. In fact, the manufacture of animal feed
from by-products of the livestock such as internal organs
and bones which consist of less amount of nutrients that
might not sufficient to support the diet of the rearing
animals. Besides, the halal issues on the animal feed also
being questionnaire on the sources of the raw materials.
Thus, it could be an alternative way to get another protein
sources to replace the livestock meat or by-products in
animal feed. Insects have been becoming more and more
economic important in other countries as they are more
profitable compared with imported feed or raw materials
that built up higher cost of production.
We would like to thank Mr. Muhamad Faiz from
Faculty Veterinary Medicine Universiti Malaysia Kelantan
and Mr. Lee Yik Bing for their assistance throughout the
study period. We were grateful to Dr. Mohammad Mijanur
Rahman for his suggestions to further improve the
manuscript. We thank Ministry of Education of Malaysia
for financial support provided under grant
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... Insects are highly suitable as feed due to their high nutritional values and since they are naturally a part of some livestock diet [1]. Insects are used for multiple purposes such as human food (entomophagy) [2,3], animal feeds [4] and as well as alternative sources such as medicinal (entomotherapy) [5,6]. Cockroach specie Periplaneta americana commonly known as the American cockroach is considered the edible amongst most cockroach species especially in countries like China where they are bred in captivity, sold and supplied to farmers who use them as feed for livestock and to the general public who eat them as food or for medicinal purposes or simply as tonic [4,[7][8][9]. ...
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Aim: To ascertain scientifically by proximate analysis, the nutrient composition and mineral contents of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. Study Design: Completely randomized sample design (CRD) was engaged in the study with 15 parameters replicated five (5) times, totaling seventy five experimental samples. The whole experiments were repeated in three trials. Place and Duration of Study: Postgraduate laboratory, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria between September 2019 and February 2020. Methodology: The nutrient composition and mineral profile of the cockroaches were ascertained using randomly selected cockroach sample while adopting standard procedures of AOAC, (1990, 2005).Statistical analysis and significant difference tested at alpha level p≤ 0.05 was done using Turkey HSD test for difference between mean while results were presented in tables. The software used was SPSS version 20. Results: The results for proximate analysis of nutrients found in P. americana are given as follows: moisture content: 12.42±1.6%, Crude ash: 3.52±0.8%, crude protein: 8.72±1.3%, crude fat: 17.64±1.9%, fibre: 21.28±2.1%, Carbohydrate (dry method): 87.56±4.2% and Carbohydrate (free nitrogen extract): 48.76±3.1%. Furthermore, P. americana was proven rich in both micro and macro minerals in very high to low concentrations such as:calcium (468.00±9.7mg/100g), magnesium (362.00±8.5mg/100g), iron (274.60±7.4mg/100g), potassium (242.5±7.0 mg/100g), phosphorus (128.76±5.1mg/100g), sodium (110.68±4.7mg/100g), manganese (12.63±1.6mg/ 100g), copper (7.54±1.2mg/100g) and zinc (4.74±1.0mg/100g). All results were calculated as mean percentages of five experimental evaluations. Conclusion: Cockroaches are omnivores and feed on rotten vegetables, waste products from industries such as brewer’s yeast, leftover bread, brewer’s spent grains and several other food materials, hence they are very well efficient at turning plant based feed into animal protein. This makes them efficient projectors for addressing the problem of shortage of animal proteins thereby fulfilling the food security goal of sustainable development.
Due to the increasing demand for agricultural products accompanied by the declining availability of agricultural land, insects have therefore provided a very promising alternative source to replace the conventional food crops and animal-based food in near future. Studies clearly demonstrated that insects have high nutritional values with a large quantity of high-quality proteins and fats, making up to 80% dry weight of insect. Besides, insects are also rich in minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds including tocol and sterol compounds. Recently, insect-based lipid has received tremendous attention owing to its high level of unsaturated fatty acids particularly linoleic and linolenic acid. Diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acid tend to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and other related complications. Besides, insect-based lipid may contain a considerable amount of antioxidative compounds such as α-, β-, γ-, σ- tocopherol or tocotrienol, carotenoid and other lipid-soluble antioxidants. In addition, the physicochemical properties (iodine value, melting and crystallization properties, etc) of the insect-based lipids are comparable to vegetable oils and animal fats. These characteristics indicate the potential application of this fat system in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry.KeywordsInsect lipidMealwormBlack soldier flySilkwormCricketMelon bugSorghum bugDubia cockroachLocustGrasshopper
Alınan tedbirlere rağmen hızla artan dünya nüfusu, endüstri ve insan kaynaklı çevre kirliliği ve küresel ısınma, tarım arazileri ve temiz su kaynaklarını azaltmakta ve yeterli gıda dolayısıyla da protein üretimini zorlaştırmaktadır. Proteinler, beslenme için gerekli ve büyük bölümü bitkisel veya hayvansal kaynaklardan karşılanan, vücutta hayati öneme sahip besin ögeleridir. Dünya nüfusunun 2050 yılına kadar 9 milyara ve mevcut gıda ihtiyacının da iki katına çıkması beklenmektedir. Paralelinde 2050 yılında proteinlerin ana kaynaklarından olan et tüketiminin de ortalama 49 kg/kişi olması beklenmekte ve mevcut üretimle kıyaslandığında bunun %40 oranında bir artışa karşılık geldiği hesaplanmaktadır. Elverişsiz hale gelen tarım arazileri ve kirletilen temiz su kaynakları; büyükbaş, küçükbaş ve kümes hayvanlarının beslenmesini, dolayısı ile de yeterli miktarda hayvansal gıda üretimini gün geçtikçe zorlaştırmaktadır. Ayrıca, büyükbaş hayvanların neden olduğu karbondioksit ve metan gazı salınımının küresel ısınmayı tetiklediği gerçeği, akademik ve endüstri çevrelerini alternatif protein kaynakları bulmaya yönlendirmiştir. Yapay et, mikrobiyal ve böcek proteinleri, et ve et ürünlerinden karşılanan proteinlere alternatif olabilme potansiyeli ile gıda sektörünün ilgi alanına girmiştir. Örneğin, böcek tüketimi, entomofaji, bazı Asya, Afrika ve Güney Amerika ülkelerinde 2000 kadar farklı böcekle gerçekleştirilen geleneksel bir beslenme yöntemidir. Tüketilen böceklerin çoğunu da kın kanatlılar, kelebek ve tırtıllar, cırcır böceği, çekirge, arı, karınca vb. haşerat oluşturmaktadır. FAO tarafından besin kıtlığına çare olarak gösterilen çiftlikte böcek üretimi ve tüketiminin en büyük dezavantajı, iğrenme veya tiksinti kaynaklı nedenlerle bunların kabul edilebilirliklerinin düşük olmasıdır. Ayrıca, böcek proteinlerinin tüketimi ile ortaya çıkan başta alerji olmak üzere biyolojik ve kimyasal kaynaklı pek çok sağlık sorunu da bulunmaktadır. Bazı istisnaları olmakla birlikte genel olarak insanlar sağlık, dini ve etik kaygılarla böcek tüketimine karşı mesafeli durmaktadırlar. Bu makalede, böcek tüketiminin tarihsel gelişimi ve mevcut durumu ile böceklerin çiftlikte üretimi, işlenmesi, elde edilen proteinlerin insan sağlığı ve beslenmesine etkileri yanında sürecin, teknik ve sosyokültürel boyutlarına işaret edilmiştir.
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Background and Objectives: Insects have played an important part in the history of human nutrition in Africa. The main objective of this research was to assess the nutritional value of four commonly edible insects in Zambia. The insects studied include the caterpillars (Gonimbrasia belina and Gynanisa maja), grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) and winged termites (Macrotermes falciger). Materials and Methods: The proximate composition and minerals of the insects were determined using standard methods. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used in analysing the data. Results: The moisture content of the insects ranged from 4.1% ±0.3 to 9.2%±0.1. The highest amount of crude fat was found in Ruspolia differens with fat content of 49.0 % ±0.1 and the least amount was found in Gonimbrasia belina which had a mean fat content of 10.0 % ± 0.2. The difference in fat content among the insects was statistically significant with P<0.05. The highest amount of crude protein was found in Gonimbrasia belina with the protein content of 56.95 % ±0.03.There was no significance difference in protein content between the caterpillars, Gonimbrasia belina and Gynanisa maja P>0.05. However there was a significant difference in protein content between Gonimbrasia belina and the other two insects namely Ruspolia differens and Macrotermes falciger with the P-value <0.05. The insect richer in carbohydrates (32.8 %±0.7) was Macrotermes falciger, while the insect with a least value was Gonimbrasia belina with carbohydrate content of 7.8 % ±0.5. The highest amount of energy of 810.2 kcal/100g was recorded in Macrotermes falciger. The predominant amino acid was glutamic acid (4.35 ± 0.05-8.43 ± 0.16g/100g) while the least amino acid was cystein (0.11±0.02-0.13±0.05g/100g). Lysine was the most predominant essential amino acid in Gynanisa maja (4.02g/100g), Ruspolia differens (5.74g/100g) and Macrotermes falciger (3.72g/100g), while arginine was the most predominant in Gonimbrasia belina (4.57g/100g). The nutritional content of the insects was generally higher than that found in common meats such as beef and chicken meat and insects were generally cheaper than the common meats. Conclusions: The findings suggest that edible insects have the potential for exploitation to combat nutritional deficiencies that are of public health concern. The insects could form a base for new food products of considerable nutritive value.
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Instar determination is fundamental to both basic entomological research and its application. The cockroach, Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae), is a popular pet and an excellent feeder insect for many reptiles and amphibians. A new method using Gaussian mixture models to determine the number of instars in this species is developed. Application of the method is illustrated by analysis of data collected on B. dubia. The analysis indicates that there are seven instars in B. dubia and that the growth ratio follows the Brooks-Dyar rule. The growth ratio of pronotal length, pronotal width, and head width are 1.26, 1.24, and 1.19, respectively. Because B. dubia shares a similar growth pattern with other paurometabolous insects, this method may be applicable to other species as well.
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This research reviews the contribution of insects to man in his zeal to improve and widen his sources of food, feed and nutrition. It critically looks at major edible insects and how flies and other insects can contribute to the growing demand for cheap protein in the food and feed industry. Priority is also given to nutrition and some rearing models that have been developed and how these can be improved to domesticate these insects into mini-livestock.
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The longhorn grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) forms a major part of the food culture of communities in the Lake Victoria Region of East Africa. The aim of this research was therefore to assess the nutritional potential of this insect to the human diet in the region in combating nutritional deficiencies that are of public health concern. The green and brown coloured grasshoppers were studied. They were found to contain a protein content of 37.1% and 35.3%, fat content of 48.2% and 46.2%, ash content of 2.8% and 2.6%, a fibre content of 3.9% and 4.9% for the green and brown grasshoppers respectively. Among the macro minerals, potassium (K) was the most abundant with a value of 370.6 mg/100g and 259.7 mg/100g, phosphorus (P) 140.9 mg/100g and 121.0 mg/100g while calcium (Ca) levels showed overall means of 27.4 mg/100g and 24.5 mg/100g in the green and brown grasshopper respectively. Iron (Fe) was the most abundant among the trace minerals with a value of 16.6 mg/100g and 13.0 mg/100g while zinc showed a mean value of 17.3 mg/100g and 12.4 mg/100g in the green and brown grasshopper respectively. The insects showed a retinol concentration of 2.1 μg/g and 2.8 μg/g, α-tocopherol 201.0 μg/g and 152.0 μg/g, riboflavin 1.2 mg/100g and 1.4 mg/100g, 2.1 mg/100g and 2.4 mg/100g of niacin for the green and brown grasshopper respectively. Lipid analysis revealed that the insects' oil comprised of high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 89.4% and 84.3% neutral lipids, 7.4% and 9.3% phospholipids, 3.2% and 6.4% glycolipids for green and brown grasshopper respectively. These values suggest that Ruspolia differens has potential for exploitation to combat nutritional deficiencies that are of public health concerns. The insect could form a base for new food products of considerable nutritive value.
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The adult edible beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) represents a traditional food source in China. Based on nutritional analyses, adult H. parallela is high in protein (70%) and minerals and low in fat. H. parallela contained approximately 10% chitin; the corrected protein content was 66%. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids. Of the total amino acids in H. parallela, 47.4% were essential amino acids. The amino acid scores were 87 and 100, based on the corrected crude and net protein contents, respectively; threonine was the limiting amino acid. In vitro protein digestibility was 78%, and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score was 89 based on the net protein content. Adult H. parallela may be a potential source of proteins and minerals for humans and animals.
Raw ingredients commonly used in the cat food manufacturing are derived fromvarious sources such as meat, meat by products, fish, poultry, vegetables, vegetables byproducts, cereals, fruits, and bones. Meat meal and meat bone meal are unpopular rawingredients since they are manufactured from carcasses and offal of cows, pigs, goats andsheep and may even contain deleterious and unhealthy ingredients. There is the possibility ofthe occurrence of ingredients containing non halal components. There are several types of catfood in the market which are graded based on their ingredients and nutritive values especiallythe protein content. The biological values of the popular protein sources used in cat foodmanufacturing were highlighted. The importance of carbohydrate content, which is mostlynot available on the packaging pack is emphasized and the method of calculation shown.
Terrestrial insects belonging to 8 species groups were collected from 5 sites in A.B.U. main campus and analysed for nutritional constituents using standard biochemical methods. The highest level of crude protein was found in Catarrtopsilus taeniolatus (40.57%) and the lowest in Microtermes sp (24.85%). Crude protein and lipid contents varied significantly (P<0.05) between the species groups. Differences between the crude protein content of Zonocerus variegates specimens was not significant (P>0.05) and decreased in the order nymph> winged adult> de-winged adult. Carbohydrate (LSD(0.05) =1.09) and crude fibre (LSD(0.05) = 0.79) also varied significantly between the groups. The ash content ofMicrotermes sp was about 4 times higher than the level in any other species group. The significance of these nutrients and their role as suitable substitutes and supplements in human and livestock diets are discussed.
The Earth's population is expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, posing significant challenges in meeting human needs while minimally impacting the environment. To support this population we will need secure and safe sources of food, energy, and water. The nexus of food, energy and water is one of the most complex, yet critical issues that face society. There is no more land to exploit and the supply of fresh water in some areas of the world limits the use of land for food. All solutions must also deal with the overlay of global climate change. Meeting current and future populations needs will require security in food, energy, and, water supplies. A nexus approach is needed to improve food, energy, and water security integrating the management of the limited resources while transitioning to a more 'green' economy which provides adequate food, energy and water for the expanding human population.