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The price premium of heritage in the housing market: evidence from Auckland, New Zealand

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Abstract

Heritage places are one of many urban features that shape the form and identity of a city. Local government regulations protect and conserve heritage but in so doing also generate restrictions or opportunity costs for homebuyers and developers. In this paper, we take Auckland, New Zealand, as case study and estimate price effects of two different forms of local government heritage protection: scheduled heritage places and Special Character Areas. We find a statistically significant price penalty of around -9.6% for houses protected for heritage values, between years 2006-2016. Yet, we also identify an external and local price premium, related to the number of heritage places around a house. This local density effect is approximately 1.7% for an additional heritage place in a radius of 50 meters around the house, and decreases as the radius under analysis expands. We also find a price premium for a house located in Special Character Areas, for which the effect is positive and reaches 4.3%. Reported effects are robust to several specifications but are highly dependent on time dynamics.

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Although interest in sensory atmospheres and urban ambiences has been growing in urban studies, little is known about the economics of such ambiences. In architecture research, urban atmospheres or ambiences have been studied qualitatively through surveys and interviews. So far, the value of ambience has been focused and quantified only for heritage buildings. However, non-heritage buildings and open spaces also shape urban ambiences, either positively or negatively. This paper seeks to empirically disentangle cohort ambience effects on house prices based on the proportion of various house cohorts to the total number of houses within either a 0.5 km or a 1.0 km radial circle. Based on more than 56,000 housing transactions from 2010 to 2019 in Auckland, New Zealand, the results confirm that houses in a neighbourhood with historic ambience have a premium of more than 20%, ceteris paribus. This finding opens up a new research agenda on the economics of architectural aesthetics and suggests that there should be further studies of the price effects of various types of urban ambiences. The results may also have important implications for architects, urban planners and government officials conducting cost-benefit analyses.
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This article analyzes the impact of designated landmarks on condominium transaction prices in Berlin, Germany. We test for price differentials between listed and nonlisted properties and study their impact on surrounding property prices. The proximity to built heritage is captured by the distance to listed houses and heritage potentiality indicators. Impact is assessed by applying a hedonic model to microlevel data, and this process also addresses spatial dependency. While our findings suggest that designated landmarks do not sell at a premium or discount, landmarks are found to have positive external effects on surrounding property prices within a distance of approximately 600 m. Copyright (c) 2010 American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association.
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This paper presents spatially explicit analyses of the greenspace contribution to residential property values in a hedonic model. The paper utilizes data from the housing market near downtown Los Angeles. We first used a standard hedonic model to estimate greenspace effects. Because the residuals were spatially autocorrelated, we implemented a spatial lag model as indicated by specification tests. Our results show that neighborhood greenspace at the immediate vicinity of houses has a significant impact on house prices even after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. The different estimation results from non-spatial and spatial models provide useful bounds for the greenspace effect. Greening of inner city areas may provide a valuable policy instrument for elevating depressed housing markets in those areas. KeywordsHousing value-Urban greenspace-Hedonic pricing model-Spatial dependence
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We first estimate the relationship between house prices and environmental disamenities using spatial statistics, confirming that nearby point-source pollutants depress house price. We then calculate implicit prices of environmental quality and related characteristics from the house price hedonics to estimate a demand curve for environmental quality, finding a price elasticity of demand of −0.12. We find evidence of significant spatial effects in both the hedonic and demand estimations. We find that environmental quality and school quality are purchased together (η=−0.80), environmental quality and house size are substitutes (η=0.91), and environmental quality and lot size are not related goods.
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This paper presents an amenity-based theory of location by income. The theory shows that the relative location of different income groups depends on the spatial pattern of amenities in a city. When the center has a strong amenity advantage over the suburbs, the rich are likely to live at central locations. When the center's amenity advantage is weak or negative, the rich are likely to live in the suburbs. The virtue of the theory is that it ties location by income to a city's idiosyncratic characteristics. It thus predicts a multiplicity of location patterns across cities, consistent with real-world observation.
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This paper presents a simple model of trade in the housing market. The crucial feature is that a minimum down payment is required for the purchase of a new home. The model has direct implications for the volatility of house prices, as well as for the correlation between prices and trading volume. The model can also be extended to address the correlation between prices and time-to-sale, as well as certain aspects of the cyclical behavior of housing starts.
The significant price-trading volume correlation found in the residential property market presents a challenge to the rational expectation hypothesis. Existing theories account for this fact with either capital market imperfection (down-payment effect or loss-aversion consideration) or imperfect information (search theoretic models). This paper employs data from a commercial real estate market, which face a different degree of severity of capital market constraint than the residential market, and thus provide an indirect but effective test for alternative theories. Policy implications are also discussed. Copyright Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005
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We analyze appreciation rates across comparable designated and undesignated neighborhoods in Memphis, Tennessee. Using appreciation rates potentially nullifies the objection to using assessed values in such an analysis while also mitigating some of the bias inherent in the differences between otherwise similar designated and undesignated neighborhoods. Nonetheless, in accord with the previous studies, after controlling for numerous housing characteristics, we find that properties in neighborhoods designated historical by the Memphis Landmarks Commission had appreciation rates above those in other similar neighborhoods. We also find that new properties benefit as much, perhaps even more, than older properties from being in a historic district. Copyright 2005 by the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association
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We investigate the salary returns to the ability to play football with both feet. The majority of footballers are predominantly right footed. Using two data sets, a cross-section of footballers in the five main European leagues and a panel of players in the German Bundesliga, we find robust evidence of a substantial salary premium for two-footed ability, even after controlling for available player performance measures. We assess how this premium varies across the salary distribution and by player position.
Robust inference with multiway clustering
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