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Review on Health Benefits of Camel Urine: Therapeutics Effects and Potential Impact on Public Health Around East Hararghe District

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Abstract

Camel is one of the important livestock species which plays a major role in the pastoral mode of life by fulfilling basic demands of livelihood. Traditionally, camel urine has been used in the treatment of human diseases. With regard to the health benefits of drinking the urine of camels, it has been proven by modern scientific researches. Camel urine has an unusual and unique biochemical composition that contributes to medicinal values. The chemical composition of camel urine showed the presence of purine bases, hypoxanthine, sodium, potassium, creatinine, urea, uric acid, and phosphates. The nano-particles in the camel’s urine can be used to fight cancer. Camel urine has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Its chemical and organic constituents have also inhibitory properties against fungal growth, human platelets, and parasitic diseases mainly fasciollosis in calves. The healthy status of the liver can be restored through ingestion of diet and minerals in camel urine. Camel urine is used by the camel owners and Bedouins as medicine in different ways. The Bedouin in the Arab desert used to mix camel urine with milk. Recently; the WHO has warned against drinking camel urine due to the modern attempt to limit Outbreaks of Respiratory Syndrome (MRS) in the Middle East. There is no scientific dosage for camel urine to be applied as medicine for different diseases and the ways of camel urine formulation and utilization for the care of patients varies from country to country. Therefore, the purposes of the present review describe the biochemical composition of camel urine will be scientifically extracted and formulated as a therapy rather than drinking raw urine and people’s health impact.

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... Camel urine is a good anticlastogenic agent that has shown good application as potent target for the drugs [83]. The utilization of camel urine as anticancer, antiplatelet, hepatoprotective and gastroprotective agents has been reported [82,84]. Its anticancer properties could be linked to its toxicity against HeLa cells, osteosarcoma and leukemic cells of human. ...
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The PFA-100 (platelet function analyser) is a relatively new tool for the investigation of primary haemostasis. Recent studies have shown its utility in monitoring antiplatelet therapy (including aspirin) and as a screening tool for investigating possible von Willebrand disease (vWD) and various platelet disorders. More recently, the PFA-100 has been shown to be of value in monitoring DDAVP therapy in both vWD and platelet disorders. This paper reviews current findings, details the utility of the PFA-100 for some of these purposes, as well as reviewing analytical variables that may complicate the interpretation of results. The author highlights the benefits, as well as noting the limitations, of its use. Ultimately, the greatest strengths of the PFA-100 are its simplicity in use and excellent sensitivity to particular haemostatic disturbances such as vWD, platelet disorders and platelet-affecting medication. However, because it is thus a 'global' test system, this also creates a significant limitation, as the PFA-100 is not specific for, nor predictive of, any particular disorder. However, utilized appropriately, the PFA-100 can be considered a worthwhile addition to any haemostasis laboratory involved in the diagnosis or therapeutic-monitoring of bleeding disorders including vWD and platelet-dysfunctions. This review should be of value to both haemostasis scientists and clinical specialists.
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Platelet recruitment crucially depends on amplification systems provided by autocrine and paracrine factors such as adenosine diphosphate. In inflammatory states, consumption of coagulation proteins, such as antithrombin aggravates the procoagulant state. In this study, we report that platelets express syndecan-4, an antithrombin-binding cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan, whose ligation with antithrombin inhibits activated platelet-dependent superoxide anion release from neutrophils by the limitation of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate secretion in activated platelets. Adenosine triphosphate-induced platelet aggregation is reduced after treatment of platelets with antithrombin, which is reversed by blockade of syndecan-4. We further observed that antithrombin limits CD40 ligand expression in adenosine diphosphate-activated platelets and inhibits the shedding of syndecan-4 from activated platelets. Syndecan-4 appears to be directly involved in regulating platelet aggregation as anti-syndecan-4 antibody augments platelet aggregation. We suggest that antithrombin might exert beneficial effects in disseminated intravascular coagulation by reducing platelet activation, observed as inhibited CD40 ligand expression, syndecan-4 shedding, and adenosine diphosphate- and adenosine triphosphate-release from activated platelets with subsequent inhibition of neutrophil respiratory burst. From these data it is concluded that syndecan-4 may play important roles in the regulation of inflammatory effects of platelets.
Article
Studies in many carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines demonstrated that azole antifungal drugs are therapeutically effective against different types of cancer. Yet, the molecular mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the ability of three structurally different antifungal drugs, ketoconazole (KTZ), itraconazole (ITZ), and fluconazole (FLZ) to induce the expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1), an enzyme known to play an important role in xenobiotic and carcinogen detoxifications. We showed that KTZ and ITZ, but not FLZ, induced Nqo1 mRNA and enzymatic activity levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in wild-type but not aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-deficient Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Furthermore, KTZ and ITZ increased Nqo1 de novo RNA synthesis without significantly affecting the levels of existing RNA, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. This study provides the first evidence for the ability of KTZ and ITZ to induce the Nqo1 gene expression through an AhR-dependent mechanism.
Article
To evaluate the mycobiota and natural levels of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone present in compound feed and home-corn grains intended for fattening pigs. Total fungi, Fusarium and Aspergillus species occurrence were examined. Aflatoxins and zearalenone were detected by thin-layer chromatography and fumonisins by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Fungal counts were generally higher than 1 x 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1). Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides were the most prevalent species. FB(1) and FB(2) were detected in all feed and corn samples. Aflatoxin B(1) was detected in 33.33% of initial and growing feed and in 44.44% of final feed samples. It was not detected in corn samples. All feed and corn samples were negative for AFB(2), AFG(1), AFG(2) and ZEA presence during all growing stages tested. Fungal counts at all growing periods exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits. Aflatoxin levels in all feeds and fumonisin levels in many samples were higher than the established regulations. The presence of mycotoxins indicates the existence of contamination. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxicosis in animal production, to reduce the economic losses and to minimize hazards to human health.
Article
Camels and many other desert animals are uniquely adapted to conserve water and other fluids in order to survive intense heat for long periods. Earlier studies have suggested that human platelets may be the trigger for the coagulopathy involved in heat prostration and stroke. The present study has compared the resistance of camel and human platelets to heat in order to see if they might help to protect camels from the effects of high body temperature for prolonged periods. The findings demonstrate that camel platelets are significantly less sensitive to heat than human platelets. Temperatures (43 degrees C-45 degrees C) that cause human cells to undergo marked structural alterations and lose their ability to spread and aggregate have no effect on camel platelets. Even higher temperatures (50 degrees C) that destroy human platelets have minor effects on camel cells and do not seriously compromise their function. Temperatures of 55 degrees C do destroy camel platelets and their functional capability. The resistance of camel platelets to heat may help protect camels from the effects of extreme body temperature and dehydration, which are everyday conditions in the desert.
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Abdullah, H. and Wisal, G. (2002). Antibacterial and antifungal effect of camel urine. Microbiology Veterinary Science. The-sis, faculty of veterinary medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
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Bakhsh, A., EL-Deeb, A. and Al-Judaibi, A. (2012). Camel Urine and Milk in the Arab Heritage (Folk Medicine): A Review on Camels in Asia and North Africa; Interdisciplinary perspectives on their significance in past and present. The Austrian Academy of Sciences for publication: Pp.187-192.
Scientific and therapeutic advances in antiplatelet therapy
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Bhatt, D. and Topol, E. (2003). Scientific and therapeutic advances in antiplatelet therapy. Natural Revolution of Drug Discov., 2:15-28.
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Achievements of research in the field of camelids
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Urine Therapy (drinking urine)
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Natalie, B. (2002). Urine Therapy (drinking urine). Journal of Berkeley medicine, Sudan.
Biochenical and heamatological changes after female camel urotherapy
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Salwa, M. K, Elhassan, A. M. and Majid A. A. (2006). Biochenical and heamatological changes after female camel urotherapy. Sud. Acad. Sci. J.,Vd. 1(1): 45-55.
Selective killing of Cancer Cells by Leaf Extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a Tumor-Inhibitory Factor and the First Molecular Insights to its Effect
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Widodo, N., Kaur, K., Shrestha, B., Takagi, Y., Ishii, T., Wadhwa, R. and Kaul, S. (2007). Selective killing of Cancer Cells by Leaf Extract of Ashwagandha: Identification of a Tumor-Inhibitory Factor and the First Molecular Insights to its Effect. Clinical Cancer Research, 13: 2298-2306. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013536
AntiBacterial and antifungal effect of camel urine (Camelus dromedarius
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Wisal, G. (2002). AntiBacterial and antifungal effect of camel urine (Camelus dromedarius), Master of veterinary science in university of Kentucky.
Review on health benefits of camel urine: therapeutics effects and potential impact on public health around east Hararghe district
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Zaki, A., van Boheemen, S., Bestebroer, T., Osterhaus, A. and Fouchier, R. (2012). Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. New England J. of Medicine, 367: 1814-1820. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23075143/ Citation: Gole FA, and Hamido AJ. (2020). Review on health benefits of camel urine: therapeutics effects and potential impact on public health around east Hararghe district. Am. J. Pure Appl. Sci., 2(6), 183-191. https://doi.org/10.34104/ajpab.020.018300191