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Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance Aglaonema hookerianum Schott is an ethnomedicinally important plant used to treat a variety of diseases, including sexual and depression-like disorders. However, the scientific basis underlying the aforesaid properties have not been well justified. Aim of the study The present investigation aimed to investigate the anxiolytic, antidepressant and aphrodisiac potentials of methanol leaves extract of A. hookerianum (MEAH) in Swiss albino mice. Materials & methods Swiss albino mice (20–30 g) were orally administrated with MEAH at the doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg, b.w. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole board test (HBT) were performed to determine the anxiolytic activity and the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were performed to determine the antidepressant activity of MEAH. Besides, the aphrodisiac activity of MEAH was conducted through the mounting behaviour and orientation behaviour analysis. Diazepam (1 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.) for EPM and HBT; fluoxetine HCl (20 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) for FST and TST, and sildenafil (5 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.) for the mounting behaviour analysis and orientation behaviour analysis were used as reference drugs. Results The administration of the MEAH produced a strong (p < 0.001) dose-dependent anxiolytic effects in both HBT and EPM tests. Likewise, the extract revealed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in the immobility time in both FST and TST as compared to the control group. Besides, the MEAH also found to possess marked aphrodisiac activity complying several facets such as an increase in the sexual performance at the highest dose (400 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as the orientation toward female mice (p < 0.001) at all tested doses. Conclusion Taken together, MEAH can be recommended as a potent source of neuroprotective and a libido-boosting drug candidate for the management of neurological and sexual disorders.

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... The animals were maintained under standard laboratory conditions (temperature: 23 ± 2 • C; relative humidity: 55-60%) with a 12 h natural day-night cycle and had free access to water and commercial pellet diet ad libitum. The experimental animals were acclimatized to the holding room for 48 h before conducting the experiment (Goni et al., 2020). The experimental protocol was investigated and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong. ...
... The experimental mice were placed on the centre of the EPM apparatus after the 30 min administration of the dose with its head facing the open arms. The behavioral effects of the mouse were observed using a video camera (Geo Vision GV800-16, GeoVision Inc., Taiwan) for 5 min of the 6 min period where the first 1 min was considered as an initial adjustment time with two different kinds of parameter (time spent in open arms, the number of the entry in the open arms) (Abreu et al., 2018;Goni et al., 2020). Mice of all groups (control, standard, and two test groups) were treated as per the study plan mentioned in Section 2.5. ...
... The distance of the centre of one hole to another was 10 cm and the floor of the hole board was positioned 25 cm above the ground. Thirty minutes after administering test doses, the experimental animals were placed in the box's centre and allowed for free movement (Abreu et al., 2018;Goni et al., 2020). Finally, head dipping numbers through the holes by mice were recorded using a video camera (Geo Vision GV800-16, GeoVision Inc., Taiwan) for 5 min of the 6 min period wherein the first 1 min was for adjustment. ...
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the neuropharmacological potential of methanol extract of African oil palm or Elaeis guineensis (MEEG) in Swiss albino mice and through computer-aided model. To identify the secondary metabolites in MEEG, standard phytochemical and GC-MS analyses were performed. Antidepressant activity of MEEG was assessed by forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in Swiss albino mice. Besides, elevated plus maze (EPM), hole board test (HBT) and light-dark test (LDT) were used to investigate anxiolytic activities while for assessing sleeping disorder, open field test (OFT) and hole cross test (HCT) were performed. Additionally, computational and ADME/T analysis was performed using Schrödinger Maestro (v11.1) software and admetSAR online tools. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses revealed the existence of several secondary metabolites in MEEG. The oral administration of MEEG significantly reduced the immobility time in FST and TST. Similarly, promising dose-dependent anxiolytic effects were noted in all corresponding tests as compared to the control. As well, a significant decrease in the locomotion activities in experimental animals was noted during the OFT and HCT analysis. In case of computational and toxicological studies, most of the selected compounds were found considerably safe. Among the safe compounds, squalene showed promising binding energy for the antidepressant and anxiolytic activities, while stearic acid showed promising effects for the locomotion activity. The outcomes of the investigation recommend MEEG as a potential source of therapeutic candidate for the management of neurological disorders.
... This test was carried out according to an earlier described method (Barua et al., 2012;Goni et al., 2020). The equipment for the hole board was constructed of a matrix-patterned box comprising wood that contained 16 equidistant holes with an area of 20 cm  40 cm. ...
... After a 30-min treatment for all groups, the mice were placed in the middle of the maze, and the head was located such that it faced toward the open arms. Throughout the 6-min test time, the number of entries in open and closed arms and time spent in open arms was noted for 5 min, wherein the first minute was kept for initial adjustment(Barua et al., 2012;Goni et al., 2020).The following equation was used to calculate the percentage of entries in the open arm: % of entries in open arm ¼ Number of entries in open arm/(Number of entries in open arm þ Number of entries in closed arm) ...
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Palm grass (Curculigo recurvata) is an ethnomedicinally important herb reported to have significant medicinal values. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant and anxiolytic activities of a methanol extract of C. recurvata rhizome (Me-RCR) through different approaches. The antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of Me-RCR were assessed by using elevated plus maze (EPM), hole-board (HBT), tail suspension (TST), and forced swimming (FST) tests in Swiss Albino mice. The in-depth antioxidative potential of Me-RCR was also evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power capacity, total phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol, and antioxidant content analysis. Computational investigations were performed using computer-aided methods for screening the anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antioxidative activities of the selected lead molecules. Treatment with Me-RCR (200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.) notably increased the number of open arm entries and the time spent in the EPM test. In the HBT, Me-RCR exhibited significant anxiolytic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg, whereas similar activity was observed at 400 mg/kg in the EPM test. Me-RCR significantly decreased the immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST. The IC50 for DPPH and reducing power capacity assay were found to be 18.56 and 193 μg/mL, respectively. Promising outcomes were noted for the determination of total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, and antioxidant capacity. In the case of computer-aided studies, nyasicoside showed promising binding energy for antidepressant and anxiolytic activities, whereas isocurculigine demonstrated promising effects as an antioxidant. Overall, these findings suggest that Me-RCR could be a favourable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of mental and psychiatric disorders, as well as a good source of antioxidants.
... Medicinal plants have an important role in human health-care system because of their extensive therapeutic uses in Ayurveda, Allopathic, and Homeopathic system. ey have revolutionized the field of medicine and significantly proved to ameliorate the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic patterns of several drugs [11,12]. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of world depends on the traditional use of plants to cure diseases and this dependency is increasing day by day because of cost-effectiveness, safety, and high quality as compared to synthetic marketed drugs [13]. ...
... According to the World Health Organization, 80% of world depends on the traditional use of plants to cure diseases and this dependency is increasing day by day because of cost-effectiveness, safety, and high quality as compared to synthetic marketed drugs [13]. Research studies have revealed that different medicinal plants and their constituents possess antiproliferative [9], antimicrobial [14], antioxidant, antihemolytic [15], anticancer [11,16], antidepressant [17,18], antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antinociceptive [19], antiarthritic, aphrodisiac, analgesic [12,20], and other pharmacological properties. ...
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Juglans regia has been used to treat inflammatory and arthritic disorders in traditional medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory potential of ethanolic leaves extract of J. regia. Arthritis was induced in rodents with Freund’s complete adjuvant. J. regia treatment was started on 8th day of arthritis induction and sustained for 20 days. Acute inflammatory models were developed using carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and dextran. Qualitative and GC-MS analyses were also performed. Arthritis was determined using an arthritis scoring index and histopathological examination of ankle joints. RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β, and COX-2) and anti-inflammatory IL-4. PGE2 levels were evaluated using an ELISA. Blood and biochemical parameters were also determined. Paw edema was measured using a digital plethysmometer. Treatment with extracts inhibited arthritic development and attenuated paw edema along with all histopathological parameters. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 were downregulated, while IL-4 was upregulated. PGE2 levels were also reduced in extract-treated groups. Blood and biochemical parameters were nearly normalized in the treatment groups. Both extracts significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and dextran-induced paw edema. Qualitative phytochemical screening and GC-MS analysis confirmed that extracts possessed potential medicinal compounds. In conclusion, ethanol and n-hexane extracts of J. regia leaves have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate experimentally induced arthritis and edema. The inhibition of autacoids may also be one of the mechanisms inducing the immunomodulatory effect.
... Currently, ornamental plants are in great demand by the public, because they have become a current trend and ornamental plants have become a business field for ornamental plant lovers, one of the most popular ornamental plants is Aglaonema [2]. The Aglaonema plant or in Indonesia by another name "sri rejeki" is an ornamental plant without flowers but has a variety of leaves that include motifs, shapes, colors, and sizes, this is what makes this plant traded by counting the number of leaves, leaf color and motifs [3]. ...
... Then the formula explains that the probability of entering a sample of certain characteristics in class C (Posterior) is the probability of the appearance of class C (before the inclusion of the sample, often called a prior), multiplied by the probability of the occurrence of sample characteristics in class C (also called likelihood), divided by the probability of the appearance of the characteristics of the sample globally (also called evidence). Therefore, the formula can also be written simply as Equation 3. ...
... Natural products possess immense nutritional and health benefits because of their rich content of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, proteins, fibers, phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and bioactive metabolites . These compounds also provide new leads for the synthesis of new drugs particularly when the existing synthetic drugs fail to exert their fully pharmacological potential (Goni et al., 2021). Along with this, the success rate of synthetic drugs is also very low due to their several demerits such as their adverse effects, low response, and high pricing. ...
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Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) belonging to the family Fabaceae, is widely used for both culinary as well as clinical purposes since antiquity. Folkloric medicines across globe particularly use this plant for boosting immunity and combating digestive and reproductive impairments. The plant is rich reservoir of different phytoconstituents attributed to their diverse pharmacological effects. Therefore, the present article is planned on its ethnomedicinal uses, botanical description, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, clinical efficacy, mechanism of action and nanoparticle synthesis. In all pharmacological studies, the dose, major bioactive, type of extract and possible outcomes is also discussed, to establish its specific role against a particular ailment. It was hypothesized that the nanoparticle synthesis will lead to the enhanced pharmacology. Results showed that ethnomedicinal data well supports the different pharmacological aspects of Trigonella formulations in different countries. Trigonelline (phytoestrogen) renders most of therapeutic potential of Trigonella. The reported therapeutics can also be accounted as the synergistic pharmacology of different bioactives. Nanoparticle synthesis significantly improves its pharmacological efficacy. Clinical studies well validated its antidiabetic and reproductive health improving efficacies. Though no serious toxic effects were observed with the use of this plant but further well-designed placebo trials are still needed to demonstrate its full therapeutic potential.
... They have an additional advantage of curing other co-ailments that a diabetic person might have, whereas the synthetic drugs are specifically designed for a single target action. Worldwide, a large number of plant species are used for the treatment of various conditions such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, depression, immune deficiencies, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, psychiatric disorders, cardiac diseases, etc. Akkol et al., 2020Akkol et al., , 2021Rahman et al., 2020;Bristy et al., 2020;Goni et al., 2021). Several antidiabetic medicines are made from medicinal plants and are used worldwide for their safety and efficacy. ...
Article
Insulin resistance and obesity go hand-in-hand while considering the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of obesity-related insulin resistance includes a series of molecular markers such as insulin receptor substrate, protein kinase, glucose transporter, etc., that act as primary targets for various antidiabetic drugs. However, the undesired side effects of these drugs have steered research toward safer and more effective alternatives. This study involves the bioactivity-guided isolation of phytocompounds from Andrographis echioides and studying its effect on the above-mentioned molecular markers. The bioactive compounds were first isolated by column chromatography and tested for their α-amylase inhibition potential. The compound with better inhibition ability was then characterized using FTIR, MS, ¹H, and ¹³C NMR techniques. Then, the compound was evaluated for its glucose uptake enhancing ability and cytotoxicity against 3T3 L1 and L6 cell lines. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of the compound was studied on molecular targets such as PPARγ, IRS, IRβ, GLUT4, and Tyr-PI3K. As a result, 5-hydroxy- 2-(4‑methoxy-3-((E)-3-methylbut-1-enyl)-5-(3- methylbut-3-enyl)phenyl)chroman-4-one, was isolated and found to be a significant inhibitor of α-amylase enzyme (IC50 value of 14.52 µg/ml) and PPARγ (IC50 value of 3.357 µg/ml). In addition, it was a strong enhancer of glucose uptake in both 3T3 L1 (48.82 ±2.74%) and L6 (63.83 ± 1.54%) cell lines. The mechanism of action was altering the insulin-signaling pathway by upregulating the molecular proteins involved in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the compound isolated from the leaves of Andrographis echioides possesses a significant regulatory effect on glucose uptake and other markers of the insulin-signaling pathway.
... [21] The term "natural products" refers to an extremely extensive and diverse range of organic chemical compounds derived and isolated from biological sources. Throughout human history, natural products have been studied and used to treat diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, cardiac problems, anxiety, depression, sexual diseases, brain disorders, etc. [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] The possibilities for discovering and developing natural products include pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, cosmetics, fine chemicals, and nutraceuticals. [42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] To upscale the production of valuable secondary metabolites used in therapy, diet, and industry, many biotechnological interventions have been applied to modulate plant secondary metabolite pathways. ...
Article
An incredible array of natural products are produced by plants that serve several ecological functions, including protecting them from herbivores and microbes, attracting pollinators, and dispersing seeds. In addition to their obvious medical applications, natural products serve as flavouring agents, fragrances and many other uses by humans. With the increasing demand for natural products and the development of various gene engineering systems, researchers are trying to modify the plant genome to increase the biosynthetic pathway of the compound of interest or blocking the pathway of unwanted compound synthesis. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 has had widespread success in genome editing due to the system's high efficiency, ease of use, and accuracy which revolutionized the genome editing system in living organisms. This article highlights the method of the CRISPR/Cas system, its application in different organisms including microbes, algae, fungi and also higher plants in natural product research, its shortcomings and future prospects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Natural products have been long used by humankind due to their wide range of biological and pharmacological effects, which are able to aid in the management of multiple health conditions (Akkol et al., 2021;Bari et al., 2021;Rahman et al., 2021). In a recent review paper, Akkol and colleagues demonstrated robust evidence that diverse plant-based treatments are effective against several psychiatric disorders (Akkol et al., 2021), alongside diverse other reports suggesting a beneficial effect of plant-derived treatments against mental disturbances (Akkol et al., 2020;Goni et al., 2021;Vieira et al., 2020), and also specifically against substance abuse (Solati et al., 2017). Increasing evidence suggests that compounds of medicinal plants may have therapeutic effects on alcohol abuse. ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, is originally used by Amazon-based indigenous and mestizo groups for medicinal and ritualistic purposes. Nowadays, ayahuasca is used in religious and shamanic contexts worldwide, and preliminary evidence from preclinical and observational studies suggests therapeutic effects of ayahuasca for the treatment of substance (including alcohol) use disorders. Aim of the study To investigate the initial pharmacological profile of ayahuasca and its effects on ethanol rewarding effect using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in mice. Materials and methods Ayahuasca beverage was prepared using extracts of B. caapi and P. viridis, and the concentration of active compounds was assessed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following behavioral tests were performed after ayahuasca administration: general pharmacological screening (13, 130, or 1300 mg/kg – intraperitoneally – i.p., and 65, 130, 1300, or 2600 mg/kg – via oral – v.o.); acute toxicity test with elevated doses (2600 mg/kg – i.p., and 5000 mg/kg – v.o.); motor activity, motor coordination, and hexobarbital-induced sleeping time potentiation (250, 500, or 750 mg/kg ayahuasca or vehicle – v.o.). For the CPP test, the animals received ayahuasca (500 mg/kg – v.o.) prior to ethanol (1.8 g/kg – i.p.) or vehicle (control group – i.p.) during conditioning sessions. Results Ayahuasca treatment presented no significant effect on motor activity, motor coordination, hexobarbital-induced sleeping latency or total sleeping time, and did not evoke signs of severe acute toxicity at elevated oral doses. Ayahuasca pre-treatment successfully inhibited the ethanol-induced CPP and induced CPP when administered alone. Conclusions Our results indicate that ayahuasca presents a low-risk acute toxicological profile when administered orally, and presents potential pharmacological properties that could contribute to the treatment of alcohol use disorders.
... The use of plant-based natural medicine is a growing health issue owing to their wide range of nutritional and therapeutic value as a good source of vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, fibers, and bioactive metabolites. Since the primitive ages, various parts of plants, plant extracts, and plant-based natural remedies have been utilized by all nations and civilizations to treat various ailments (Goni et al., 2021;Hossen et al., 2021;Islam et al., 2021;Khan et al., 2020). ...
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Abstract Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is a traditionally important vegetable herb used to treat numerous illnesses, including diabetes mellitus, in many rural parts of Bangladesh and the South Asian subcontinent. However, the scientific evidence for the aforementioned properties has not been adequately validated. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the antidiabetic, antilipidemic activity of okra mucilage powder, and to compare its effectiveness with the isolated peel–seed of okra after mucilage extraction in Swiss albino mice. After extraction, both mucilage and peel–seed were made into powder. In addition, crude protein, mineral contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity of mucilage and peel–seed powder were assessed. After acute toxicity test, methanolic extracts of both powders were administered to alloxan‐induced diabetic mice for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were assessed weekly. Finally, blood samples were collected on day 21 to estimate blood glucose level, total protein (TP), and lipid profile levels. Okra mucilage powder showed less amount of protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and iron compared with peel–seed powder. In terms of antioxidant activity, the IC50 value and total phenolic content were found higher in okra mucilage powder in contrast to peel–seed powder. However, total flavonoid content was higher in peel–seed powder than mucilage powder. Three‐week administration of mucilage and peel–seed suspensions at a dose of 150 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly (p
... Natural products have now been widely used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat various disorders, including autoimmune diseases. The medicinal value of Spirulina platensis (Freitas et al., 2021), Syzygium fruticosum (Moni et al., 2021), Lepidagathis hyaline (Fahad et al., 2021), Aglaonema hookerianum (Goni et al., 2021), Caesalpinia ferrea (Macedo et al., 2020), Amburana cearensis , Rhamnus triquetra (Iqbal et al., 2020) has been recently at the forefront. Various medicinal plants possess bioactive components like furazan-3 amine (Khan et al. 2020), andrographolide (Hossain et al. 2021), and bromelain (Chakraborty et al. 2021) with anti-microbial, neuro-modulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-thrombolytic, and anti-cancer pharmacological properties. ...
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Majoon Chobchini, a polyherbal Unani compound, has been used holistically in India to treat rheumatoid arthritis. However, the potential mechanism underlying the antiarthritic efficacy of Majoon Chobchini has not been elucidated so far. This study was aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism and scientifically validate the therapeutic basis of Majoon Chobchini in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The anti-arthritic efficacy of Majoon Chobchini was demonstrated in vivo using complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model and adjuvant-induced arthritic fibroblast-like synoviocytes (AA-FLS). The expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and enzymes was evaluated in the serum and synovial tissues of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats. In-vitro, AA-FLS, and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were co-cultured to evaluate the formation and activity of osteoclasts using TRAP staining analysis and pit formation assay, respectively. RANKL and OPG levels were detected using western blotting and qRT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, the involvement of JAK-STAT-3 signaling in the therapeutic efficacy of Majoon Chobchini was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Majoon Chobchini significantly reversed the physical symptoms in AIA rats with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes. Notably, Majoon Chobchini alleviated cartilage degradation and bone erosion in AIA rats via inhibiting the activation of the JAK-STAT-3 signaling pathway in the AIA rats. Consistent with its effect in vivo, Majoon Chobchini decreased osteoclast inducing potential of AA-FLS and thus attenuated osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that the JAK/STAT-3 signaling inhibition may underlie the mechanism through which Majoon Chobchini provides relief against RA symptoms. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02985-4.
... The natural, non-toxic antioxidants extracted from plants with antioxidant properties will become the mainstream in the future. Recent reports show that medicinal plants provide pharmacological and biological activities [1][2][3]. Some plants have anticancer potential [4]. ...
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Chenopodium formosanum (CF), rich in nutrients and antioxidants, is a native plant in Taiwan. During the harvest, the seeds are collected, while the roots, stems, and leaves remain on the field as agricultural waste. In this study, di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) radical scavenging ability and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability experiments of seeds, leaves, stems, and roots were designed using the Taguchi method (TM) under three conditions: Ethanol concentration (0–100%), temperature (25–65 °C), and extraction time (30–150 min). The result demonstrates that seeds and leaves have higher radical scavenging ability than stems and roots. Many studies focused on CF seeds. Therefore, this study selected CF leaves and optimized DPPH, ABTS, total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and reducing power (RP) through TM, showing that the predicted value of the leaf is close to the actual value. The optimized results of CF leaves were DPPH 85.22%, ABTS 46.51%, TPC 116.54 µg GAE/mL, TFC 143.46 µg QE/mL, and RP 23.29 µg VCE (vitamin C equivalent)/mL. The DPPH and ABTS of CF leaves were second only to the results of CF seeds. It can be seen that CF leaves have the potential as a source of antioxidants and help in waste reduction.
... A combination of a nanomaterial and oxymatrine increased drug anti-IDD activity, suggesting a novel route of drug administration [132]. Natural products are prime sources of drug development [158]. Currently, most of the work on natural products for IDD has focused on preclinical nature. ...
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Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the main causes of low back pain (LBP), which severely reduces the quality of life and imposes a heavy financial burden on the families of affected individuals. Current research suggests that IDD is a complex cell-mediated process. Inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mechanical load, telomere shortening, DNA damage, and nutrient deprivation contribute to intervertebral disc cell senescence and changes in matrix metabolism, ultimately causing IDD. Natural products are widespread, structurally diverse, afford unique advantages, and exhibit great potential in terms of IDD treatment. In recent years, increasing numbers of natural ingredients have been shown to inhibit the degeneration of nucleus pulposus cells through various modes of action. Here, we review the pharmacological effects of natural products on nucleus pulposus cells and the mechanisms involved. An improved understanding of how natural products target signalling pathways will aid the development of anti-IDD drugs. This review focuses on potential IDD drugs.
... Historically, plants have been a great source of leads for neurological disorders (Goni et al., 2021;Islam et al., 2021). The majority of the FDA-approved cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., galantamine, rivastigmine) or clinical candidates are of natural origin or are inspired from natural products (Islam et al., 2017). ...
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Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with no availability of disease-modifying therapeutics. The complex etiology and recent failures in clinical trials indicate the need for multitargeted agents. Purpose The present study aims to discover new plant-based multitargeted anti-AD leads. Methods A library of plant extracts was screened for inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1). The secondary metabolites of active extracts were also tested, followed by enzyme-kinetics and molecular modeling to understand the mechanism of inhibition. The most active extract was investigated for in-vivo anti-dementia activity in behavioral mice models. Results Among the library of 105 extracts, Woodfordia fruticosa (SBE-80) and Bergenia ciliata (SBE-65) extracts displayed significant inhibition of all three enzymes. Gallic acid, one of the constituents of both plants, shows moderate inhibition of AChE and BACE-1. Catechin-3-O-gallate (CG), another constituent of SBE-65, inhibits EeAChE, rHuAChE, and eqBChE with IC50's of 29.9, 1.77, and 8.4 µM, respectively; along with a mild-inhibition of BACE-1. Ellagic acid, the constituent of SBE-80, inhibits BACE-1 with an IC50 value of 16 µM. The W. fruticosa extract SBE-80 at the dose of 25 mg/kg QD × 9 (PO) displayed memory-enhancing activity in Morris Water Maze and Passive Avoidance Test in Swiss albino mice. Treatment with SBE-80 also inhibits AChE in-vivo; whereas, a non-significant decrease in the serum TBARS was observed. Conclusion W. fruticosa is identified for the first time as an anti-AD lead candidate. The in-vitro and in-vivo data presented herein and the documented safety profile of W. fruticosa indicate its strong potential for preclinical development as a botanical drug for dementia/AD.
... Neurological diseases affect millions of people worldwide (Goni et al. 2021). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 264 million people suffer from some type of anxiety disorder, and Brazil contains one of the highest rates of this pathology (WHO 2017). ...
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Benzodiazepines are highly effective in combating anxiety; however, they have considerable adverse effects, so it is important to discover new safe anxiolytic agents. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the natural product 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (HTMCX) on anxiety and seizure behavior in adult zebrafish and its possible mechanisms of action. The acute toxicity of 96 h of HTMCX was analyzed, and the open and light/dark field tests (n = 6 animals/group) were used to assess the anxiety behavior of animals treated with HTMCX. In addition, the mechanisms of action were investigated with antagonists of the GABAA, 5-HT receptors, and molecular anchorage study. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was used to induce seizure by immersion. As a result, acetophenone HTMCX (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg; v.o.) was non-toxic and affected locomotor activity. The higher doses (3 and 10 mg/kg; v.o.) produced signs of anxiolytic action in the light/dark test, and this effect was reversed by the pizotifen (antagonist 5HTR1 and 5HTR2A/2C), having the potential to form a complex with 5HTR1B. However, the anxiolytic effect of HTMCX has not been abolished by flumazenil (antagonist GABAA), cyproheptadine (antagonist 5HTR2A), and granisetron (antagonist 5HTR3A/3B). Therefore, HTMCX demonstrated an anxiolytic effect, suggesting that the 5HTR1 and 5HTR2C receptors may be involved in the pharmacological performance of this acetophenone in the central nervous system.
... Plants with medicinal properties are being used in health care since the dawn of civilization Moni et al., 2021;Rahman et al., 2021;Sofowora et al., 2013). Globally, many studies have been conducted to check their effectiveness, with some of the results leading to plant-based medicines (Goni et al., 2021;Hossen et al., 2021;Sofowora et al., 2013). The growing global burden of cancer requires a new treatment option, while herbal medicine presents a potential alternative to western medicine for cancer treatment Bari et al., 2021;de Carvalho et al., 2020). ...
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In the present study, the aerial parts of Achyranthes ferruginea underwent investigation of their in vitro antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities in cell-free conditions , their phytoconstituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their cytotoxic activity in HeLa cells. A. ferruginea was extracted with 80% methanol and successively fractionated with solvents to yield petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF), and aqueous (AQF) fractions. GC-MS analysis revealed that CHF contained ten phytoconstituents, including different forms of oc-tadecanoic acid methyl esters. The total antioxidant and ferric-reducing antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the standard catechin (CA) were as follows: CA >CHF >PEF >CME (crude methanolic extract) >EAF >AQF, and CA >CHF >EAF >PEF >AQF >CME, respectively. CHF showed the highest DPPH-free radical-scavenging activity, with a median inhibitory concentration of 10.5 ± 0.28 µg/ml, which was slightly higher than that of the standard butylated hydroxytoluene (12.0 ± 0.09 µg/ ml). In the hydroxyl radical-scavenging assay, CHF showed identical scavenging activity (9.25 ± 0.73 µg/ml) when compared to CA (10.50 ± 1.06 µg/ml). Moreover, CHF showed strong cytotoxic activity (19.95 ± 1.18 µg/ml) in HeLa cells, which was alike to that of the standards vincristine sulfate and 5-fluorouracil (15.84 ± 1.64 µg/ml and 12.59 ± 1.75 µg/ml, respectively). The in silico study revealed that identified compounds were significantly linked to the targets of various cancer cells and oxidative enzymes. However, online prediction by SwissADME, admetSAR, and PASS showed that it has drug-like, nontoxic, and potential pharmacological actions.
... Neurological diseases affect millions of people worldwide (Goni et al. 2021). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 264 million people suffer from some type of anxiety disorder, and Brazil contains one of the highest rates of this pathology (Depression and other common mental disorders 2017). ...
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Benzodiazepines are highly effective in combating anxiety; however, they have considerable adverse effects, so it is important to discover new safe anxiolytic agents. This study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effect of natural product 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (HTMCX) and its possible mechanisms of action in adult zebrafish. The open field and light / dark tests (n = 6 animals/group) were used to assess anxiety and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) as a seizure inducer. The 96-hour acute toxicity of HTMCX was also investigated. HTMCX (1, 3, and 10 mg / Kg; v.o .) was not toxic and affected locomotor activity. The highest doses (3 and 10 mg / Kg; v.o .) produced signs of anxiolytic action in the light / dark test, and this effect was abolished by the pizotifen (antagonist 5HTR1 and 5HTR2A / 2C), having the potential to form a complex in the same region of the site indicating that the anxiolytic effect via the serotonergic mechanism. However, the anxiolytic effect of HTMCX has not been abolished by flumazenil (antagonist GABAR A ), cyproheptadine (antagonist 5HTR2A), and granisetron (antagonist 5HTR3A / 3B). Therefore, HTMCX demonstrated an anxiolytic effect, suggesting that the 5HTR1 and 5HTR / 2C receptors may be involved in the pharmacological performance of this acetophenone in the central nervous system.
... At the same time, a decrease in the number of head dips was related a depressive impact [31]. Thus, the reduced head dipping behavior and improved sleeping time of mice in our study may relate to the inhibitory effect of the extract on neuronal activity, similar to the inhibition induced by GABA [51][52][53][54][55][56]. The therapeutic benefits of traditional medications might amalgamate a combination of constituents that could serve as an adjuvant to the conventional regimen. ...
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Citrus limon L. is an ingenious alternative medication and has a broad scope in managing several health conditions as part of natural remedies. Recently, medicinal plants have witnessed incredible consideration worldwide in the field of neuroscience for remedial intervention. The present work has investigated the phytochemical compounds and neuropharmacological potential of the seed extract of Citrus limon as a step to partially validate its formulations as nutraceuticals using an in vivo model. Diverse phytochemical groups such as alkaloids, glycosides, Ƞlavonoids, tannins, gums, saponins, steroids were qualitatively identified through colorimetric methods utilizing standard compounds. The neuropharmacological properties were studied in Swiss albino mice with the sleep time induced by thiopental sodium taken as an end-point, in standard hole cross, hole board, and open-field experiments at varying doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, Ƞlavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, and glycosides are present in the aqueous extract of the seed. The extracts demonstrated a significant reduction in sleep onset and enhanced the sleep duration in a dose-dependent manner in thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time, along with a marked decrease in unconstrained locomotors and explorative properties in both hole cross and open field tests. Moreover, in the hole board study, the extracts minimized the count of head dips observed in the treated mice. The results shown in this study demonstrate that Citrus limon extracts have neuropharmacological properties that can be further examined for their potential role as an adjuvant with conventional medications or nutraceuticals.
... prostrata is highly valued at the medicinal level in treating all kinds of pain conditions [16]. Aglaonema hookerianum Schott is recommended as an effective source of neuroprotective agents and as a candidate agent for sexual desire enhancement in cases of neural and sexual disorders [17]. Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) ...
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed cancer worldwide and is a significant cause of cancer-related deaths. Previous studies have observed that Coptis chinensis (CC) and Mume Fructus (MF) are effective against CRC, enteritis, and intestinal dysbiosis, but the chemical and pharmacological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we employed pharmacological network analysis to reveal mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of CC and MF against CRC. All compounds and targeted genes were obtained from the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified based on GSE146587, GSE156720, and GSE184093 datasets. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to identify putative target genes of CC and MF. Ten key targeted genes were identified, including CCND1, ICAM1, IL1B, IL-6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, MYC, SERPINE1, and VEGFA. Among these genes, six (ICAM1, IL1B, IL-6, MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, and SERPINE1) were positively correlated with levels of effector memory CD4 T cells and natural killer T cells, and three (CCND1, MYC, and VEGFA) were negatively correlated with type 17 T helper cells and CD56dim natural killer cells. Molecular docking analysis showed that four compounds of CC and MF (kaempferol, oleanolic acid, quercetin, and ursolic acid) could affect CRC by interacting with target genes. Our study proved that pharmacological analysis could reliably assess the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines for treating cancer.
... Natural products are an efficient approach to drug discovery of the antiviral drugs in treating infections, which are known to be the most reliably effective drug lead sources , Mahmoud et al., 2020. Medicinal plants have a broad range of pharmacological or biological activity making them appropriate candidates for the treatment of psychiatric disorders (K€ upeli Akkol et al., 2021), neurological and sexual disorders (Goni et al., 2021), cancer (Ahmed et al., 2020;K€ upeli Akkol et al., 2020) and bacterial, fungal and leishmanial infections (Iqbal et al., 2020). They also serve as a natural analgesic strategy and adjuvant for treatment of various inflammatory clinical pain (Freitas et al., 2021). ...
Article
Chemical profiles of total alcohol extract and various derived fractions of aerial parts of Zinnia elegans were studied. Accordingly, eight flavonoids were isolated from the ethyl acetate derived fraction based on the anti-oxidant assay-guided purification, using DPPH and phosphomolybdate complex assays. Eventually, the binding affinities and features of the eight isolated flavonoids were investigated using the molecular docking technique towards SARS-CoV-2 and human targets Ànamely main protease (M pro), papain-like protease (PL pro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), receptor-binding domain (RBD), helicase (NSP13), human angiotensinÀconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and human neuropilin-1 (NRP1). Docking calculations unveiled the surpass binding affinity of glabrisoflavone with M pro , PL pro , RdRp, RBD, NSP13, ACE2, and NRP1, with docking scores of À9.2, À7.4, À6.9, À6.9, À8.5, À9.0, and À7.6 kcal/mol, respectively. Binding mode analysis manifested the capability of glabrisoflavone to form several hydrogen bonds with the key amino acid residues inside the active sites of the targets. Besides, 25 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculations were executed to inspect the binding affinity of glabrisoflavone and compared to an anti-HIV-1 protease inhibitor (darunavir). MM-GBSA calculations demonstrated greater glabrisoflavone affinity for the PL pro , RdRp, RBD and NRP1 over darunavir. Nevertheless, MM-GBSA calculations displayed equal or lower glabrisoflavone affinity against M pro , NSP13 and ACE2 compared to darunavir. The current study obviously emphasizes the fitness of the glabrisoflavone as an auspicious clinical drug candidate for further development and future in vivo and in vitro evaluations towards viral targets and human targets.
... 9.3.2 | Anti-anxiety activityAnxiety is characterized as being an unpleasant emotional state for which the cause cannot be identified or perceived as uncontrollable, which impairs efficiency and induces insomnia, as well as resulting in a wide range of medically unexplained symptoms.123 The hydroalcoholic extract of P. betle leaves was used to assess antianxiety activity in Swiss albino mice. ...
Article
Piper betle L. (synonym: Piper betel Blanco), or betel vine, an economically and medicinally important cash crop, belongs to the family Piperaceae, often known as the green gold. The plant can be found all over the world and is cultivated primarily in South East Asian countries for its beautiful glossy heart-shaped leaves, which are chewed or consumed as betel quid and widely used in Chinese and Indian folk medicine, as carminative, stimulant, astringent, against parasitic worms, conjunctivitis, rheumatism, wound, etc., and is also used for religious purposes. Hydroxychavicol is the most important bioactive compound among the wide range of phytoconstituents found in essential oil and extracts. The pharmacological attributes of P. betle are antiproliferation, anticancer, neuropharmacological, analgesic, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, antifertility, antibacterial, antifungal and many more. Immense attention has been paid to nanoformulations and their applications. The application of P. betle did not show cytotoxicity in preclinical experiments, suggesting that it could serve as a promising therapeutic candidate for different diseases. The present review comprehensively summarizes the botanical description, geographical distribution, economic value and cultivation, ethnobotanical uses, preclinical pharmacological properties with insights of toxicological, clinical efficacy, and safety of P. betle. The findings suggest that P. betle represents an orally active and safe natural agent that exhibits great therapeutic potential for managing various human medical conditions. However, further research is needed to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms of action, clinical aspects, structure–activity relationships, bioavailability and synergistic interactions with other drugs.
... Pharmacoresistance, side effects and associated comorbidities are factors that compromise the safety and acceptance of treatment by patients (Ionescu, Rosenbaum, & Alpert, 2015;Schmidt and Schachter, 2014;Singh and Goel, 2021). For these reasons, despite the drug variety, the search for new bioactive molecules of natural origin has been consolidating in recent decades in an attempt to solve what is still lacking in the therapy of neurological and psychiatric disorders (Abd Rashed et al., 2021;Farooq et al., 2021;Goni et al., 2021;Hossain et al., 2021;Islam et al., 2022;Khazdair et al., 2018;Küpeli Akkol et al., 2021;Samarghandian et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2008). ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the toxicity and possible effects and mechanism of action of the essential oil obtained from the Piper tuberculatum Jacq.‘s fruit (EOPT) on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. In the Hippocratic test, it was observed ambulation reduction, sedation, piloerection and mortality of 25% at the dose of 1000 mg/kg and 50% at the dose of 5000 mg/kg. The results found demonstrate that the EOPT is endowed with a possible depressant effect, and is characterized by a likely sedative (open field test), anxiolytic-like (elevated plus maze test), anticonvulsant (pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure test) and hypnotic action (pentobarbital-induced sleeping time). These effects may possibly occur due to the interaction between the monoterpenes, present in its essential oil, and the GABAergic pathway confirmed by reversion of the effects by flumazenil. Then, these results demonstrate the therapeutic potential and the validation of the ethnopharmacological use of this species in the treatment of disorders affecting the central nervous system.
... Network pharmacology, a recently developed and powerful tool, which integrates systems biology and polypharmacology, molecular network data, bioinformatics, and computer simulation, is well suited for TCM compound and extensively used by relevant researchers [9]. In brief, network pharmacology focuses on its active ingredients and targets in the interactome in a holistic manner to elaborate the pharmacological mechanism of drug formulas which is consistent to a certain degree with a holistic view of TCM [10]. ...
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Astragalus propinquus Schischkin and Panax notoginseng (A&P) has been widely used in clinical practice to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many years and achieved a remarkable improvement of these outcomes. However, its mechanisms for ameliorating CKD are still poorly obscure. In the current study, integrated network analysis was carried out to analyze the potential active ingredients and molecular mechanism of A&P on CKD, and 39 active ingredients and a total of 570 targets were obtained. Furthermore, the potential disease-related genes were obtained from the NCBI GEO database by integrating 2 microarray datasets, and 24 significant genes were utilized for subsequent analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis displayed that pathways including cell oxidative stress and Akt signaling pathway are medicated by A&P. Of note, Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 (HSF1) and RELA Proto-Oncogene (RELA) were regarded as hub genes considering their central roles in the gene regulatory network. What’s more, the effect of A&P and potential genes was furthermore verified by using unilateral ureteral ligation (UUO) in rodent model. The results showed that the expression of HSF1 and RELA both at transcript and protein level was significantly upregulated in UUO model, but the expression was markedly reversed after A&P intervention. To further guide the interpretation of active ingredients from A&P on the effect of HSF1 and RELA, we performed a molecular docking assay and the results showed that active ingredients such as coptisine docked well into HSF1 and RELA. In total, these results suggest that A&P may improve RF in CKD by regulating HSF1 and RELA, which provides a basis for further understanding the mechanism of A&P in the treatment of RF and CKD.
... Ethanol bark extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity against five worms (Gayen et al., 2016). Its fruit extracts exhibited anti-acne activity (Goni et al., 2021;Sekar et al., 2017). Leaf extracts of n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited anti-obesity effect on Wistar rat through inhibiting body weight. ...
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The genus Syzygium comprises 1200–1800 species that belong to the family of Myrtaceae. Moreover, plants that are belonged to this genus are being used in the traditional system of medicine in Asian countries, especially in China, India, and Bangladesh. The aim of this review is to describe the scientific works and to provide organized information on the available traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of mostly available species of the genus Syzygium in Bangladesh. The information related to genus Syzygium was analytically composed from the scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Springer, Research Gate link, published books, and conference proceedings. Bioactive compounds such as flavanone derivatives, ellagic acid derivatives and other polyphenolics, and terpenoids are reported from several species of the genus Syzygium. However, many members of the species of the genus Syzygium need further comprehensive studies regarding phytochemical constituents and mechanism‐based pharmacological activities. The information related to genus Syzygium was analytically composed from the scientific databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Springer, Research Gate link, published books, and conference proceedings. Bioactive compounds such as flavanone derivatives, ellagic acid derivatives and other polyphenolics, and terpenoids are reported from several species of the genus Syzygium. However, many members of the species of the genus Syzygium need further comprehensive studies regarding phytochemical constituents and mechanism‐based pharmacological activities.
... study; and the study also indicated the necessity of further investigation on the compound to design and develop an effective drug that could be a safe alternative to many of the currently available anticancer drugs with remarkable side effects [42]. Along with the above effect, different studies have reported significant activity of flavonoid derivatives on central nervous system, psychiatric disorder, digestive function, neuroprotection, antimicrobial activity etc. [43,44]. So, further investigations can be made to evaluate such effects of the isolated flavones as source of potential therapy. ...
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Among the major constituents of Leea rubra (Family Vitaceae) leaves, phenolic and flavonoind compounds are most important for therapeutic purposes and the plant parts have been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases for long. Thus, in order to scientifically confirm the traditional uses of the L. rubra leaves, the present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the isolated flavones against AAPH induced oxidative damage to pUC19 DNA by gel electrophoresis and antineoplastic activity was evaluated on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice by evaluating percentage inhibition of cell growth, morphological changes of EAC cells and hematological parameters of the mice. The isolation was carried out by column chromatography and structure was revealed by ¹H-NMR and ¹³C NMR. The result shows that, the isolated compound was identified as myricetin 4'-methoxy-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside based on previously reported data. The isolated flavone effectively inhibited AAPH-induced oxidative damage to DNA; because it could inhibit the formation of circular and linear forms of the DNA. In anti-proliferative assay, 76% growth inhibition of EAC cells was observed as compare to the control mice (p<0.05) at a dose 100 mg/kg body weight. Thus the isolated flavone showed great importance as a possible therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative damage to DNA and the chronic diseases caused by such DNA damage, and can also become important in cancer chemotherapy.
... Several studies have shown the great capacity of plants used in traditional African medicine to provide many biologically active compounds that fight against several diseases. This is the case of Tabebuia pallida which has shown apoptotic and antioxidant properties , Ophiorrhiza rugosa which developed peripheral and central analgesic effects (Uddin Chy et al. 2021), Spirulina platensis which has antinociceptive effects through acting on the opiod system and TRPM8/TRPA1 channels (Freitas et al. 2021), extracts of Aglaonema hookerianum which have antidepressant, anxiolytic and aphrodisiac potential (Goni et al. 2021) and Amburana cearensis which has pharmacological and neuroprotective properties (Silva et al. 2020). Similarly, many compounds derived from plants have proven their effectiveness, such as Cannabis ), Coumarins (Küpeli Akkol et al. 2020, Terpineol (Vieira et al. 2020) or Cannabidiol (Martínez et al. 2020). ...
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In the treatment of cancer, patients that receive anti-cancer drugs such as Vincristine develop peripheral neuropathic pain. Scyphocephalione A is a new bioactive compound isolated from Scyphocephalium ochocoa (Myristicaceae), a medicinal plant traditionally used in African countries. Recently, an in vitro study has shown its anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on MCF-7 cell line of mammary carcinoma. The purpose of the present study was to assess the in vitro anti-inflammatory and in vivo anti-nociceptive activities of Scyphocephalione A. In vitro tests were carried out on cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activities, and on protein denaturation; while in vivo tests were performed on acute and chronic pain models. It was noticed that Scyphocephalione A (1000 µg/ml), inhibits proteins denaturation, cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase activities respectively by 74.21%, 75.80% and 64.43%. The dose 50 mg/kg of Scyphocephalione A, inhibits acetic acid (63.43%, p < 0.001) and formalin (42.12%, p < 0.001) within first phase and 67.53% (p < 0.001) within second phase)-induced pains. At the same dose, Scyphocephalione A significantly inhibited mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, as well as cold allodynia induced by vincristine. In addition, the compound restored haematological, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters which were altered following Vincristine administration. These results suggest that Scyphocephalione A is endowed with anti-inflammatory potential and antinociceptive properties. Therefore, Scyphocephalione A can be classified as a promising molecule for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain triggered by anti-cancer drug. Graphical abstract
... In previous studies, TCM promoted the recovery of patients [5][6][7][8][9][10][11] and had a synergistic effect on ERAS [12][13][14][15]. One of the drugs used was Tongfu decoction, having a certain effect on POI using nonoral treatment methods such as rectal instillation, which could accelerate the recovery of postoperative gastrointestinal function and relieve postoperative inflammation of the digestive tract [16][17][18][19]. ...
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Objective: Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common and important complication of surgery. This study aimed to explore the key pharmacological mechanisms of Tongfu decoction in treating postoperative ileus (POI). Methods: The active ingredients of Tongfu decoction and their targets were screened using the TCMSP database and STITCH and SwissTargetPrediction databases, respectively. The GeneCards and DisGeNET databases were used to obtain POI dysfunction-related therapeutic targets. After screening, a drug-active-ingredient-therapeutic target network was constructed and the key target functional enrichment analysis was carried out. The Sprague-Dawley rats with POI were used for in vivo experimental verification. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 were measured after surgery using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of key proteins of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in colon tissues. Results: An interaction network was constructed containing 7 Chinese medicine components, 36 compounds, and 85 target proteins. The functional enrichment analysis showed that the target proteins mainly acted on the POI through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. In in vivo experiments, Tongfu decoction had a promoting effect on the serum level of IL-10, an inhibitory effect on the serum levels of IL-1β and CCL2, and an inhibitory effect on the local expression of PI3K, pAkt, and mTOR in colon tissue. In addition, the Tongfu decoction increased the intestinal ink advancing rate. Conclusion: Nonoral Tongfu decoction can also be used to treat POI; its mechanism is affected by IL-10 and IL-1β.The inhibition of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway affected the treatment with Tongfu decoction by inducing an immune-inflammatory storm in POI.
... In a work by Goni et al. (2021), the plant Aglaonema hookerianum is used to treat various diseases, including sexual disorders and depression. Their data show that the extract of this plant was able to treat anxiety behavior in mice, at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/kg. ...
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Lectins participate in the defense against microorganisms and in signaling the damage caused by pathogens to the cell surface and/or intracellular in plants. This study aims to analyze the antifungal potential of lectins extracted from seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC and Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC, against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The antimicrobial tests were performed by microdilution against Candida spp. The test to verify the combined lectin/fluconazole effect was performed using subinhibitory concentrations of lectins and with antifungal ranging from 0.5 to 512 µg/mL. The ability to inhibit the morphological transition of Candida spp. was evaluated by microcultivation in a moist chamber. The results of the minimum inhibitory concentration revealed no antifungal activity against the tested strains. However, lectins modified the action of fluconazole, reducing the IC 50 of the drug against C. albicans. Lectins were also able to discretely modulate the morphological transition of the tested strains.
... Many Rauvolfia species such as R. serpentina, R. tetraphylla, R. verticillata, and R. vomitoria of this genus were extensively studied for their pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiprotozoal, antitrypanosomal, antipsychotic, cardioprotective, cholinesterase inhibitory, and hepatoprotective (Iqbal et al., 2020;Küpeli et al., 2020;Martínez et al., 2020;Chy et al., 2021;Freitas et al., 2021;Goni et al., 2021;Surendran et al., 2021). Due to their traditional uses along with pharmacological activities, currently, various extracts/herbal formulations of plant parts of Rauvolfia species have been marketed without proper assessment of clinical trials and QC/QA based on major active monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline (144), ajmalicine (164), serpentine (182), yohimbine (aphrodisiac) (190) and reserpine (214). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance The plants are from the genus Rauvolfia Plum. ex L. (Apocynaceae), which is represented by 74 species with many synonyms, and distributed worldwide, especially in the Asian, and African continents. Traditionally, some of them are used for the treatment of various disorders related to the central nervous system (CNS), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and as an antidote due to the presence of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline (144), ajmalicine (164) serpentine (182), yohimbine (190) and reserpine (214). Aim The present review provides comprehensive summarization and critical analysis of the traditional to modern applications of Rauvolfia species, and the major focus was to include traditional uses, phytochemistry, quality control, pharmacological properties, as well as clinical evidence that may be useful in the drug discovery process. Materials and methods Information related to traditional uses, chemical constituents, separation techniques/analytical methods, and pharmacological properties of the genus Rauvolfia were obtained using electronic databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, SciFinder, PubMed, PubChem, ChemSpider, and Google Scholar between the years 1949–2021. The scientific name of the species and its synonyms were checked with the information of The Plant List. Results A total of seventeen Rauvolfia species have been traditionally explored for various therapeutic applications, out of which the roots of R. serpentina and R. vomitoria are used most commonly for the treatment of many diseases. About 287 alkaloids, seven terpenoids, nine flavonoids, and four phenolic acids have been reported in different parts of the forty-three species. Quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA) of extracts/herbal formulations of Rauvolfia species was analyzed by qualitative and quantitative methods based on the major MIAs such as compounds 144, 164, 182, 190, and 214 using HPTLC, HPLC, and HPLC-MS. The various extracts of different plant parts of thirteen Rauvolfia species are explored for their pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiprotozoal, antitrypanosomal, antipsychotic, cardioprotective, cholinesterase inhibitory, and hepatoprotective. Of which, clinical trials of herbal formulations/extracts of R. serpentina and MIAs have been reported for CVD, CNS, antihypertensive therapy, antidiabetic effects, and psoriasis therapy, while the extracts and phytoconstituents of remaining Rauvolfia species are predominantly significant, owning them to be additional attention for further investigation under clinical trials and QC/QA. Conclusion The present communication has provided a comprehensive, systematic, and critically analyzed vision into the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and modern therapeutic applications of the genus Rauvolfia are validated by scientific evidence. In addition, different plant parts from this genus, especially raw and finished herbal products of the roots of R. serpentina have been demonstrated for the QC/QA.
... showed obvious inhibitory effects against cancers in various preclinical cancer models. In addition, extracts from Amburana cearensis, Syzygium fruticosum, Aglaonema hookerianum Schott, African oil palm leaf, and terpineol have been approved to prevent neurodegenerative diseases and depression in animal models (Goni et al., 2021;Islam et al., 2021;Moni et al., 2021;Silva et al., 2020;Vieira et al., 2020). Natural compounds extracted from plants have been extensively investigated as safer alternative treatments (Akkol et al., 2021). ...
Article
Octacosanol is a widely distributed natural higher aliphatic alcohol that can be isolated and purified from rice bran, sugarcane, beeswax, insect wax, etc. Octacosanol exerts various biological effects, including anti-fatigue, anti-hypoxia, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, etc. Meanwhile, it has the effects of regulating the body's immune function and energy metabolism and has potential benefits for cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disorders, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and others. Octacosanol is primarily responsible for regulating multiple signaling pathways, such as AMPK, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK/NF-κB, to achieve different physiological functions. This review systemically summarized the progress in characterization, extraction and purification, biological functions, molecular mechanisms, and bioavailability of octacosanol. This study will provide a reference for many investigators to further explore the physiological functions of higher aliphatic alcohols and apply them as supplements in functional foods.
... 9.3.2 | Anti-anxiety activityAnxiety is characterized as being an unpleasant emotional state for which the cause cannot be identified or perceived as uncontrollable, which impairs efficiency and induces insomnia, as well as resulting in a wide range of medically unexplained symptoms.123 The hydroalcoholic extract of P. betle leaves was used to assess antianxiety activity in Swiss albino mice. ...
Article
Piper betleL. (synonym: Piper betel Blanco), or betel vine, an economically and medicinally important cash crop, belongs to the family Piperaceae, often known as the green gold. The plant can be found all over the world and is cultivatedprimarily in South East Asian countries for its beautiful glossy heart-shaped leaves, which are chewed or consumed as betelquidand widely used in Chinese and Indian folk medicine, as carminative, stimulant,astringent, against parasitic worms, conjunctivitis, rheumatism,
... In the modern era, plants are the only assuring source for developing medications to treat many diseases [1][2][3][4]. More than a few hundred medicinal plants, for-instance Aglaonema hookerianum [5], Alstonia scholaris [6], Andrographis paniculata [7], Lepidagathis hyaline [8], Ophiorrhiza rugosa [9], Psychotria calocarpa [10], Spirulina platensis [11], and Syzygium fruticosum [12], are widely used as therapeutic sources because of their active principles. India is an ethnobotanically diverse country since traditional medicine relies on ethnic groups for primary health. ...
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Humans have been using herbs to prevent and cure various ailments since antiquity, and Ipomoea wightii is a significant medicinal plant known for its wide ethnobotanical uses. Although the plant is known to treat ulcers, there is no significant scientific validation. �e present study aimed to assess the acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, and antiulcer properties of the leaf methanol extract of I. wightii (IWL). In the subacute study, the extracts were given orally at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses for 28 days, and we analyzed the biochemical and histological parameters to evaluate the toxicity of IWL. Two different models were assessed to explore antiulcer properties, such as the indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer model. Ulcer areas and ulceration percentage histopathology of the stomach were used to study the efficacy of extracts. �e acute toxicity study showed that IWL was safe to the maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. In a subacute toxicity study, the oral administration of IWL did not produce any mortality in the tested animals. The analysis of haematological, liver biochemical, kidney pro†le, lipid pro†le, and in vivo antioxidant parameters depicted that all the values were within the control limits after the experimental period and were considered nontoxic to animals. Additionally, the antiulcer study demonstrated a positive response of IWL in a dose-related manner (indomethacin- and ethanol-induced models). Macroscopic analysis showed that pretreatment with I. wightii leaf methanol extract significantly reduced the gastric lesion and decreased the ulceration area (14.52 mm2), demonstrating superior results to the positive control group (27.71 mm2 ). The histopathological analysis revealed that pretreatment with a high dose of 400 mg/kg of I. wightii leaf methanol extract and positive control group (omeprazole) markedly protected pathological e“ects, and the gastric mucosa appeared normal. In conclusion, I. wightii has solid nontoxic potential as a promising native herb for an integral therapy for the treatment of ulcers.
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Blumea lacera is an edible plant with imperative medicinal values. However, the an-xiolytic and antidepressant roles of B. lacera have not been well-explained. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the impending bioactive metabolites and roles of B. lacera methanol leaf extract (Me-BLL) in attenuating anxiety and depression through several experimental and computer-aided approaches. The chemical characterization of Me-BLL was performed through standard phytochemical and GC-MS analyses. To explore the neuropharmacological insights, Swiss albino mice were treated with Me-BLL at doses of 200-400 mg/kg, p.o. The anxiolytic effects were observed employing elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark box (LDB), and hole-board (HBT) tests, while antidepressant effects were evaluated using forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as the reference standard. The phytochemical analyses revealed several bioactive metabolites, including higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. The EPM and LDB tests demonstrated an increased time spent in open arms and light box, and the HBT showed an increased number of head dipping, indicating the anxiolytic effects of Me-BLL. The TST and FST revealed a decrease in immobility time, meaning the persuasive antidepressant effects. The antioxidative effects of Me-BLL have also been observed prominently. Correspondingly, the computer-aided investigation confirmed several bioactive lead molecules. Specifically, thymol and cuminol revealed potential anxiolytic and antioxidant effects, while stigmast-5-en-3. beta.-ol and gamma-sitosterol possessed promising antidepressant effects. Taken these results as a base, the plant has imperative potentials in managing anxiety and depression-like disorders. K E Y W O R D S antidepressant, antioxidant effects, anxiolytic, Blumea lacera, gamma-sitosterol, thymol
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Background Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties. Method The seeds were powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. Male Wistar rats were administered with graded doses of the n-BuOH extracts (ATB) of A. tuberosum (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. The extract/drug was administered by gastric probe once daily for 45 days and the sexual behavior was analyzed by exposing the male rats to female rats in the estrus period. ResultsATB relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (68.9%) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The results obtained from the animal studies indicated that ATB significantly increased mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL) and markedly reduced post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount latency (ML), and intromission latency (IL). Furthermore, a remarkable increase in the test for potency was observed as witnessed by marked increase in erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In addition, ATB significantly improved the sperm viability and count as well as increased the concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and phosphatases in the treated animals. Conclusion Thus our results suggest that A. tuberosum could stimulate sexual arousal and enhance sexual execution in male rats, thus providing valuable experimental evidence that A. tuberosum possesses sexual enhancing properties.
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The anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antioxidant activities of Vitex peduncularis leaf extracts in methanol (MEVP) were studied through the in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models. The leaves were extracted with methanol and subjected to in vivo anxiolytic and antidepressant screening by using hole-board test (HBT) and forced swimming test (FST) in adult albino mice. Antioxidant activity was screened by using DPPH scavenging assay and total phenolic content (TPC). In silico studies followed by molecular docking analysis and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) properties of several secondary metabolites evaluated with Schrodinger V11.1. In HBT, the oral MEVP treatment (200 and 400 mg kg−1, b.w.) showed dose-dependency, while 400 mg kg−1 exhibited mean head dipping compared to the standard drug, diazepam (1 mg kg−1). Whereas in FST, the highest dose decreased the period of immobility. DPPH scavenging assay (IC50 = 83.72 μg mL−1) and TPC analysis (97.27 ± 8.64 mg GAE g−1) supported the antioxidant effects of MEVP. The secondary metabolites showed promising binding affinities toward the potassium channel, 5-HT1B, and glutathione reductase protein targets in molecular docking analysis. ADME analysis revealed drug-likeness by following Lipinski’s rule.
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Rationale: Classified by the UNODC as a top 20 plant of concern, Piper methysticum (also known as Kava) is being increasingly abused recreationally for its mind-altering effects. It is of significant forensic relevance to establish methods to rapidly identify and quantify psychoactive compounds, especially those yet to be scheduled as controlled substances and which have exhibited various noteworthy health concerns. Methods: Direct analysis in real time-high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) demonstrated the ability to detect a rangeof kavalactones in Piper methysticum derived products and plant material with no sample preparation. In addition, a validated method using calibration curves developed with a deuterated internal standard was used for the quantification of the psychoactive molecule yangonin in various products. Results: DART-HRMS detected the protonated masses of six major kavalactones and three flavokavains in 18 commercial Kava products. A method consistent with FDA validation guidelines was established for the quantification of yangonin in the various complex matrices. Implementation of this method, with an LLOQ of 5 mg/mL, enabled successful quantification of yangonin in 16 Kava products. Concentrations for solid products ranged from 2.71 - 8.99 mg/g, while that for liquid products ranged from 1.03 - 4.59 mg/mL. Conclusions: Rapid identification and quantification of psychoactive small molecules in plant material can be accomplished using a validated DART-HRMS protocol. This work illustrates an approach to qualitative and quantitative analyses of a wide variety of complex matrices derived from plants, and demonstrates that the commercially available products analyzed are P. methysticum derived and do contain psychoactive yangonin at quantifiable levels.
Article
Background: Zingiber zerumbet rhizome has been used as spices and in traditional medicine to heal various immune-inflammatory related ailments. Although the plant was reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties by several studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects have not been well justified. Purpose: The study was carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of the standardized 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet through its effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MyD88)-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K-Akt) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced U937 human macrophages. Methods: Standardization of the 80% ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet was performed by using a validated reversed-phase HPLC method, while LC-MS/MS was used to profile the secondary metabolites. The release of pro-inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the Western blot technique was executed to elucidate the expression of mediators linked to MyD88-dependent respective signaling pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was carried out to quantify the relative gene expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and pro-inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level. Results: The quantitative and qualitative analyses of Z. zerumbet extract showed the presence of several compounds including the major chemical marker zerumbone. Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2 protein expression and downregulated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory markers. Z. zerumbet-treatment also blocked NF-κB activation by preventing the phosphorylation of IKKα/β and NF-κB (p65) as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Z. zerumbet extract concentration-dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of respective MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38) as well as Akt. Correspondingly, Z. zerumbet extract suppressed the upstream signaling adaptor molecules, TLR4 and MyD88 prerequisite for the NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation. Conclusion: The findings suggest that Z. zerumbet has impressive role in suppressing inflammation and related immune disorders by inhibition of various pro-inflammatory markers through the imperative MyD88-dependent NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K-Akt activation.
Article
This study aimed at evaluating the antidepressant-like action of the marine alga Solieria filiformis lectin (SfL) and to investigate the participation of the monoaminergic system in this action. For this, male Swiss mice (n=10) were pretreated with intravenous injections (i.v.) of SfL (1, 3 or 9mg/kg) and submitted to open field (OFT), tail suspension (TST), forced swimming (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPMT) and hole-board tests (HBT). As controls, mice received sterile saline (i.v.), imipramine (10 or 30mg/kg; intraperitoneally - i.p.) or diazepam (1 mk/kg; i.p.). To assess the involvement of the monoaminergic system in SfL effects, the FST was conducted in mice pretreated with PCPA, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, or noradrenergic and dopaminergic receptors specific antagonists. The results showed that SfL has an antidepressant-like effect, with no psychostimulant and anxiolytic-like effects. When denatured or combined with mannan, SfL lost the ability to reduce the immobility time in the FST. In addition, SfL antidepressant-like effect was inhibited by the pretreatment of mice with SCH 23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, and by sulpiride, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. Thus, SfL produced an antidepressant-like effect, which is probably dependent on its interaction with the dopaminergic system.
Article
Plant-derived immunomodulators and anti-cancer agents have attracted a lot of interest from natural products scientists for their efficacy and safety, and their significant contribution towards understanding the targeted drug action and drug delivery mechanisms. Zerumbone, the main constituent of Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes, has been investigated for its wide spectrum role in treating multitargeted diseases. The rhizomes have been used as food flavoring agents in various cuisines and herbal medicine. Many in vivo and in-vitro studies have provided evidence of zerumbone as a potent immunomodulator as well as a potential anti-cancer agent. This review is an interesting compilation of all those significant outcomes from investigations carried out to date to explore the immunomodulatory and anticancer properties of zerumbone. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive review is to provide updated information and a critical assessment on zerumbone including its chemistry, immunomodulating and anticancer properties which may be of paramount importance to provide a new path for ensuing research to discover new agents to treat cancers and immune-related diseases. In addition, updated information on the toxicology of zerumbone has also been summarized to provide its safety profile.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Studies on the effects of natural immunomodulators to heal various diseases related to the immune system have been a growing interest in recent years. Amongst the medicinal plants, Tinospora species (family; Menispermaceae) have been one of the widely investigated plants for their modulating effects on the immune system due to their wide use in ethnomedicine to treat various ailments related to immune-related diseases. However, their ethnopharmacological uses are mainly with limited or without scientific basis. Aim of this review: In this article, we have reviewed the literature on the phytochemicals of several Tinospora species, which have shown strong immunomodulatory effects and critically analyzed the reports to provide perspectives and instructions for future research for the plants as a potential source of new immunomodulators for use as medicinal agents or dietary supplements. Materials and methods: Electronic search on worldwide accepted scientific databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, ACS Publications Today) was performed to compile the relevant information. Some information was obtained from books, database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, MSc dissertations and herbal classics books written in various languages. Results: T. cordifolia, T. crispa, T. sinensis, T. smilacina, T. bakis, and T. sagittata have been reported to possess significant immunomodulatory effects. For a few decades, initiatives in molecular research on the effects of these species on the immune system have been carried out. However, most of the biological and pharmacological studies were carried out using the crude extracts of plants. The bioactive compounds contributing to the bioactivities have not been properly identified, and mechanistic studies to understand the immunomodulatory effects of the plants are limited by many considerations with regard to design, conduct, and interpretation. Conclusion: The plant extracts and their active constituents should be subjected to more detail mechanistic studies, in vivo investigations in various animal models including pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies, and elaborate toxicity study before submission to clinical trials.
Article
A depressed state can be induced in mice by forcing them to swim in a narrow cylinder from which they cannot escape. After a brief period of vigorous activity the mice adopt a characteristic immobile posture which is readily identifiable. Immobility was reduced by tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and atypical antidepressants, as well as by electroconvulsive shock. Psychostimulants also reduced immobility but in contrast to antidepressants caused marked motor stimulation. Immobility was not affected by minor or major tranquilisers. These findings, closely parallel to those we have previously reported in rats, suggest that the procedure is selectively sensitive to antidepressant treatments. The mouse procedure is, however, more rapid and less costly than that with rats and is thus more suitable for the primary screening of antidepressant drugs.
Article
The Chakma community is the largest tribal group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeastern part of Bangladesh. It is a thriving community with their well-established cultural rituals and traditional medicinal practices. The community is spread over a large area comprising of at least four districts. An ethnomedicinal survey was carried out among the tribal medicinal practitioners of the community residing in Rangapanir chara area, which consists of five villages in Panchari Upazila, Khagrachaari district. Three tribal medicinal practitioners were interviewed during the course of this survey. It was observed that the practitioners among themselves used a total of 62 plants distributed into 33 families. The various plants or plant parts were administered for a number of diseases in the form of juice, paste and pills or administered topically. The diseases treated and claimed to be cured by the practitioners included jaundice, helminthiasis, fever, pain, wounds and sores, respiratory tract disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, eye disorders, leucorrhea, menstrual disorders, chicken pox, high blood pressure, rheumatism, insomnia, bone fracture, scorpion or poisonous insect bite, tumor in stomach, sexual disorders, kidney or gall bladder stone, cholera, burning sensations, infections of genital organs, kala azar, hydrocele, diabetes, obesity, skin diseases, burns, and urinary problems. It appeared from the number of plants used for treatment that rheumatism is a major disease affecting the Chakma community that was surveyed. Altogether, 13 plants were used for treatment of rheumatism or rheumatic pain. Rheumatism is a disease which cannot be cured with allopathic medicine. As such, the plants used by the practitioners for treatment of rheumatism merit further scientific studies toward a possible cure for this disease.
Article
In Huntington's disease (HD) depression is observed before the disease is diagnosed, and is likely to be a component of the disease, rather than a consequence. Depression in HD patients does not progress in parallel with other symptoms; rather it peaks at early- to mid-stages of the disease and declines thereafter. In mice, depressive-like behaviours can be measured as an increase in behavioural despair (floating) observed in the forced swim test (FST). Floating in the FST is modulated differently by antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. Drugs that increase levels of serotonin inhibit floating by promoting horizontal swimming, whereas drugs that increase levels of noradrenaline inhibit floating by enhancing vertical swimming (climbing). We compared the FST behavioural profiles of two different allelic series of HD mice, a fragment model (R6/2 mice carrying 120, 250, or 350 CAG repeats), and a knock-in model (Hdh mice carrying 50, 150, or 250 CAG repeats). The FST behavioural profile was similar in both lines. It was characterized by an early-stage increase in floating, and then, as the mice aged, floating decreased, whereas active behaviours of swimming and climbing increased. Our results show that, as with depression in HD patients, floating in HD mice does not progress linearly, suggesting that, at the late stages of the disease, an increase in serotonergic and noradrenergic activity might contribute to lower floating levels in HD mice. If similar compensatory changes occur in humans, this should be taken into account when considering the treatment of depression in HD patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Article
Vajikaran Chikitsa is the branch of Ashtanga Ayurveda, which deals with all types of physical and psychological sexual problems like impotence, libido, poor erection, and early ejaculation in males. The WHO estimated that the usage of traditional medicine in developing countries is 80% and suggested a need for further exploration of the natural aphrodisiacs for the mechanism of action. Considering the prevalence of the sexual dysfunctioning in the society, side effects with the conventional aphrodisiac drugs, the study was planned to evaluate some Ayurvedic plants like Abutilon indicum and Withania somnifera for the aphrodisiac potential. An attempt was also made to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of these plants for their use in Vagikarana chikitsa. From the present study, it could be concluded that A. indicum and W. somnifera both possessed marked aphrodisiac activity complying many facets such as enhancement in libido, increase in the sexual performance, penile erection and anabolism, increased spermatogenesis as well as sperm validity. Study results pointed out the place of these drugs in the Vajikarana Chikitsa. A. indicum would be useful in management of erectile dysfunction as it had shown to relax penile cavernosal tissue probably by phosphodiesterase inhibition and cGMP accumulation.
Article
Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses.
Article
The aim of the clinical study was to evaluate the effect of Testofen, a standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) extract and mineral formulation, on male libido (sexual drive, urge or desire) in a double blind randomized placebo controlled study. The study recruited 60 healthy males aged between 25 and 52, without erectile dysfunction and randomized to an oral dose (two tablets per day) of the active treatment (600 mg Testofen per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the DISF-SR (male) self-administered QOL total score and the four domain scores. The secondary outcome was specific quality of life parameters. Testofen had an overall positive effect on physiological aspects of libido. In particular, there was a significant increase in the subdomains of sexual arousal and orgasm. Testofen had a positive effect on QOL in self-reported satisfaction with muscle strength, energy and well-being but did not have an effect on mood or sleep. Serum prolactin and testosterone levels remained within the reference range. It was concluded that Testofen demonstrated a significant positive effect on physiological aspects of libido and may assist to maintain normal healthy testosterone levels. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.
Article
The effect of an ethanolic extract of Salvia haematodes roots was studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. In the initial experiments, male sexual responses were assessed by recording penile erection, licking and grooming of genitals and copulatory movement in absence of females. In the second set, copulatory behaviour was observed by caging males with a receptive female brought into estrus with s.c. injection of estradiol benzoate and progesterone. The frequencies of mounting and intromission and latency of the ejaculation were recorded. The results show that the extract (500 mg/kg, orally) produced a significant increase in episodes of penile erection. The drug was found to enhance the orientation of males towards the female by increased anogenital investigatory behaviour and enhanced licking and grooming of the genitals. The extract also increased the ejaculation latency. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac and for the treatment of premature ejaculation.
Article
In the present study, the pro-sexual effect of the cihuapatli (Montanoa tomentosa) and its possible pro-ejaculatory properties in spinal male rats were examined. Systemic administration of the aqueous crude extracts of Montanoa tomentosa exerted a pro-ejaculatory effect and produced an increase in the number of discharges in the ejaculatory motor patterns in the spinal rats. The cihuapatli-induced ejaculatory responses included the expression of penile erections and penile movements and the potent expulsion of urethral contents and in some cases the expulsion of seminal plugs. The cihuapatli-induced ejaculatory motor patterns were similar to that obtained after systemic oxytocin. Cihuapatli- and oxytocin-induced ejaculatory motor responses and the penile erections and movements were abolished by the pre-treatment with hexamethonium, a selective oxytocin antagonist. Present data show that the cihuapatli extract acts directly at the spinal system in charge of the expression of the ejaculatory motor patterns and suggest that the aqueous crude extract exerts its aphrodisiacs properties by increasing sexual potency acting as an oxytocic agent.
Article
The goal of the current work is to provide a comprehensive review and interpretation of the literature on the human and economic burden of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and how it compares with that of other mental disorders. The term "human burden" is used to describe quantified impairments in role functioning and quality of life (QOL). "Economic burden" describes costs related to health care resource utilization and lost work. A review of 34 studies reporting original quantitative data on associations between GAD and role functioning, QOL, and/or economic costs was undertaken. GAD was defined by DMS-III-R, DSM-IV, or ICD-10 DCR. Persons with GAD (both with and without a comorbid mental disorder) described significant impairments due to both physical and emotional problems. Studies typically showed that role and QOL impairments of GAD were at least comparable in magnitude to those of other anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, and physical conditions, and greater than those of substance use disorders. Large representative studies showed that role impairments of pure GAD were similar in magnitude to those of pure MDD. Studies of DSM-IV disorders showed that QOL impairments of GAD were at least comparable in magnitude to those of MDD; studies of DSM-III-R disorders showed the opposite pattern. GAD was associated with considerable economic costs owing to lost work productivity and high medical resource use. Quality of care initiatives that have been implemented to increase recognition and improve treatment outcomes for persons with MDD should be extended to the effective management of GAD.
Article
Caesalpinia benthamiana (=Mezoneuron benthamianum) (Fabaceae) is an African tropical plant whose roots are used in traditional medicine as an aqueous decoction for many purposes, especially for erection impairment but its action mechanism is unknown. The action of Caesalpinia benthamiana on sexual behaviour and some assays on potential modes of action were performed. The aqueous extract of Caesalpinia benthamiana (AECB) was tested for vasorelaxing properties using isolated rat aortic rings precontracted by phenylephrine. Influence of AECB in the production of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis. Scavenging activities versus reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O(2).(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) were assessed. Action of AECB on the cellular generation of O(2).(-) was also tested in a physiopathology model of oxidative burst using human polymorphonuclear neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. The aphrodisiac properties of AECB administered orally by gavage (50 mg/kg body weight) to male rats were evaluated by observing the sexual behaviour of animals. Finally, a short-term toxicity study was undertaken to establish the therapeutic index of AECB administered orally to rats at high dose (2 g/kg body weight). C. benthamiana roots are rich in phenolic compounds (gallic acid, resveratrol and tannins). The results showed that AECB had significant vasorelaxing properties. The extract also had a strong radical activity against ROS in cell-free and cellular systems and stimulated eNOS mRNA expression. As for the aphrodisiac activity of AECB in male rats, results have shown that sexual parameters are stimulated. Furthermore, after oral administration at high dose, AECB causes no mortality or changes in rats' behaviour. AECB enhanced the sexual activity of male rats. This could be partly explained by its vasorelaxant properties, which may be caused by an increase in NO production in vascular bed and a decrease in its destruction.
Article
We have recently shown that the hexanic extract from leaves of Schinus molle produces antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test in mice. This study investigated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract from aerial part of S. molle in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice, two predictive models of depression. Moreover, we investigated the antidepressant potential of rutin, a flavonoid isolated from the ethanolic extract of this plant and the influence of the pretreatment with the inhibitors of serotonin or noradrenaline synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA) and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT), respectively in the antidepressant-like effect of this flavonoid. The administration of the ethanolic extract produced a reduction in the immobility time in the tail suspension test (dose range 600-1000 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test. It also produced a reduction in the ambulation in the open-field test in mice not previously habituated to the arena, but no effect in the locomotor activity in mice previously habituated to the open-field. The administration of rutin reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.), but not in the forced swimming test, without producing alteration in the locomotor activity. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA (100 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 consecutive days) or AMPT (100 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the anti-immobility effect of rutin (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the tail suspension test. The results firstly indicated the antidepressant-like effect of the ethanolic extract of S. molle in the tail suspension test may be dependent on the presence of rutin that likely exerts its antidepressant-like effect by increasing the availability of serotonin and noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft.
A comparative study of thrombolytic effects of methanolic extract of Bridelia stipularis and Aglaonema hookerianum leaf
  • M Biozid
  • M N Alam
  • M F Alam
  • M A Islam
  • M H Rahman
Biozid, M., Alam, M.N., Alam, M.F., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.H., 2015. A comparative study of thrombolytic effects of methanolic extract of Bridelia stipularis and Aglaonema hookerianum leaf. The Pharma Innovation Journal 4 (5), 05-07.
Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs and Shrubs by Traditional Herbal Practitioners: Glimpses from Thanchi Upazila of Bandarban. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Bolipara Nari Kalyan Somity, and Keidanren Nature Conservation Fund
  • M A Motaleb
Motaleb, M.A., 2013. Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs and Shrubs by Traditional Herbal Practitioners: Glimpses from Thanchi Upazila of Bandarban. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Bolipara Nari Kalyan Somity, and Keidanren Nature Conservation Fund.
A comparative study of thrombolytic effects of methanolic extract of Bridelia stipularis and Aglaonema hookerianum leaf
  • Biozid