ArticleLiterature Review

International Consensus Statement on Rhinology and Allergy: Rhinosinusitis

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Abstract

Background: The 5 years since the publication of the first International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Rhinosinusitis (ICAR‐RS) has witnessed foundational progress in our understanding and treatment of rhinologic disease. These advances are reflected within the more than 40 new topics covered within the ICAR‐RS‐2021 as well as updates to the original 140 topics. This executive summary consolidates the evidence‐based findings of the document. Methods: ICAR‐RS presents over 180 topics in the forms of evidence‐based reviews with recommendations (EBRRs), evidence‐based reviews, and literature reviews. The highest grade structured recommendations of the EBRR sections are summarized in this executive summary. Results: ICAR‐RS‐2021 covers 22 topics regarding the medical management of RS, which are grade A/B and are presented in the executive summary. Additionally, 4 topics regarding the surgical management of RS are grade A/B and are presented in the executive summary. Finally, a comprehensive evidence‐based management algorithm is provided. Conclusion: This ICAR‐RS‐2021 executive summary provides a compilation of the evidence‐based recommendations for medical and surgical treatment of the most common forms of RS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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... Nasal saline irrigation plays a crucial role in the treatment of CRS. Nasal saline irrigation for patients with chronic sinusitis or after ESS was recommended in the Cochrane Review published in 2016 [45], the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS) guideline published in 2020 [7], and the International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology Consensus Statement in 2021 [46]. Nasal irrigation can be actively recommended for patients with CRS because it does not pose a medical risk or financial burden to patients. ...
... Nasal irrigation can be actively recommended for patients with CRS because it does not pose a medical risk or financial burden to patients. Nasal irrigation is known to improve CRS by thinning any mucus that is present, mechanically removing the mucus and crust, improving mucociliary transport, decreasing mucosal edema, reducing the surface antigen load, disrupting biofilms, washing out inflammatory mediators, and hydrating the sol layer [46][47][48]. The side effects of nasal irrigation are generally mild or uncommon, and nasal pain and bleeding may occur. ...
... Primary CRS is characterized by prolonged inflammation of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [7,46,66]. Thus, nasal irrigation with a steroid solution is theoretically predicted to help reduce symptoms and inflammation in CRS, especially in the postoperative state, in addition to the effects of saline irrigation described above. A double-blind placebo-controlled study investigated the effect of steroid nasal irrigation versus steroid nasal spray on patients' symptoms, endoscopic views, and radiologic findings after ESS [67]. ...
Article
The Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Korean Rhinologic Society appointed a guideline development group (GDG) to establish a clinical practice guideline, and the GDG developed a guideline for nasal irrigation for adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The guideline focuses on knowledge gaps, practice variations, and clinical concerns associated with nasal irrigation. Nasal irrigation has been recommended as the first-line treatment for CRS in various guidelines, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated through a number of studies with robust evidence. However, no guidelines have presented a consistent nasal irrigation method. Several databases, including OVID Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched to identify all relevant papers using a predefined search strategy. When insufficient evidence was found, the GDG sought expert opinions and attempted to fill the evidence gap. Evidence-based recommendations for practice were ranked according to the American College of Physicians grading system. The committee developed 11 evidence-based recommendations. This guideline focuses on the evidence-based quality improvement opportunities deemed the most important by the GDG. Moreover, the guideline addresses whether nasal lavage helps treat CRS, what type of rinsing solution should be used, and the effectiveness of using additional medications to increase the therapeutic effect.
... 1,2 The nasal cavity and nasopharynx constitute regions with heightened viral loads, likely as a result of increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, the receptor for COVID-19 invasion, among the epithelium. 3,4 As such, otolaryngologists, being in close and frequent contact with these anatomic sites, are at possible heightened risk for infection. 5,6 Unsurprisingly, there were several early reports from China and Italy of increased infection rates amongst otolaryngologists and members of their surgical teams during skull base surgery, even those wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). ...
... The field of Otolaryngology, of all surgical subspecialities, has produced the highest number of SARS-CoV-2 related research, with rhinology being the most published subgroup. 3 Consequences from the pandemic and their application to rhinology reflect the need for continuing research. For example, the cancellation of elective surgeries during the early wave of the pandemic, and potentially from future waves, creates a surgical backlog, of which rhinologic procedures are likely at the tail end. ...
... 7 Such delays can negatively impact patients and result in worsened quality of life and outcomes. 3,7 Furthermore, rhinologic procedures are often aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), thereby further increasing the risk for infection among providers and warranting research on effective preventative strategies. In addition, clinical management needs to be considered as sensory disorders resulting from SARS-CoV-2 are also hallmarks of certain rhinologic conditions. ...
The Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused disruptions in the normal patient care workflow, necessitating adaptations within the healthcare profession. The objective of this article is to outline some of these adaptations and considerations necessitated by COVID-19 within the subspeciality of rhinology and endoscopic skull base surgery.
... Description of the condition Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a clinical syndrome defined by persistent symptomatic inflammation of the nasal and paranasal mucosa, characterised by two or more symptoms, one of which should either be nasal blockage/obstruction/congestion or nasal discharge. [1][2][3] The latter affects 5%-28% of the general population and tremendously impacts patients' socioeconomic conditions and quality of life. The healthcare costs are higher in rhinosinusitis than in other diseases such as peptic ulcers, asthma and hay fever. ...
... Indirect costs are also significant, since it affects working age, leading to absenteeism and decreased productivity. [2][3][4][5][6][7] A health state utility research found that patients with CRS had worse utility value than those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure and Parkinson's disease. 8 The aetiology of CRS involves bacterial superantigens, epithelial cell defects, biofilm, T helper 1 and 2 inflammation responses and tissue remodelling. ...
Article
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Introduction: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a current procedure for treating patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Image-guided surgery (IGS) for ESS may help reduce complications and improve precision. However, it is uncertain in which cases IGS is beneficial. This work aims to compare ESS with and without IGS in patients with CRS. Methods and analysis: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, LILACS and Clinicaltrials.gov will be searched for reported clinical trials comparing the quality of life and perioperative outcomes of ESS with and without navigation. The search is planned for 20 April 2022. Three independent authors will select eligible articles and extract their data. The risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation method will evaluate the strength of the evidence. Data synthesis will be performed using the Review Manager software V.5.4.1. To assess heterogeneity, I2 statistics will be computed. Additionally, meta-analysis will be performed if the included studies are sufficiently homogenous. Ethics and dissemination: This study reviews published data, and thus it is not necessary to obtain ethical approval. The findings of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Prospero registration number: CRD42020214791.
... Today, most studies concentrate on endotypedriven inflammation in the sinus mucosa. In recent years, Type 2 inflammation has been the most studied, characterized by the presence of interleukins 4,5,9,13 and eosinophils in peripheral blood or nasal mucosal biopsies. 7 Other inflammatory pathways such as Th-17/Th-22, Th1, and neutrophilic inflammation have also been implicated and appear to be more common in the CRSsNP patient population. ...
... but may vary depending on the spray used, both of which are supported by high levels of evidence. 5 High volume nasal corticosteroid delivery by adding corticosteroid to the saline irrigation appears to provide incremental benefit without additional risk. Systemic corticosteroid therapy can provide immediate transient relief of many CRS symptoms, but regular use is associated with significant side-effects and risk, and escalation of therapy should be considered if it is required more than one to two times per year. ...
... As for rhinitis, i.e. inflammation of nasal passage, it can co-exist with sinusitis. The term rhinosinusitis has been used since 1990 and is well adopted globally (1)(2)(3)(4)(5). The presentation may have been perceived differently depending on the patient's initial assessment and treatment. ...
Article
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects 14% of the general population. The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22) is a reliable instrument assessing the impact of CRS. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of SNOT-22. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Otorhinolaryngology clinic in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Seventy CRS respondents and 39 healthy participants were included. The Bahasa Malaysia translated SNOT-22 (bmSNOT-22) was produced using rigorous forward and backward translation. Statistical analyses used included feasibility, Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient and factor analysis. Results: The feasibility was 97.2% in the initial test and 100% in the retest. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 in the initial test. The average intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.90, indicating good test-retest reliability. The bmSNOT-22 discriminated between the control group and patients (t = 15.33; P < 0.001). Conclusion: The bmSNOT-22 is reliable, and validity established therefore recommended for Malaysia's clinicians and researchers as a measurement tool for the outcome in sino-nasal disorders such as rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps.
... CRS patients report the subjective reduction in their quality of life as being worse than patients with chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (Metson and Gliklich, 2000;Soler et al., 2011). Diagnosis is based on the ICAR : RS (Orlandi et al., 2021) criteria. The existence of a type 2 response, including tissue/serum eosinophils, tissue/serum IgE and the cytokines Il-4, Il-5 and Il-13, is currently the only measure for classifying the disease and predicting potential therapies (Fokkens et al., 2020). ...
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Non-invasive biomarker analysis has made repetitive and painless sampling over time possible. Exosomes are being released from a parent cell and their cargo mirrors the cell micromilieu of the parent cell. Therefore, exosomes are promising surrogates for their parent cells. That is also why exosomes provide an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Current studies have identified valid non-invasive biomarkers that may be able to monitor disease severity. Exosomes are suggested to play an important role in interepithelial communication and are suggested to play a role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammation in CRS. They are, however, also involved simultaneously in several immunological processes including immune protection and immunosuppression. As the isolation of exosomes is time-consuming their value in everyday routine diagnostics has yet to be determined.
... Eighty-two control subjects and 375 patients with CRSwNP were enrolled. CRSwNP was diagnosed according to the current guidelines (Fokkens et al., 2020;Orlandi et al., 2021). Control subjects were those undergoing septoplasty because of anatomic variations without any other inflammatory sinonasal disorders. ...
Article
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The mechanisms underlying neutrophilic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain poorly investigated. This study aimed to examine the factors that contribute to tissue neutrophilia in CRSwNP. The numbers of neutrophils and active caspase-3-positive apoptotic neutrophils in sinonasal tissues were assessed via immunofluorescence staining. The 95th percentile of tissue neutrophil numbers in control subjects was selected as a cut-off to define neutrophil-high (Neu-high) or neutrophil-low (Neu-low) nasal polyps (NPs). The levels of 34 inflammatory mediators in sinonasal tissues were analyzed using Bio-Plex assay. Purified human peripheral blood neutrophils were incubated with nasal tissue homogenates, and the apoptotic neutrophils were assessed via flow cytometry. The cut-off for Neu-high NPs was >10 myeloperoxidase positive cells/high-power field. Compared with Neu-low NPs, Neu-high NPs had higher tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, MCP-1, and MIP-1α, but lower levels of IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and eosinophils. Principal component and multiple correspondence analyses revealed mixed type 1, type 2, and type 3 endotypes for Neu-low NPs, and predominant type 1 and type 3 endotypes for Neu-high NPs. Neu-high NPs had lower percentages of apoptotic neutrophils than Neu-low NPs. The numbers of neutrophils and the percentages of apoptotic neutrophils correlated with G-CSF and IL-6 levels in the NPs. Tissue homogenates from Neu-high NPs, but not those from Neu-low NPs, suppressed neutrophil apoptosis in vitro , which was reversed by anti-G-CSF treatment. Tissue neutrophil numbers were associated with difficult-to-treat disease in patients with CRSwNP after surgery. We propose that G-CSF promotes neutrophilic inflammation by inhibiting neutrophil apoptosis in CRSwNP.
... Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory upper airway disease with a high symptom burden, including nasal congestion, smell disorders, nasal discharge, and facial pain/pressure [1,2]. Based on the presence or absence of nasal polyps, CRS can be classified as without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) or with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), which have distinct inflammatory profiles and pathogenesis. ...
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Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a high symptom burden, including nasal congestion and smell disorders. This study performed a detailed transcriptomic analysis in CRSwNP classified as eosinophilic CRS (ECRS), nonECRS according to the Japanese Epidemiological Survey of Refractory Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis (JESREC) criteria, and a group of ECRS with comorbid aspirin intolerant asthma (Asp). Gene expression profiles of nasal polyps and the uncinate process in CRSwNP patients and normal subjects (controls) were generated by bulk RNA barcoding and sequencing (BRB-seq). A differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis was performed using DESeq2 software in iDEP to clarify any relationship between gene expression and disease backgrounds. A total of 3004 genes were identified by DEGs analysis to be associated with ECRS vs control, nonECRS vs control, and Asp vs control. A pathway analysis showed distinct profiles between the groups. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) showed distinct phenotype-specific pathways of expressed genes. In the specific pathway of “cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction”, the differentially expressed genes were widely distributed. This study indicates that transcriptome analysis using BRB-seq may be a valuable tool to explore the pathogenesis of type 2 inflammation in CRSwNP.
Article
Objective To compare healthcare resource use (HCRU) in patients undergoing sinus surgery with or without steroid-eluting sinus implants Methods A retrospective, observational cohort study using real-world evidence data (OM1, Inc, Boston, MA, USA) was conducted on adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyps who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery between 2014 and 2019 and had at least 18 months of data both before and after surgery. Patients receiving implants (“implant cohort”) were matched to patients who did not receive implants (“non-implant cohort”) based on a propensity score developed using baseline characteristics. Chi-square for binary variables and analysis of variance tests for continuous variables were applied to compare HCRU measures. Results Comparison of the implant (N =1,983) and non-implant (N = 1,983) cohorts during the 18-month follow-up period demonstrated significantly lower HCRU in those receiving implants, including all-cause outpatient visits (94.3% vs. 96.6%, p < 0.001), otolaryngologist visits (47.3% vs. 59.6%, p < 0.001) and all cause ER/urgent care visits (9.2% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.007), as well as sinus-related endoscopies (39.1% vs. 43.8%, p = 0.003). Although not statistically significant, fewer patients in the implant cohort had undergone repeat surgeries (4.6% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.273). Conclusion Patients with steroid-eluting sinus implants had lower HCRU over a post-operative period of 18 months. These findings support the contention that reductions in HCRU may be achieved using steroid-eluting implants during sinus surgery.
Article
Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has emerged as a distinct diagnostic entity, unique from other endotypes of CRS in its presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. As the sinonasal health of this patient population may have broad effects on pulmonary health and quality of life, a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to CF CRS is essential. Recognizing recent scientific advances and unique treatment modalities specific to this challenging patient population, this review systematically evaluates the scientific literature and provides an evidenced-based review with recommendations (EBRR) for fundamental management principles of CF CRS. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed. Studies evaluating interventions for the management of CF CRS were included. An iterative review process was implemented in accordance with EBRR guidelines. A treatment recommendation was generated based on an assessment of the benefits, harms and the overall grade of evidence. Results This review evaluated the published literature on five unique topics. Each of the following therapeutic categories was investigated explicitly with regard to treatment outcomes in patients with CF CRS: 1) nasal saline; 2) intranasal corticosteroids (INCS); 3) topical antibiotics; 4) cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapy; and 5) endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Conclusion Based on the currently available evidence, nasal saline, ESS, and CFTR modulators are recommended in the management of CF CRS when appropriate. INCS and topical antibiotics are options. Clinical judgment and experience are essential in caring for patients with this uniquely challenging disorder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Background: High tissue and blood eosinophils are linked to poor treatment outcome in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). However, the difference between the patients with different level of blood or tissue eosinophilia in relation to disease control is still lacking. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize patients with CRSwNP with intensely high eosinophil level. Methods: A retrospective study of CRSwNP patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery was conducted. The patients were subdivided with various cut-off values of blood and tissue eosinophils. Tissue eosinophils of ≥50% and 10%-20% were defined as intensely high tissue eosinophils (IH-tissue-eos) and high tissue eosinophils (H-tissue-eos), respectively. Blood eosinophils of ≥0.6 × 109/L and 0.2 × 109/L-0.3 × 109/L were defined as intensely high blood eosinophils (IH-blood-eos) and high blood eosinophils (H-blood-eos). Clinical characteristics, Lund-Mackay score (LMS), and disease control status were compared between subgroups. Results: A total of 302 patients were enrolled. There was a trend toward a higher rate of uncontrolled disease when the patients subdivided by blood eosinophil cut-off values ranged from 0.1 × 109/L to 0.6 × 109/L. The controlled patients accounted for 27%, 36%, 22%, and 31%, and the uncontrolled patients 46%, 32%, 52%, and 31% of patients in IH-tissue-eos, H-tissue-eos, IH-blood-eos, and H-blood-eos subgroup, respectively. The percentages of patients in the three categories of control were not significantly different between IH-tissue-eos and H-tissue-eos subgroups. By contrast, the IH-blood-eos subgroup had higher percentages of current smoker and asthma, preoperative LMS and tissue eosinophil percentage, and showed a trend toward a higher rate of uncontrolled subjects compare with the H-blood-eos subgroup. Conclusion: CRSwNP patients with IH-blood-eos (≥0.6 × 109/L) may be possibly associated with a poorer disease control than those with levels near the threshold of blood eosinophilia (0.2 × 109/L-0.3 × 109/L). Further larger, preferably prospective studies are needed to confirm this relationship.Level of Evidence: 4.
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Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is a pathological condition which leads to high healthcare-related costs and low quality of life for patients. The introduction of new biological therapies (monoclonal antibodies, MAbs) in CRSwNP patients has allowed new therapeutic options for non-responders to conventional therapies and Dupilumab represents the first approved biological agent. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical clinical multidisciplinary protocol which might help clinicians involved in this field to monitor the clinical outcomes. Methods Our centre of Rhinology and Rhino-Allergology has developed a dedicated collection form to observe the outcomes of patients treated with Dupilumab. Our research started from the indications given in EPOS 2020 as main reference. We then implemented these references in an electronic database trying to apply Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) in current clinical practice. Results The result consists of three parts: an anamnestic collection data, a clinician reported outcome and two patient reported outcomes (PROMs) questionnaire, the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22). The tables we propose should provide an adequate correlation with the patients’ adherence to therapy and their treatment outcomes. Such periodical evaluation (after a month, after 3 months, after 6 months and at one year) should quickly allow to monitor if the patient is correctly assuming the therapy and the eventual objective improvements. Conclusions We propose a practical monitoring protocol formulated to analyse both objective and subjective aspects of patients with severe uncontrolled CRSwNP treated with MAbs, thus helping to define in future a better comparison between the clinical results of different institutes.
Article
Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) rely on patient-reported symptoms and quality of life measures which are subject to bias. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) captures data in real-time through repeated short surveys, thus reducing errors/biases. EMA's use in sinonasal conditions has not been well described, and the goal of this study was to examine the literature in EMA and AR/CRS. METHODS: A literature review was performed using the following search terms: AR, CRS and EMA. Inclusion criteria were the use of EMA reporting of sinonasal symptoms at more than one time point. Systematic reviews and non-full text articles were excluded. Population demographics, sinonasal disease, type of EMA platform used, type and severity of symptoms reported, medication use and symptom correlation with location/pollen/pollution were collected. Results: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, and all focused on AR. All studies were conducted outside the US in both children and adults. Seven studies used a smartphone application for reporting symptoms, and one used WeChat surveys. EMA data collection varied, with repetitive survey intervals determined either by patients (n=6) or research team (n=2). All studies reported sinonasal severity scores while 6 reported additional symptoms (e.g., ocular, pulmonary, sleep, general health). Five collected self-reported allergy medication use. Seven studies correlated symptoms with location, pollen or pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies in AR and no studies in CRS assessed the use of EMA. EMA may provide a better understanding of the real-time relationship of environmental triggers with symptoms, in turn guiding treatment decisions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Knowledge of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) epidemiology may directly impact patient care: aiding patient identification and establishing accurate diagnosis as well as informing treatment decisions. The objective of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the epidemiology of CRS, with a focus on prevalence and risk factors. While the presence of either symptoms or objective findings alone have yielded CRS prevalence estimates of over 10%, the presence of both—consistent with guideline-based diagnostic criteria for CRS—has suggested that the true prevalence of CRS is consistently less than 5%, with approximately one third of CRS patients having nasal polyps in epidemiologic studies from around the world. In comparison, the prevalence of CRS endotypes—pathophysiologic subclassification of CRS most commonly as related to type-2 or non-type-2 inflammation —has been found to vary significantly by region. The epidemiology of CRS is modified and ultimately determined by risk factors: genetic/hereditary, demographic, environmental, and imparted by predictive pre-/comorbid disease. Understanding of these epidemiologic relationships may help the provider to optimally identify and understand each individual’s CRS disease process, thereby improving both diagnosis and treatment.
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Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-system disease that often requires otolaryngology care. Individuals with CF commonly suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis but also present with hearing loss and dysphonia. Given these manifestations of CF, otolaryngologists are frequently involved in the care of the CF patient; however, there is limited consensus on optimal management of sinonasal, otologic and laryngologic symptoms. Methods: The CF Foundation convened a multidisciplinary team of otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, audiologists, pharmacists, a social worker, a nurse coordinator, a respiratory therapist, two adults with CF, and a caregiver of a child with CF to develop consensus recommendations. Workgroups developed draft recommendation statements based on a systematic literature review and a ≥80% consensus was required for acceptance of each recommendation statement. Results: The committee voted on 25 statements. 11 statements were adopted recommending a treatment or intervention, while 5 statements were formulated recommending against a specific treatment or intervention. The committee recommended 8 statements as an option for select patients in certain circumstances, and 1 statement did not reach consensus. Conclusion: These multidisciplinary consensus recommendations will help providers navigate decisions related to Otolaryngology consultation, medical and surgical management of CF-CRS, hearing, and voice in individuals with CF. A collaborative and multidisciplinary approach is advocated to best care for our CF patients. Future clinical research is needed utilizing standardized, validated outcomes with comprehensive reporting of patient outcome, effects of modulator therapies, and genetic characteristics to help continue to advance care, decrease morbidity and improve the quality of life for individuals with CF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This study investigated the relationship between sinonasal inflammatory involvement according to computed tomography (CT) staging system (Lund-Mackay score) with clinical, laboratory, histopathological and prognostic features of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Seventy-eight patients with CRSwNP who had undergone surgery were enrolled. Total (p=0.0062), ethmoid (p=0.0496), sphenoid (p=0.0335), ostiomeatal complex (OMC) (p= 0.0235) and frontal (p=0.0164) CT scores were predictive of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) in the univariate analysis. Total (p=0.0022), ethmoid (p=0.0290), sphenoid (p=0.0370), frontal (p=0.0116), maxillary (p=0.0357) and OMC (p=0.0058) CT scores were predictve of asthma at the univariate analysis. No significant differences were found between patients with vs without allergy in terms of total and partial CT scores. High blood eosinophil counts (>0.24 vs ≤0.24 cells×109/L) resulted associated with total (p=0.0213), maxillary (p=0.0227) and ethmoid (p=0.0491) CT scores in the univariate analysis. Higher ethmoid (p=0.0006) and total sinonasal (p=0.0027) CT scores were found to predict histopathologically eosinophil CRSwNPs in the univariate analysis. CT scores did not result predictive of NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease, asthma, or blood eosinophil count at the multivariate analysis. Risk of relapse was related to presence of NERD (p=0.0207, HR [95% CI] 3.914 [1.232 - 12.435]), higher preoperative total (HR=1.098 95%CI: 1.001-1.204, p=0.0486) and frontal sinus CT scores (HR=1.555 95%CI: 1.006-1.886, p=0.0218), but these results were not confirmed by the multivariable analysis. Sinonasal CT scores showed significant differences in this heterogeneous inflammatory condition. Identifying CRSwNP characteristics is necessary to avoid generic treatments with poor outcomes.
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Background Although different methods of nasal irrigation have been utilized, irrigation efficiency in nasal cavities has not been well assessed. The objective of this study was to develop an apparatus and procedure for evaluating the irrigation efficiency and to explore the optimal head position during irrigation. Methods Casts of the left sinonasal cavity from a healthy volunteer were made from high-resolution computed tomography data using 3D printing with composite materials. An adjustable apparatus that allowed cast fixation at the different head positions was built. The yogurt was used to simulate mucus. The cast with 5ml yogurt filled around the superior, middle, and inferior turbinate was fixed in six head positions including head tilt 10, 45, and 60 degrees forward with or without leaning 30 degrees to the right. The cast was irrigated with 120ml, 175ml, and 240ml dyed water and was video recorded. The irrigation efficiency was calculated based on the weight difference of the cast before and after the irrigation. Results Most residual yogurt was located around the superior meatus after the irrigation under different volumes and head positions. The irrigation efficiency of the rinse bottle or the pulsatile device was volume-dependent, with the highest irrigation efficiency under 240ml water. When the left sinonasal cavity was irrigated, the head position of tilt 45 degrees forward with leaning 30 degrees to the right was the optimal head position for these two devices when compared to other positions. The pulsatile device with 240ml water performed better than the rinse bottle with 240ml water regarding the irrigation efficiency under the optimal head position (0.87000.0138 vs 0.75360.0099, p=0.003). Conclusions The developed apparatus provided a potential method for evaluating the irrigation efficiency. The head position of tilt 45 degrees forward with leaning 30 degrees was suitable for patients to perform the nasal irrigation.
Article
The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps, EPOS, latest version EPOS2020 and the International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Rhinosinusitis, ICAR-RS, latest version ICAR-RS-2021, assimilate thousands of articles on the topic of rhinosinusitis. Encompassing scores of subtopics and relying on the perspectives of many international experts, EPOS2020 and ICAR-RS-2021 reduce the existing data into consumable formats and create evidence-based recommendations. The approaches and findings are similar in many respects but have significant differences. This clinical commentary, authored by some of the principal authors of these documents, compares and contrasts EPOS2020 and ICAR-RS-2021, examining methodology, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and each document’s emphases. This commentary demonstrates that, through somewhat differing methodologies, the two documents arrive at largely similar conclusions. Those who care for patients suffering from rhinosinusitis will find the documents complementary and valuable in their differences as much as in their similarities.
Article
Background : Patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) are among the most challenging rhinologic patients to treat. AERD has a complex inflammatory milieu of lipid mediators and cytokines. In this study we evaluated cytokine differences in the complex AERD environment at the mucus, epithelial and tissue levels. Methods : Samples were acquired at the time of sinus surgery from twenty-one patients (7 steroid-treated, 14 untreated) with aspirin challenge-confirmed AERD. Three methods (sponge adsorption, epithelial brushing, tissue biopsy) were used to acquire samples from the respective sinus sampling sites (mucus, polyp epithelium, and full thickness polyp) of each patient. We measured and compared 16 cytokine concentrations in AERD patients with or without prednisone treatment using the Luminex platform. Results : In most sampling sites, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-33, CCL20, and TNF-α were detected at higher concentrations than IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-4, IL-22, IL-17E/IL25 and GM-CSF. Each sampling site had a different pattern of cytokine levels and except for IL-5 and IL-25 there was no correlation among sampling methods for each cytokine tested. The most notable and significant decreases in cytokines from those treated with prednisone were observed in the epithelium for IL-5, IL-10, IL-33, and IFN-γ. Conclusions : In the epithelial samples, type 2 associated cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and IFN-γ were lower in AERD patients treated with prednisone. This work serves as a basis to assess therapeutic-induced mucosal cytokine responses in AERD and indicates that the site of cytokine measurement is an important consideration when assessing results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Objectives The extent to which sinonasal symptoms impact the likelihood of major depressive disorders in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) remains incompletely characterized. In this study, we sought to determine whether individual symptom clusters differentially impact the likelihood of depression in a cohort of CRSwNP patients. Methods We retrospectively included 77 patients with CRSwNP. The severity of sinonasal symptoms was assessed using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and grouped according to a previously validated four-subdomain structure: nasal, otologic/facial pain, sleep, and emotional subdomains. The likelihood of major depressive disorders was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2). The clinical characteristic of symptom severity (nasal polyp size) and disease-specific information, such as the number of previous sinonasal surgeries, were also collected. Results The sleep subdomain was most strongly associated with the likelihood of major depressive disorders, followed by the otologic/facial pain subdomain, after controlling for demographics and clinical indicators of symptom severity (nasal polyp size). We found a SNOT-22 score ≥ 30.5 to be an accurate indicator of scoring higher than or equal to 2 on the PHQ-2 in CRSwNP patients. This had a sensitivity of 83.33% and a specificity of 75.47%. Conclusion Distinct sinonasal symptom clusters differentially impact the likelihood of depression in CRSwNP patients. Raising awareness for those with severe sinonasal symptomatology might help identify more patients with a higher probability of comorbid depression. Level of Evidence: 4.
Article
The burden of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) symptomatology is frequently measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). In some situations, such as when there is need for frequent sampling, a full SNOT-22 may be impractical, and an abbreviated measure may be useful. Herein, we study 4 questions reflecting the 4 SNOT-22 subdomains as accurate reflections of SNOT-22 content. In total, 250 patients with CRS completed a SNOT-22 and answered 4 questions about their total nasal symptoms, poor sleep quality, ear/facial pain, and mood (reflecting SNOT-22 subdomains) using visual analog scales (VASs). The 4 SNOT-22 subdomain VAS scores each correlated strongly with the corresponding SNOT-22 subdomain scores. The sum of the 4 subdomain question VAS scores was highly correlated with the total SNOT-22 score ( r = 0.77, P < .001). This preliminary study suggests information from the SNOT-22 may be ascertained through 4 questions reflecting the 4 SNOT-22 subdomains, although further validation is needed.
Article
Background Although nasal saline treatments are widely used in treating acute rhinosinusitis (ARS), the evidence in adult patients is inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the add-on benefits of saline treatment in adult with ARS. Methods Literature searches were performed (updated May 9th, 2021). Randomized controlled trials studying the effects of nasal saline treatment in adults with ARS were included. Data were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes were composite symptoms score (CSS), disease-specific quality of life (DS-QoL) score, individual symptom score, endoscopy score, saccharin transit time, cure rate, days to resolution, and adverse events. Results Eleven studies (718 patients) were included. Nasal discharge was the only symptom improved [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.66 to -0.05]. Saline as an add-on treatment brought no benefits in: CSS and DS-QoL score at both time points (3-10 days and at the end of the study). Other outcomes also showed no benefits of saline, including endoscopy score, saccharin transit time, cure rate, days to resolution, and adverse events. Subgroup analyses showed improvement in viral ARS patients in CSS (SMD -0.60, 95% CI -1.12 to -0.08) and DS-QoL score (mean difference -15.90, 95% CI -31.78 to -0.02), and patients using large-volume saline in CSS (SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.06). Conclusions Nasal saline as an add-on treatment improved rhinorrhea. There was no improvement in CSS and DS-QoL except the subgroup of viral ARS when using large-volume saline. There were no differences in adverse events between the saline and non-saline treatments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Background Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a common operation for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) when medical therapy alone is insufficient. No randomised controlled trials on the efficacy of ESS have been published. We aimed to assess the efficacy of ESS plus medical therapy versus medical therapy alone in patients with CRSwNP. Methods We performed an open-label, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial in three tertiary care centres and 12 secondary care centres in 11 cities in the Netherlands (Almere, Amstelveen, Amsterdam, Blaricum, Den Haag, Deventer, Haarlem, Hoofddorp, Hoorn, Leiderdorp, and Rotterdam). Adults (aged ≥18 years) with CRSwNP and an indication for ESS were randomly assigned (1:1) using block randomisation (block sizes of six), stratified by study centre, to receive either ESS plus medical therapy or medical therapy. ESS was performed according to local practice, although anterior ethmoidectomy was mandatory. Medical therapy was prescribed at the patient's otorhinolaryngologist's discretion, and could be, but was not limited to, nasal corticosteroids, nasal rinsing, systemic corticosteroids, or systemic antibiotics. The primary outcome was disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 12 months of follow up, measured with the validated Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22; where each item is scored from 0 to 5, where 0 indicated no problems and 5 indicates problems as bad as can be, with a total score of 0–110 points), and the minimal clinically important difference of the SNOT-22 is 9·0 points. Primary and safety analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. The ITT population comprised all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment according to their randomisation group and without any protocol violation. This study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, NTR4978, and is ongoing. Findings Between Feb 15, 2015, and Aug 27, 2019, 371 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 238 were eligible, willing to participate, and randomly assigned to ESS plus medical therapy (n=121) or medical therapy (n=117) and 234 were included in the baseline ITT population (n=118 ESS plus medical therapy; n=116 medical therapy). 142 (61%) of 234 patients at baseline were men and 92 (39%) were women, and the mean age was 50·4 years (SD 12·7). 206 participants were analysed at 12 months for the primary outcome (n=103 in the ESS plus medical therapy group; n=103 in the medical therapy group). At 12 months follow-up, the mean SNOT-22 score in the ESS plus medical therapy group was 27·9 (SD 20·2; n=103) and in the medical therapy group was 31·1 (20·4; n=103), with an adjusted mean difference of –4·9 (95% CI –9·4 to –0·4), favouring ESS plus medical therapy. Adverse events were similar between the groups. The most common adverse events were minor epistaxis or gastrointestinal problems. No treatment-related deaths occurred, but one patient died due to congestive heart failure. Interpretation ESS plus medical therapy is more efficacious than medical therapy alone in patients with CRSwNP, although the minimal clinically important difference was not met. Long-term follow-up data are needed to determine whether the effect persists. The current results are a basis for further development of evidence-based guidelines. Funding The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw).
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease that affects >10% of the adult population in Europe and the USA. (1) It has been delineated phenotypically into CRS without nasal polyps and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Both have a high disease burden and an overlapping spectrum of symptoms such as nasal obstruction, olfactory dysfunction, facial pain, pressure and nasal discharge. Primary assessment includes evaluation of patient symptoms and impact on quality of life, nasal endoscopic examination and imaging. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of CRS pathophysiology. There is a move towards describing CRS in terms of the predominant endotype, or inflammatory pattern pathomechanism rather than the traditional classification of patients with and without nasal polyps. An increased elucidation of the disease endotypes as characterised by their inflammatory pathways and mediators is leading to a tailored more personalised treatment approach to the different disease subtypes.
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Introduction Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often leads to impaired olfactory function and reduced quality of life. When conservative treatments such as nasal irrigation and topical steroids fail, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is often necessary, because it improves symptoms and enhances quality of life. Materials and methods A total of 88 patients was included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent an extensive examination both presurgically and 4 months after operations including nasal endoscopy and psychophysical olfactory testing (Sniffin’ Sticks). Moreover, disease-specific quality of life was assessed and presurgical CT scans were rated regarding the opacification of the paranasal sinuses. Results Presurgically psychophysical tests showed an overall olfactory dysfunction. Olfactory test results (TDI score) correlated with endoscopic (Lund–Kennedy and Lildtholdt score) and CT scores (Lund–Mackay and TOCS scores). Four months after surgery olfactory function was enhanced and quality of life significantly showed an overall improvement. However, the outcome was dependent on the extent of presurgical olfactory function: olfaction and quality of life improved most pronounced in anosmics compared to hyposmic and especially normosmic patients. Conclusions This study confirmed that FESS in CRSwNP leads to a significant improvement of both olfaction and disease-specific quality of life. Moreover, preoperative psychophysical assessment of the extent of olfactory dysfunction can help to objectively assess possible risks and expected benefits of the surgery in terms of olfaction and quality of life.
Article
Objective To compare systemic allergen sensitivity and local allergen sensitivity in the sinonasal tissue of patients with a recently identified subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis strongly associated with allergy: central compartment atopic disease (CCAD). Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Methods Fifteen participants with endoscopic and radiographic evidence of CCAD underwent systemic allergy testing with skin testing and measurement of serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to 15 regionally common aeroallergens. Local allergen sensitivity was determined by measuring sIgE to these same 15 allergens in their sinonasal tissue. sIgE testing was performed by ImmunoCAP assay. Results Of the 15 participants, 14 were sensitive to at least 1 allergen locally in the central compartment and systemically on skin or serum testing. Among all participants, 4 were sensitive to allergens on central compartment sIgE testing that they were not sensitive to on skin and serum sIgE testing (range, 1-8 discordant allergens). Comparisons between local and systemic aeroallergen sensitivity results showed statistically significant correlations ( P < .05) ranging from weak to strong. Conclusion Systemic allergy testing is recommended in the initial workup for CCAD. Local allergen sensitivities may be present in a subset of patients with CCAD. Further study of the clinical significance of these sensitivities should be undertaken in CCAD, with evaluation of the role of medical therapies and allergen immunotherapy in the treatment of CCAD.
Article
Background Exhalation delivery system with fluticasone (EDS-FLU) delivers medication high and deep in the nasal passages and has been shown to reduce nasal polyp (NP) grade, an objective measure of efficacy, and to yield clinically meaningful improvements on subjective measures of symptoms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Objectives To better characterize EDS-FLU treatment, we analyzed responder rates for four outcome measures used in the EDS-FLU pivotal trials, in the overall study population as well as in subgroups of patients with or without prior sinus surgery or prior use of a standard intranasal corticosteroid spray (INS). Methods Data were pooled from two randomized, 24-week (16-week, double-blind + 8-week, open-label), placebo-controlled studies (NAVIGATE I and II). Results for patients receiving EDS-FLU (186 µg [n = 161] or 372 µg [n = 160]) or EDS-placebo (n = 161) twice daily during the double-blind phase are described. Responder criteria included NP grade reduction (≥1-point), 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) reduction (>12-points), Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) (much/very much improved), and congestion score improvement (>0.5-points). Results More patients in the EDS-FLU group responded to each of the four responder criteria compared with EDS-placebo. More patients receiving EDS-FLU responded to ≥ 1 criterion compared with EDS-placebo at week 4 (82.7% and 60.4%, respectively) and week 16 (95.7% and 80.3%, respectively). Patients responded similarly irrespective of prior sinus surgery or prior INS use. Patient-reported outcome measures showed earlier responses than NP scores. Conclusions Meaningful improvements were seen across multiple response criteria with EDS-FLU, suggesting that the broad treatment effect of EDS-FLU includes objective reduction in polyp grade and improvements in several patient-reported outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NAVIGATE I: NCT01622569 and NAVIGATE II: NCT01624662)
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Recent studies have revealed the significant role of the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network in human diseases. However, systematic analysis of the ceRNA mechanism in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is limited. In this study, we constructed a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network and identified a potential regulatory axis in CRSwNP based on bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification. We obtained lncRNA, miRNA, and mRNA expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus. After analysis of CRSwNP patients and the control groups, we identified 565 DE-lncRNAs, 23 DE-miRNAs, and 1799 DE-mRNAs by the DESeq2 R package or limma R package. Enrichment analysis of 1799 DE-mRNAs showed that CRSwNP was associated with inflammation and immunity. Moreover, we identified 21 lncRNAs, 8 miRNAs and 8 mRNAs to construct the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA network. A potential MIAT/miR-125a/IRF4 axis was determined according to the degree and positive correlation between a lncRNA and its competitive endogenous mRNAs. The GSEA results suggested that IRF4 may be involved in immune cell infiltration. The validation of another dataset confirmed that MIAT and IRF4 were differentially expressed between the CRSwNP and control groups. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of MIAT and IRF4 was 0.944. The CIBERSORT analysis revealed that eosinophils and M2 macrophages may be involved in the CRSwNP process. MIAT was correlated with dendritic cells and M2 macrophages, and IRF4 was correlated with dendritic cells. Finally, to validate the key genes, we performed in-silico validation using another dataset and experimental validation using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. In summary, the constructed novel MIAT/miR-125a/IRF4 axis may play a critical role in the development and progression of CRSwNP. We believe that the ceRNA network and immune cell infiltration could offer further insight into novel molecular therapeutic targets for CRSwNP.
Article
Objectives: To validate each of the sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT-22) and the sinus and nasal quality of life (SN5) surveys for the adolescent population defined as 12 to 18 years old, and to determine if they correlate in regard to reports of sinonasal symptoms and quality of life. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Adolescent patients, age 12 to 18 years old, presenting to our otolaryngology clinic between August 2020 and June 2021 were asked to fill both the SNOT-22 and the SN5 forms. Demographics and comorbidities were reviewed. Patients recruited were then divided into a sinonasal cohort (those with chronic sinonasal symptoms) and a control cohort (those who did not have any sinonasal disorders at time of visit). Results: One hundred fifteen patients completed both surveys, 80 patients in the sinonasal cohort and 35 patients in the control cohort. Average age was 14.9 years, and 49.6% were female. Mean SNOT-22 and SN5 scores were significantly higher in the sinonasal cohort as compared with the control cohort which confirmed validity of both surveys for the adolescents. Good test-retest reliability for both surveys was obtained (r = 0.76 for SNOT-22, and r = 0.64 for SN5). SNOT-22 and SN5 scores correlated well in both the sinonasal cohort (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and the control cohort (r = 0.61, p = 0.0003). Both surveys strongly predicted chronic sinonasal disorders with an odds ratio of 2.5 for SNOT-22 and 2.2 for SN5. Conclusion: Both instruments can be used to study the outcome of treatment for sinonasal disorders in adolescent patients. Level of evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 2022.
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Purpose of Review To summarize the most up-to-date literature on allergic diseases with an emphasis on understanding the increase in prevalence of allergic diseases. Recent Findings As atopy continues to rise, there is increasing evidence that genetic factors in addition to environmental factors contribute to the development of allergic disease. There is research to support that worsening air pollution and climate change as well as lifestyle changes such as an increase in saturated fats and sugars in the diet, antibiotic use, changes in the gut microbiome, and a shift towards a more sterile, more urbanized environment could all increase the likelihood of developing allergic diseases. Summary While the options available for management of allergic diseases are increasing and improving, the prevalence of allergic disease continues to rise. Further investigation of how we can influence the changes in our environment leading to increases in atopy as well as the genetics involved is crucial in order to prevent the development of allergic diseases.
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity characterized by excessive nasal mucus secretion and nasal congestion. The development of CRS is related to pathological mechanisms induced by hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, the stable expression of both Hypoxia inducible factor‐1 (HIF‐1) α and HIF‐2α are involved in the immune response and inflammatory pathways of CRS. The imbalance in the composition of nasal microbiota may affect the hypoxic state of CRS and perpetuate existing inflammation. Hypoxia affects the differentiation of nasal epithelial cells such as ciliated cells and goblet cells, induces fibroblast proliferation, as well as leads to Epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tissue remodeling. Hypoxia also affects the proliferation and differentiation of macrophages, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells in sinonasal mucosa, and thus influences the inflammatory state of CRS by regulating T cells and B cells. Given the multifactorial nature in which HIF is linked to CRS, this study aims to elucidate the effect of hypoxia on the pathogenic mechanisms of CRS.
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis is a heterogenous disease with complex underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Biologics have been proven to be an effective add-on therapeutic option in severe and/or refractory cases. Currently, dupilumab, omalizumab and mepolizumab have phase III data to support their use in these patients and have received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration specifically for the treatment of nasal polyposis. Each of these biologics has shown its ability to reduce nasal polyp size and improve nasal congestion/obstruction and sense of smell, but additional research is needed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the different biologic agents for different nasal polyposis endotypes.
Article
Pediatric headache is a common medical complaint managed across multiple subspecialties with a myriad of unique factors (clinical presentation and disease phenotype) that make accurate diagnosis particularly elusive. A thorough understanding of the stepwise approach to headache disorders in children is essential to ensure appropriate evaluation, timely diagnosis, and efficacious treatment. This work aims to review key components of a comprehensive headache assessment as well as discuss primary and secondary headache disorders observed in children, with a particular focus on clinical pearls and "red flag" symptoms necessitating ancillary diagnostic testing.
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We present a case of refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus that was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics, systemic phage and intranasal phage therapy.
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Objectives: Biomarker levels in nasal secretions can reflect the inflammatory status of nasal mucosa and evolution of sinus disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between local inflammatory mediator production and clinical characteristics of patients with nasal polyposis (NP). Methods: Thirty-one nonaeroallergen sensitized patients with NP (NANP), 29 aeroallergen sensitized patients with NP (ANP), and 30 subjects without inflammation of nasal mucosa as controls (C) entered this prospective, cross-sectional study. Clinical parameters (symptoms, endoscopic, and radiological findings) were assessed. The concentrations of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), tryptase, substance P and Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) were measured in the nasal secretion samples of all participants by ELISA method. Results: Our results showed higher concentrations of HSP70, ECP, and tryptase in ANP than in NANP and C (p < .001 for all markers). On the other hand, levels of CC16 were significantly higher in C than in NANP and ANP groups (p < .001; p < .001, respectively). We found positive correlations between HSP70, ECP, tryptase, and substance P levels and nasal symptom score in patients with NP. Also, HSP70, ECP, tryptase, and substance P showed different levels of positive correlation among themselves, with HSP70 showing highest positive correlation with ECP. Finally, relatively strong negative correlations were found between the levels of CC16 and nasal symptoms, as well as between the CC16 levels and levels of other four mediators in nasal fluid. Conclusion: HSP70, ECP, tryptase, and substance P might play a role in the pathogenesis of NP. The results suggest that chronic inflammation in NP involves a self-sustaining local release of HSP70, ECP, and tryptase, independent of aeroallergen stimulation of the mucosal layer, although the production of these mediators is higher in aeroallergen sensitized NP patients.
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by local inflammation of the upper airways and is historically divided into two main phenotypes: CRS with nasal polyps (NPs) (CRSwNP) and CRS without NPs (CRSsNP). Inflammation in CRS is mainly characterized by three endotypes based on elevation of canonical lymphocyte cytokines; type 1 (T1) by Th1 cytokine IFN-γ, T2 by Th2 cutokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and T3 by Th17 cytokines including IL-17. Inflammation in both CRSsNP and CRSwNP is highly heterogeneous and the frequency of various endotypes varies geographically around the world. This finding complicates establishment of a unified understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis in CRS. Sinonasal epithelium acts as a passive barrier and epithelial barrier dysfunction is a common feature in CRS induced by endotype specific cytokines directly and indirectly. The sinonasal epithelium also participates in both innate immunity via recognition by innate pattern recognition receptors and promotes and regulates adaptive immunity via release of chemokines and innate cytokines including TSLP. The purpose of this review is to discuss the contribution of the epithelium to CRS pathogenesis and to update the field regarding endotypic heterogeneity and various mechanisms for understanding pathogenesis in CRS.
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Background The ability of saline irrigation to detach the mucous and the flow-limiting effect of the nasal valve has not been well explored. The objective of this study was to compare the removal efficiency of a novel irrigation device with an extended nozzle versus a classic rinse bottle. Methods Transparent casts of the unoperated sinonasal cavity were made by 3D printing. Yogurt was used to simulate mucous. The cast filled with 5ml yogurt was fixed in six head positions and irrigated with 120ml, 175ml, and 240ml dyed water through the novel device and the rinse bottle. The irrigation efficiency was the ratio of the weight of yogurt washed away divided by the total weight of yogurt. Results The irrigation stream of a long nozzle with a side opening was different from the irrigation stream of the outlet within the nasal vestibule. The novel devices presented with continuous water stream directly upwards to the anterior part of the olfactory cleft. Depending on different head positions, it was easy for the novel devices to achieve an irrigation efficiency of 100% when the cast was irrigated with 120ml or 175ml water. There was still a tiny amount of yogurt left in the olfactory cleft when the cast was irrigated with 240ml water under each head position for the rinse bottle. The irrigation efficiency was volume-dependent, and the average irrigation efficiency of the rinse bottle at 240 ml only reached 69.1%. Conclusions. The novel irrigation device presented with superior nasal irrigation efficiency to the classic rinse bottle. A continuous water stream directly upwards to the anterior part of the olfactory cleft combined with an extended nozzle overcoming the flow-limiting effect of the nasal valve promotes nasal irrigation efficiency.
Article
Background: The literature regarding clinical olfaction, olfactory loss, and olfactory dysfunction has expanded rapidly over the past two decades, with an exponential rise in the past year. There is substantial variability in the quality of this literature and a need to consolidate and critically review the evidence. It is with that aim that we have gathered experts from around the world to produce this International Consensus on Allergy and Rhinology: Olfaction (ICAR:O). Methods: Using previously described methodology, specific topics were developed relating to olfaction. Each topic was assigned a literature review, evidence-based review, or evidence-based review with recommendations format as dictated by available evidence and scope within the ICAR:O document. Following iterative reviews of each topic, the ICAR:O document was integrated and reviewed by all authors for final consensus. Results: The ICAR:O document reviews nearly 100 separate topics within the realm of olfaction, including diagnosis, epidemiology, disease burden, diagnosis, testing, etiology, treatment, and associated pathologies. Conclusion: This critical review of the existing clinical olfaction literature provides much needed insight and clarity into the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with olfactory dysfunction, while also clearly delineating gaps in our knowledge and evidence base that we should investigate further.
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Objective: Previous work has shown the chemosensory dysfunction item of the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) that assesses problems with "taste/smell" has poor psychometric performance compared with other items on the SNOT-22, which we have hypothesized is due to the simultaneous assessment of two different senses. Our aim was to determine whether distinct smell and taste items in the SNOT-22 would improve psychometric performance. Methods: One hundred and eighty-one CRS patients were recruited and completed the SNOT-22. Additional items querying problems with the senses of "smell" and "taste," using the same response scale and recall period were given to study participants. Item response theory (IRT) was used to determine IRT parameters, including item discrimination, difficulty, and information provided by each SNOT-22 item. Results: Confirming previous studies, the chemosensory item of the SNOT-22 (reflecting "taste/smell") had poor psychometric performance. Use of a distinct smell or taste item instead of the combined "taste/smell" item did not improve psychometric performance. However, a dedicated smell question resulted in a left shift of threshold parameters, showing that the dedicated smell item better captures moderate CRS disease burden than the original taste/smell item of the SNOT-22, which by virtue of near-identical IRT parameters appears to more greatly reflect problems with taste. Conclusions: A dedicated smell- or taste-specific item, rather than the combined "taste/smell" item currently in the SNOT-22 does not provide significantly greater psychometric performance. However, a dedicated smell item may better capture moderate CRS disease burden compared with the current chemosensory item on the SNOT-22. Laryngoscope, 2022.
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Objective To offer pragmatic, evidence-informed guidance on the use of systemic corticosteroids (SCS) for common otolaryngologic disorders. Data Sources PubMed, Cochrane Library, and American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation clinical practice guidelines. Review Methods A comprehensive search of published literature through November 2021 was conducted on the efficacy of SCS, alone or in combination with other treatments, for managing disorders in otolaryngology and the subdisciplines. Clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials, when available, were preferentially retrieved. Interventions and outcomes of SCS use were compiled to generate summary tables and narrative synthesis of findings. Conclusions Evidence on the effectiveness of SCS varies widely across otolaryngology disorders. High-level evidence supports SCS use for Bell’s palsy, sinonasal polyposis, and lower airway disease. Conversely, evidence is weak or absent for upper respiratory tract infection, eustachian tube dysfunction, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, or nonallergic rhinitis. Evidence is indeterminate for acute laryngitis, acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, angioedema, chronic rhinosinusitis without polyps, Ménière’s disease, postviral olfactory loss, postoperative nerve paresis/paralysis, facial pain, and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Implications for Practice Clinicians should bring an evidence-informed lens to SCS prescribing to best counsel patients regarding the risks, anticipated benefits, and limited data on long-term effects. Alternate routes of corticosteroid administration—such as sprays, drops, inhalers, and intralesional injections—may be preferable for many disorders, particularly those that are self-limited or require a prolonged duration of therapy. Prudent use of SCS reduces the risk of medication-related adverse effects. Clinicians who are conversant with high-level evidence can achieve optimal outcomes and stewardship when prescribing SCS.
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Purpose of Review The goal of this paper is to discuss the current diagnostic criterion, pharmaceutical, and surgical treatments for pediatric acute rhinosinusitis with and without complications. Recent Findings The use of balloon sinuplasty to treat complicated acute frontal sinusitis, in the pediatric population, has been shown to be safe and effective. Summary Pediatric upper respiratory infections and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis are two of the most common diagnoses made in outpatient pediatric office visits. The majority of pediatric acute rhinosinusitis illnesses can be treated with conservative measures. Amoxicillin or amoxicillin with clavulanic acid is the first-line empiric therapy for the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. These oral antibiotics are recommended if symptoms persist for 10 days or more, are associated with a double sickening, or present with severe symptoms. Further data on the efficacy of amoxicillin versus amoxicillin-clavulanate is needed to confirm the appropriate first-line oral antibiotic for ABRS. A high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and immediate intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy may reduce the necessity for surgical intervention to treat complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS). Future research on the benefits of preventative therapies such as supplements and hand hygiene education would be helpful in reducing the risk of contracting viruses that may lead to bacterial rhinosinusitis complications.
Article
Rhinosinusitis is a common diagnosis encountered by providers of all disciplines. Pediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis account for up to 2% of the total annual visits to the outpatient clinics and emergency departments. Once correct diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment measures can be initiated. It is important to recognize rhinosinusitis in children due to the potential serious complications and the impact it may have on quality of life of those children. Medical management is the mainstay of treatment, and, fortunately, it is successful in most of those children. When medical management fails, or a complication occurs, surgery may be required.
Article
Background The efficacy of topical corticosteroids is limited in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) due to rapid clearance from the nasal cavity and insufficient drug delivery to inflamed sinonasal passages. LYR-210 is an implantable corticosteroid matrix designed to provide up to 24 weeks of treatment to patients with CRS by locally delivering mometasone furoate (MF) to the sinonasal mucosa. In a randomized, controlled, dose-ranging LANTERN study, LYR-210 (7500 µg) achieved clinically relevant improvement in CRS cardinal symptom composite scores, the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), ethmoid opacification, and the need for rescue treatment at 24 weeks. Objective As the plasma MF concentrations of LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) were evaluated at weeks 4, 12, and 24 in the LANTERN study (data on file at Lyra Therapeutics, Inc.), this study aims to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of both doses of LYR-210 at earlier timepoints post-placement in patients with CRS. Methods Twenty-four surgically naïve adult patients with CRS were enrolled in an open-label, multicenter study and underwent in-office bilateral administration of LYR-210 (2500 µg) ( n = 12 patients) or LYR-210 (7500 µg) ( n = 12 patients) into the middle meatus. Plasma MF concentrations were determined pre-placement and 1-h post-placement (day 1), and on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Both LYR-210 doses were well-tolerated with no serious adverse events. Systemic MF levels were dose-dependent and lower than reported values of other respiratory MF products. Plasma MF concentrations showed steady drug release from LYR-210 (2500 µg) and LYR-210 (7500 µg) that persisted through day 56. Conclusion LYR-210 achieved dose-dependent, continuous local MF delivery at a steady rate with low systemic exposure for months.
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Purpose of the Review The classic treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) includes aspirin desensitization (AD). Introduction of biologics in the treatment of asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has raised the question: which of the two options may be the most suitable for NERD? Recent Findings NERD is a highly eosinophilic disease. Monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or the IL-5 receptor, involved in eosinophil recruitment, have been shown to be effective in asthma and CRSwNP. However, no difference in clinical efficacy was observed between NERD and aspirin-tolerant patients. Dupilumab, an IL-4 alpha receptor antagonist, demonstrated greater efficacy in NERD than in aspirin-tolerant patients for some clinical symptoms in a sub-analysis. Patients with NERD respond very rapidly to omalizumab with improvement in asthma and CRSwNP symptoms associated with reductions in prostaglandin D2 and cysteinyl leukotrienes release. Furthermore, omalizumab and dupilumab partially or totally restored tolerance to aspirin in NERD patients. Summary The decision to treat a NERD patient with AD or a biologic depends on many variables, such as differences between countries in the use of AD treatment in specialized units, limitations in accessing very expensive treatment in low-income countries and in countries where insurance systems do not cover or partially cover the cost of treatment. Patients who live in countries with public health systems that fully fund biologic treatments are more likely to benefit from biologic treatment. The limited data available so far suggest that, among current biologics, dupilumab ranks best for the treatment of CRSwNP associated with NERD.
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Background Considerable evidence suggests that smell dysfunction is common in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Unfortunately, extant data on prevalence and reversibility over time are highly variable, coming mainly from self‐report surveys prone to multiple biases. Thus, validated psychophysical olfactory testing is sorely needed to establish such parameters. Methods One hundred SARS‐CoV‐2 positive cases were administered the 40‐item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in the hospital near the end of the acute phase of the disease. Eighty‐two were retested 1 or 4 weeks later at home. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and mixed‐effect regression models. Results Initial UPSIT scores were indicative of severe microsmia, with 96% exhibiting measurable dysfunction; 18% were anosmic. The scores improved upon retest [initial and retest means (95%CIs) = 21.97 (20.84,23.09) & 31.13 (30.16,32.10; p<0.0001)]; no patient remained anosmic. After five weeks from COVID‐19 symptom onset, the test scores of 63% of the retested patients were normal. However, the mean UPSIT score at that time continued to remain below that of age‐ and sex‐matched healthy controls (p<0.001). Such scores were related to time since symptom onset, sex, and age. Conclusion Smell loss was extremely common in the acute phase of a cohort of 100 COVID‐19 patients when objectively measured. About one‐third of cases continued to exhibit dysfunction after five post‐symptom onset weeks. These findings have direct implications for the use of olfactory testing in identifying SARS‐CoV‐2 virus carriers and for counseling such patients in regards to their smell dysfunction and its reversibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Objective To investigate clinical and radiological features of olfactory clefts of patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Methods Sixteen COVID‐19 patients were recruited. The epidemiological and clinical data were extracted. Nasal complaints were assessed through the sino‐nasal outcome test 22 (SNOT‐22). Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory testing, olfactory cleft examination and CT‐scan. Results Sixteen anosmic patients were included. The mean Sniffin'Sticks score was 4.6±1.7. The majority of patients had no endoscopical abnormality, with a mean olfactory cleft endoscopy score of 0.6±0.9. The olfactory clefts were opacified in 3 patients on the CT‐scan. The mean radiological olfactory cleft score was 0.7±0.8. There were no significant correlations between clinical, radiological and psychophysical olfactory testing. Conclusion The olfactory cleft of anosmic COVID‐19 patients is free regarding endoscopic examination and imaging. The anosmia etiology would be not related to edema of the olfactory cleft.
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has heightened awareness of aerosol generation by human expiratory events and their potential role in viral respiratory disease transmission. Concerns over high Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) viral burden of mucosal surfaces has raised questions about the aerosol generating potential and dangers of many otorhinolaryngologic procedures. However, the risks of aerosol generation and associated viral transmission by droplet or airborne routes for many otorhinolaryngology procedures are largely unknown. Indoor aerosol and droplet viral respiratory transmission risk is influenced by four factors: 1) aerosol or droplet properties, 2) indoor airflow, 3) virus‐specific factors, and 4) host‐specific factors. Here we elaborate on known aerosol versus droplet properties, indoor airflow, and aerosol generating events to provide context for risks of aerosol infectious transmission. We also provide simple but typically effective measures for mitigating the spread and inhalation of viral aerosols in indoor settings. Understanding principles of infectious transmission, aerosol and droplet generation, as well as concepts of indoor airflow, will aide in the integration of new data on SARS‐CoV‐2 transmission and activities that can generate aerosol to best inform on the need for escalation or de‐escalation from current societal and institutional guidelines for protection during aerosol generating procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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BACKGROUND: Emerging reports suggest that new onset of smell or taste loss are potential early clinical markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it remains unclear as to what extent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to systematically assess the prevalence of self-reported altered sense of smell or taste in patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, overcoming the limitations of individual studies by meta-analysis of pooled data. METHODS: The databases Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and MedRxiv's set were searched from inception to the 4th May 2020. This study was conducted following the PRISMA checklist. RESULTS: 18 studies met the eligibility criteria out of the 171 initially screened citations. The overall prevalence of alteration of the sense of smell or taste was 47% , but estimates were 31% and 67% in severe and mild-to-moderate symptomatic patients, respec- tively. The loss of smell and taste preceded other symptoms in 20% of cases and it was concomitant in 28%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this meta-analysis, we recommend self-isolation and testing, where possible, for patients complaining smell or taste impairment during COVID-19 pandemic in order to prevent spread of disease and propose the inclusion of loss of smell and taste as recognized symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 in the World Health Organization and other relevant regulatory body’s lists.
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Background To limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, an evidence-based understanding of the symptoms is critical to inform guidelines for quarantining and testing. The most common features are purported to be fever and a new persistent cough, although the global prevalence of these symptoms remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the prevalence of symptoms associated with COVID-19 worldwide. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, medRxiv and bioRxiv on 5th April 2020 for studies of adults (>16 years) with laboratory test confirmed COVID-19. No language or publication status restrictions were applied. Data were independently extracted by two review authors into standardised forms. All datapoints were independently checked by three other review authors. A random-effects model for pooling of binomial data was applied to estimate the prevalence of symptoms, subgrouping estimates by country. I2 was used to assess inter-study heterogeneity. Results Of 851 unique citations, 148 articles were included which comprised 24,410 adults with con- firmed COVID-19 from 9 countries. The most prevalent symptoms were fever (78% [95% CI 75%-81%]; 138 studies, 21,701 patients; I2 94%), a cough (57% [95% CI 54%-60%]; 138 stud- ies, 21,682 patients; I2 94%) and fatigue (31% [95% CI 27%-35%]; 78 studies, 13,385 patients; I2 95%). Overall, 19% of hospitalised patients required non-invasive ventilation (44 studies,6,513 patients), 17% required intensive care (33 studies, 7504 patients), 9% required invasive ventilation (45 studies, 6933 patients) and 2% required extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (12 studies, 1,486 patients). The mortality rate was 7% (73 studies, 10,402 patients). Conclusions We confirm that fever and cough are the most prevalent symptoms of adults infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, there is a large proportion of infected adults which symptoms- alone do not identify.
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BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by IgE hyperproduction and eosinophilic inflammation. The anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab, has demonstrated efficacy in patients with CRSwNP and comorbid asthma previously. OBJECTIVE To determine omalizumab safety/efficacy in CRSwNP in phase 3 trials (POLYP 1, POLYP 2). METHODS Adults with CRSwNP with inadequate response to intranasal corticosteroids were randomized (1:1) to omalizumab or placebo and intranasal mometasone for 24 weeks. Coprimary end points included change from baseline to week 24 in Nasal Polyp Score (NPS) and Nasal Congestion Score (NCS). Secondary end points included change from baseline to week 24 in Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22), University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), sense of smell, postnasal drip, runny nose, and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS Patients in POLYP 1 (n=138) and POLYP 2 (n=127) exhibited severe CRSwNP and substantial quality-of-life impairment evidenced by mean NPS >6 and SNOT-22 of ∼60. Both studies met both coprimary end points. SNOT-22, UPSIT, sense of smell, postnasal drip and runny nose were also significantly improved for omalizumab versus placebo. In POLYP 1 and POLYP 2, mean changes from baseline at week 24 for omalizumab versus placebo were: NPS, –1.08 versus 0.06 (P<.0001) and –0.90 versus –0.31 (P=.0140); NCS, –0.89 versus –0.35 (P=.0004) and –0.70 versus –0.20 (P=.0017); SNOT-22, –24.7 versus –8.6 (P<.0001) and –21.6 versus –6.6 (P<.0001). AEs were similar between groups. CONCLUSION Omalizumab significantly improved endoscopic, clinical, and patient-reported outcomes in severe CRSwNP with inadequate response to intranasal corticosteroids, and was well tolerated.
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Objective In the era of SARS-CoV-2, the risk of infectious airborne aerosol generation during otolaryngologic procedures has been an area of increasing concern. The objective of this investigation was to quantify airborne aerosol production under clinical and surgical conditions and examine efficacy of mask mitigation strategies. Study Design Prospective quantification of airborne aerosol generation during surgical and clinical simulation. Setting Cadaver laboratory and clinical examination room. Subjects and Methods Airborne aerosol quantification with an optical particle sizer was performed in real time during cadaveric simulated endoscopic surgical conditions, including hand instrumentation, microdebrider use, high-speed drilling, and cautery. Aerosol sampling was additionally performed in simulated clinical and diagnostic settings. All clinical and surgical procedures were evaluated for propensity for significant airborne aerosol generation. Results Hand instrumentation and microdebridement did not produce detectable airborne aerosols in the range of 1 to 10 μm. Suction drilling at 12,000 rpm, high-speed drilling (4-mm diamond or cutting burs) at 70,000 rpm, and transnasal cautery generated significant airborne aerosols ( P < .001). In clinical simulations, nasal endoscopy ( P < .05), speech ( P < .01), and sneezing ( P < .01) generated 1- to 10-μm airborne aerosols. Significant aerosol escape was seen even with utilization of a standard surgical mask ( P < .05). Intact and VENT-modified (valved endoscopy of the nose and throat) N95 respirator use prevented significant airborne aerosol spread. Conclusion Transnasal drill and cautery use is associated with significant airborne particulate matter production in the range of 1 to 10 μm under surgical conditions. During simulated clinical activity, airborne aerosol generation was seen during nasal endoscopy, speech, and sneezing. Intact or VENT-modified N95 respirators mitigated airborne aerosol transmission, while standard surgical masks did not.
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During the rapid rise in COVID-19 illnesses and deaths globally, and notwithstanding recommended precautions, questions are voiced about routes of transmission for this pandemic disease. Inhaling small airborne droplets is probable as a third route of infection, in addition to more widely recognized transmission via larger respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected people or contaminated surfaces. While uncertainties remain regarding the relative contributions of the different transmission pathways, we argue that existing evidence is sufficiently strong to warrant engineering controls targeting airborne transmission as part of an overall strategy to limit infection risk indoors. Appropriate building engineering controls include sufficient and effective ventilation, possibly enhanced by particle filtration and air disinfection, avoiding air recirculation and avoiding overcrowding. Often, such measures can be easily implemented and without much cost, but if only they are recognised as significant in contributing to infection control goals. We believe that the use of engineering controls in public buildings, including hospitals, shops, offices, schools, kindergartens, libraries, restaurants, cruise ships, elevators, conference rooms or public transport, in parallel with effective application of other controls (including isolation and quarantine, social distancing and hand hygiene), would be an additional important measure globally to reduce the likelihood of transmission and thereby protect healthcare workers, patients and the general public.
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Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with a substantial personal and socio‐economic burden. Monitoring of patient‐reported outcomes by mobile technology offers the possibility to better understand real‐life burden of CRS. Methods This study reports on the cross‐sectional evaluation of data of 626 users of mySinusitisCoach (mSC), a mobile application for CRS patients. Patient characteristics of mSC users were analysed as well as the level of disease control based on VAS global rhinosinusitis symptom score and adapted EPOS criteria. Results The mSC cohort represents a heterogeneous group of CRS patients with a diverse pattern of major symptoms. Approximately half of patients reported nasal polyps. 47.3% of all CRS patients were uncontrolled based on evaluation of VAS global rhinosinusitis symptom score compared to 40.9% based on adapted EPOS criteria. The impact of CRS on sleep quality and daily life activities was significantly higher in uncontrolled versus well‐controlled patients. Half of patients had a history of FESS (functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and reported lower symptom severity compared to patients without a history of FESS, except for patients with a history of more than 3 procedures. Patients with a history of FESS reported higher VAS levels for impaired smell. Conclusion Real‐life data confirm the high disease burden in uncontrolled CRS patients, clearly impacting quality of life. Sinus surgery improves patient‐reported outcomes, but not in patients with a history of more than 3 procedures. Mobile technology opens a new era of real‐life monitoring, supporting the evolution of care towards precision medicine.
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Background SARS‐CoV‐2, the virus that causes COVID‐19 disease, is responsible for the largest pandemic since the 1918 H1N1 influenza outbreak. The symptoms presently recognized by the World Health Organization are cough, fever, tiredness, and difficulty breathing. Patient‐reported smell and taste loss has been associated with COVID‐19 infection, yet no empirical olfactory testing on a cohort of COVID‐19 patients has been performed. Methods The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a well‐validated 40‐odorant test, was administered to 60 confirmed COVID‐19 inpatients and 60 age‐ and sex‐matched controls to assess the magnitude and frequency of their olfactory dysfunction. A mixed effects analysis of variance determined whether meaningful differences in test scores existed between the two groups and if the test scores were differentially influenced by sex. Results Fifty‐nine (98%) of the 60 patients exhibited some smell dysfunction [mean (95% CI) UPSIT score: 20.98 (19.47,22.48); controls: 34.10 (33.31,34.88); p<0.0001]. Thirty‐five of the 60 patients (58%) were either anosmic (15/60; 25%) or severely microsmic (20/60; 33%); 16 exhibited moderate microsmia (16/60; 27%), 8 mild microsmia (8/60; 13%), and one normosmia (1/60; 2%). Deficits were evident for all 40 UPSIT odorants. No meaningful relationships between the test scores and sex, disease severity, or comorbidities were found. Conclusions Quantitative smell testing demonstrates that decreased smell function, but not always anosmia, is a major marker for SARS‐CoV‐2 infection and suggests the possibility that smell testing may help, in some cases, to identify COVID‐19 patients in need of early treatment or quarantine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Background Rapid spread of the SARS‐CoV‐2 virus and concern for viral transmission by ambulatory patients with minimal to no symptoms underline the importance of identifying early or subclinical symptoms of Covid‐19 infection. Two such candidate symptoms include anecdotally reported loss of smell and taste. Understanding the timing and association of smell/taste loss in Covid‐19 may help facilitate screening and early isolation of cases. Methods A single‐institution, cross‐sectional study evaluating patient‐reported symptoms with a focus on smell and taste was conducted using an internet‐based platform on adult subjects who underwent testing for Covid‐19. Logistic regression was employed to identify symptoms associated with Covid‐19 positivity. Results A total of 1480 patients with influenza‐like symptoms underwent Covid‐19 testing between March 3 through 29, 2020. Our study captured 59 of 102 (58%) Covid‐19‐positive patients and 203 of 1378 (15%) Covid‐19‐negative patients. Smell and taste loss were reported in 68% (40/59) and 71% (42/59) of Covid‐19‐positive subjects, respectively, compared to 16% (33/203) and 17% (35/203) of Covid‐19‐negative patients (p<0.001). Smell and taste impairment were independently and strongly associated with Covid‐19‐positivity (anosmia: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.9, 95%CI:5.08‐23.5; ageusia: aOR 10.2 95%CI:4.74‐22.1); whereas, sore throat was associated with Covid‐19‐negativity (aOR 0.23, 95%CI:0.11‐0.50). Of patients who reported Covid‐19‐associated loss of smell, 74% (28/38) reported resolution of anosmia with clinical resolution of illness. Conclusions In ambulatory individuals with influenza‐like symptoms, chemosensory dysfunction was strongly associated with Covid‐19 infection and should be considered when screening symptoms. Most will recover chemosensory function within weeks paralleling resolution of other disease‐related symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Importance The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, is serious and has the potential to become an epidemic worldwide. Several studies have described typical clinical manifestations including fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue. However, to our knowledge, it has not been reported that patients with COVID-19 had any neurologic manifestations. Objective To study the neurologic manifestations of patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants This is a retrospective, observational case series. Data were collected from January 16, 2020, to February 19, 2020, at 3 designated special care centers for COVID-19 (Main District, West Branch, and Tumor Center) of the Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China. The study included 214 consecutive hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records, and data of all neurologic symptoms were checked by 2 trained neurologists. Neurologic manifestations fell into 3 categories: central nervous system manifestations (dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, ataxia, and seizure), peripheral nervous system manifestations (taste impairment, smell impairment, vision impairment, and nerve pain), and skeletal muscular injury manifestations. Results Of 214 patients (mean [SD] age, 52.7 [15.5] years; 87 men [40.7%]) with COVID-19, 126 patients (58.9%) had nonsevere infection and 88 patients (41.1%) had severe infection according to their respiratory status. Overall, 78 patients (36.4%) had neurologic manifestations. Compared with patients with nonsevere infection, patients with severe infection were older, had more underlying disorders, especially hypertension, and showed fewer typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever and cough. Patients with more severe infection had neurologic manifestations, such as acute cerebrovascular diseases (5 [5.7%] vs 1 [0.8%]), impaired consciousness (13 [14.8%] vs 3 [2.4%]), and skeletal muscle injury (17 [19.3%] vs 6 [4.8%]). Conclusions and Relevance Patients with COVID-19 commonly have neurologic manifestations. During the epidemic period of COVID-19, when seeing patients with neurologic manifestations, clinicians should suspect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a differential diagnosis to avoid delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and lose the chance to treat and prevent further transmission.
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Introduction : International experience with COVID‐19 suggests it poses a significant risk of infectious transmission to skull base surgeons, due to high nasal viral titers and the unknown potential for aerosol generation during endonasal instrumentation. The purpose of this study was to simulate aerosolization events over a range of endoscopic procedures to gain an evidence‐based aerosol risk assessment. Methods : Aerosolization was simulated in a cadaver using fluorescein solution (0.2mg/10ml) and quantified using a blue‐light filter and digital image processing. Outpatient sneezing during endoscopy was simulated using an intranasal atomizer in the presence or absence of intact and modified surgical mask barriers. Surgical aerosolization was simulated during non‐powered instrumentation, suction microdebrider, and high‐speed drilling following nasal fluorescein application. Results : Among the outpatient conditions, a simulated sneeze event generated maximal aerosol distribution at 30cm extending to 66cm. Both an intact surgical mask and a modified VENT mask (which enables endoscopy) eliminated all detectable aerosol spread. Among the surgical conditions, cold instrumentation and microdebrider use did not generate detectable aerosols. Conversely, use of a high‐speed drill produced significant aerosol contamination in all tested conditions. Conclusion : We confirm that aerosolization presents a risk to the endonasal skull base surgeon. In the outpatient setting, use of a barrier significantly reduces aerosol spread. Cold surgical instrumentation and microdebrider use pose significantly less aerosolization risk than a high‐speed drill. Procedures requiring drill use should carry a special designation as an “Aerosol Generating Surgery” to convey this unique risk, and support the need for protective PPE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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There have been several reports noting anosmia and ageusia as possible symptoms of COVID-19. This is of particular interest in oncology since patients receiving some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or immune therapy often experience similar symptoms as side-effects. The purpose of this report was to summarise the evidence on the existence of anosmia and ageusia an emerging COVID-19 symptoms in order to better inform both oncology patients and clinicians. Currently, there is no published evidence or case reports noting anosmia or ageusia as symptoms of COVID-19. Nevertheless, experts in rhinology have suggested that the onset of such symptoms could either act as a trigger for testing for the disease where possible, or could be a new criterion to self-isolate. Whilst more data is currently needed to strengthen our knowledge of the symptoms of COVID-19, oncology patients who are concerned about anosmia or ageusia in the context of their systemic anti-cancer therapy should contact their acute oncology support line for advice.
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During January 26-February 10, 2020, an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease in an air-conditioned restaurant in Guangzhou, China, involved 3 family clusters. The airflow direction was consistent with droplet transmission. To prevent the spread of the virus in restaurants, we recommend increasing the distance between tables and improving ventilation.
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease that substantially impairs the quality of life (QoL). Here, we aimed to assess patients' QoL in different subtypes of CRS and correlated this with nasal polyp size to improve the clinical understanding of the burden of disease. In this retrospective single-center study, 107 patients with the following diagnoses were analyzed: CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), or aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 German Adapted Version (SNOT-20 GAV) scores and their correlation with endoscopic Total Polyp Scores (TPS) were evaluated. The mean SNOT-20 GAV scores were highest in patients with AERD (AERD = 43.4, CRSwNP = 36.3, CRSsNP = 30.9). A statistically significant correlation of total SNOT-20 GAV score with TPS was observed in CRSwNP patients (r = 0.3398, p = 0.0195), but not in AERD patients (r = 0.2341, p = 0.1407). When analyzing single SNOT-20 parameters, a strong correlation with TPS was observed for blockage/congestion of the nose, particularly in AERD patients (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001). The impact of nasal polyp size on the QoL differs amongst the subgroups of CRS. Nasal symptoms have the greatest impact on QoL in patients suffering from AERD. CRSwNP and AERD patients should be separately analyzed in clinical investigations and interpretations due to significant differences in QoL.
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Cross-linking of antigen-specific IgE bound to the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on the surface of mast cells with multivalent antigens results in the release of mediators and development of type 2 inflammation. FcεRI expression and IgE synthesis are, therefore, critical for type 2 inflammatory disease development. In an attempt to clarify the relationship between eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) and mast cell infiltration, we analyzed mast cell infiltration at lesion sites and determined its clinical significance. Mast cells are positive for c-kit, and IgE in uncinated tissues (UT) and nasal polyps (NP) were examined by immunohistochemistry. The number of positive cells and clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Patients with ECRS exhibited high levels of total IgE serum levels and elevated peripheral blood eosinophil ratios. As a result, the number of mast cells with membranes positive for c-kit and IgE increased significantly in lesions forming NP. Therefore, we classified IgE-positive mast cells into two groups: membrane IgE-positive cells and cytoplasmic IgE-positive cells. The amount of membrane IgE-positive mast cells was significantly increased in moderate ECRS. A positive correlation was found between the membrane IgE-positive cells and the radiological severity score, the ratio of eosinophils, and the total serum IgE level. The number of cytoplasmic IgE-positive mast cells was significantly increased in moderate and severe ECRS. A positive correlation was observed between the cytoplasmic IgE-positive cells and the radiological severity score, the ratio of eosinophils in the blood, and the total IgE level. These results suggest that the process of mast cell internalization of antigens via the IgE receptor is involved in ECRS pathogenesis.
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Abstract The Choosing Wisely Canada campaign is an initiative that aims to involve physicians and patients in collaborative decision making to avoid unnecessary tests and treatments. The Rhinology Subspecialty Group of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery developed a list of five evidence-based recommendations for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and nasal fractures: (1) don’t prescribe antibiotics to patients with acute sinusitis who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis; (2) don’t order a CT scan for uncomplicated acute rhinosinusitis; (3) don’t order plain film sinus x-rays; (4) don’t swab the nasal cavity as part of the work up for rhinosinusitis; and (5) don’t order a plain film x-ray in the evaluation of nasal fractures.
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The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2020 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007 and 2012. The core objective of the EPOS2020 guideline is to provide revised, up-to-date and clear evidence-based recommendations and integrated care pathways in ARS and CRS. EPOS2020 provides an update on the literature published and studies undertaken in the eight years since the EPOS2012 position paper was published and addresses areas not extensively covered in EPOS2012 such as paediatric CRS and sinus surgery. EPOS2020 also involves new stakeholders, including pharmacists and patients, and addresses new target users who have become more involved in the management and treatment of rhinosinusitis since the publication of the last EPOS document, including pharmacists, nurses, specialised care givers and indeed patients themselves, who employ increasing self-management of their condition using over the counter treatments. The document provides suggestions for future research in this area and offers updated guidance for definitions and outcome measurements in research in different settings. EPOS2020 contains chapters on definitions and classification where we have defined a large number of terms and indicated preferred terms. A new classification of CRS into primary and secondary CRS and further division into localized and diffuse disease, based on anatomic distribution is proposed. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, allergic rhinitis, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. All available evidence for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is systematically reviewed and integrated care pathways based on the evidence are proposed. Despite considerable increases in the amount of quality publications in recent years, a large number of practical clinical questions remain. It was agreed that the best way to address these was to conduct a Delphi exercise . The results have been integrated into the respective sections. Last but not least, advice for patients and pharmacists and a new list of research needs are included. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.
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Purpose Effective topical medications delivery to the frontal sinus is crucial to recovery from frontal sinusotomy. However, finding a way to deliver local medications to the frontal sinus is still a major challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various head positions on postoperative frontal sinus drug deposition. The safety and efficacy were also evaluated in postoperative chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. Methods Full house surgery was performed on six fresh frozen cadaver heads. The fluorescein solution was dropped into the nasal sinuses in three different head positions, and the fluorescein deposition was evaluated. A prospective cohort study was performed to validate the results in 20 postoperative CRS patients. The cortisol level, symptom VAS and the frontal recess endoscopy scores were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Results The frontal recess delivery of fluorescein was better in the Mygind and vertex-to-floor positions than in the head back position. The cortisol level of patients dropped markedly after taking oral methylprednisolone, but returned to baseline when replaced with budesonide drops. The pre- and postoperative symptom VAS scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Endoscopic scores of the vertex-to-floor group were significantly better than those of the Mygind group. Conclusion Both the Mygind and the vertex-to-floor head positions were optimal for delivery of topical medications to the frontal recess. When applying the steroid drops, both positions were found to be safe and associated with effective relief of symptoms. The vertex-to-floor position can better improve the endoscopic scores of frontal recess and frontal sinus.
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Importance Chronic rhinosinusitis is among the most common and costly conditions treated by physicians. After failure of medical treatment, surgical intervention in the form of endoscopic sinus surgery is traditionally offered. Balloon catheter dilation (BCD) has become a less-invasive alternative with increasing popularity among otolaryngologists. Objective To evaluate the most recent BCD data in the Medicare population, with a specific focus on the percentage of procedures performed by surgeons who perform high volumes of this procedure, their reimbursements, and their national geographic distributions. Design, Setting, and Participants This retrospective review included data from 2011 through 2017 from Medicare Part B National Summary Data Files and Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data. Patients with procedures including Current Procedural Terminology codes 31295 (maxillary sinus dilation), 31296 (frontal sinus dilation), and 31297 (sphenoid sinus dilation) were included. Exposures Balloon catheter dilation of the paranasal sinuses. Main Outcomes and Measures Total and mean reimbursements over time to physicians for BCDs, as well as the percentage of BCDs performed by and reimbursed to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons who perform high volumes of BCDs (>10 procedures) in a given year. Results The total number of BCDs rose from 7496 in 2011 to 43 936 in 2017 (a 486% increase). The overall reimbursement increased from $11 773 049 in 2011 to $63 927 591 in 2017 (a 433% increase). From 2012 to 2016, ENT surgeons who performed high volumes of the procedures rose from 101 to 382 surgeons (a 270% increase). In 2016, 25 214 of 41 960 BCDs (60.1%) were performed by ENT surgeons performing high volumes of the procedure, compared with 5603 of 13 109 procedures (42.7%) in 2012. In a line of best fit, at the 75th percentile of procedure volume, there was an increase of 4.2 BCDs in the median number of procedures done per physician per year, compared with an increase of 1.5 BCD procedures per physician per year in the line of best fit for the 50th percentile. Conclusions and Relevance Balloon catheter dilation continues to increase in popularity among otolaryngologists treating chronic rhinosinusitis. Most BCDs are performed by ENT surgeons who perform high volumes of the procedure.
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Background/aims: This study aimed to determine the dynamic change of postoperative T-helper cell cytokines in nasal secretions and serum in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Methods: Nasal secretions and serum samples of 30 CRSwNP patients and 10 healthy subjects were collected. Among CRSwNP patients, samples of 30 patients were collected 1 day before endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and that of 18 patients (12 asthmatic and 6 non-asthmatic) were collected 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ESS. Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were determined by Cytometric Beads Array. The Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test 22 and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scoring (LKES) system were collected for all patients. Results: The levels of IL-2 and IL-5 in secretions of CRSwNP were significantly higher than that of healthy control at the baseline. At the 4th and 8th week after ESS, the IL-4 levels in nasal secretions of the asthmatic group were significantly higher than their baseline controls (preoperatively). From the 4th to 12th week after ESS, the IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 levels in nasal secretions of the non-asthmatic group were significantly increased as compared to their baseline controls. Postoperative IL-5 levels in serum of the asthmatic group decreased significantly as compared to their baseline controls. There was no significant association between LKES and levels of cytokines in postoperative secretions and serum. Conclusions: Our results indicate that postoperative endoscopic findings may not directly reflect the underlying mucosal inflammation, and surgery could not change the systemic immunity status. Despite endoscopic resolution of mucosal abnormalities, it may not avert the need for subsequent postoperative medical intervention to treat the underlying mucosal inflammation.
Article
Background The objective of this study was to determine the disease burden of sinusitis relative to other medical conditions. Methods The adult sample of the National Health Interview Survey for calendar years 1997 to 2006 was analyzed, extracting 1-year prevalence data for the disease conditions sinusitis, hay fever, peptic ulcer, acute asthma, and chronic bronchitis. Disease burden data for emergency room visits, general and specialist visits, health care spending, and workdays lost were also extracted. The influence of each disease condition on disease burden variables was statistically determined. Comparisons among outcomes variables were conducted across disease conditions to determine their relative economic and health care impacts. Results Adult patients were studied (313,982; mean age, 45.2 years). The 1-year disease prevalences were: sinusitis (15.2%), hay fever (8.9%), ulcer (2.4%), acute asthma (3.8%), and chronic bronchitis (4.8%). Patients with sinusitis were significantly more likely to: visit the emergency room (22.7% versus 17.4%, p < 0.001), spend greater than $500/year on health care (55.8% versus 45.0%, p < 0.001), and see a medical specialist (33.6% versus 22.3%, p < 0.001), than those without sinusitis. Patients with sinusitis missed an average of 5.67 workdays per 12 months versus 3.74 workdays for those without (p < 0.001). The number of workdays lost with sinusitis was similar to that of acute asthma (5.79 workdays, p > 0.05), and health care spending with sinusitis was significantly greater than that of ulcer disease, acute asthma, and hay fever (p < 0.004). Conclusions Sinusitis imparts a significant disease burden both within and outside of the health care system that is comparable with or exceeds that of other conditions commonly thought to be more serious.
Article
Objective Olfactory dysfunction in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. Thus, mechanistic data are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological drivers of anosmia of COVID-19. Methods We performed the current study in patients who presented with anosmia and COVID-19 as documented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay between April 1st and May 15st, 2020. We assessed for the conductive causes of anosmia with computed tomography (CT) of paranasal sinuses. Results 49 patients who presented with anosmia and positive PCR assay for COVID-19 were included. The average age was 45 ± 12.2 years. Complete anosmia was present in 85.7% of patients and 91.8% of patients reported sudden onset of olfactory dysfunction. Taste disturbance was common (75.5%). There were no significant pathological changes in the paranasal sinuses on CT scans. Olfactory cleft and ethmoid sinuses appeared normal while in other sinuses, partial opacification was detected only in some cases. Conclusion We did not find significant mucosal changes or olfactory cleft abnormality on CT imaging in patients with anosmia of COVID-19. Conductive causes of anosmia (i.e., mucosal disease) do not seem play a significant role in anosmia of COVID-19.
Article
Background Aspirin‐exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an aggressive respiratory tract inflammatory disorder manifesting as asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, and a respiratory sensitivity to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Corticosteroids, both systemic and topical/inhaled, are used to treat inflammation of the upper and lower airways. Our objective was to examine the potential impact of complete endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and aspirin desensitization (AD) on short‐term and long‐term corticosteroid use. Methods For this pilot study, a retrospective chart review of all patients with AERD who underwent ESS followed by AD was performed. Daily prednisone use, average daily prednisone dose, and inhaled corticosteroid use were analyzed at the following time points: preoperative, postoperative/pre‐AD, and 2 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 24 months following AD. Results A total of 125 patients underwent ESS followed by AD. Compared to preoperatively, patients who underwent ESS and AD were less likely to be on daily prednisone at all time points and upon long‐term follow‐up (32% preoperatively vs 10% at 13 to 24 months, McNemar's test = 9.00, p = 0.009). Average daily prednisone dose decreased from 10.6 ± 7.9 mg preoperatively to 3.8 ± 2.6 mg at 13 to 24 months following AD (Mann‐Whitney U ; W = 122, p = 0.01). Similarly, high‐dose and medium‐dose inhaled corticosteroid use decreased from 18% to 7% and from 36% to 22% respectively (Pearson's chi‐square = 8.06, p = 0.05). Conclusion In our AERD cohort who underwent ESS followed by AD, there was an observed decrease in overall systemic and topical/inhaled corticosteroid use. These findings can have implications for treatment given the potentially hazardous side effects of corticosteroid use.
Article
Introduction COVID‐19 has significantly impacted endonasal surgery, and recent experimentation has demonstrated that sinonasal drilling and cautery have significant propensity for airborne particulate generation immediately adjacent to the surgical field. In the present investigation, we assess nasopharyngeal suctioning as a mitigation strategy to decrease particulate spread during simulated endonasal surgical activity. Methods Airborne particulate generation in the 1‐10μm range was quantified with an optical particle sizer in real‐time during cadaveric‐simulated anterior and posterior endonasal drilling and cautery conditions. To test suction mitigation, experiments were performed both with and without a rigid suction placed in the contralateral nostril, terminating in the nasopharynx. Results Both anterior (medial maxillary wall and nasal septum) and posterior (sphenoid rostrum) drilling produced significant particulate generation in the 1‐10μm range throughout the duration of drilling (p<0.001) without the use of suction, while nasopharyngeal suction use eliminated the detection of generated airborne particulate. A similar effect was seen with nasal cautery, with significant particle generation (p<0.001) that was reduced to undetectable levels with the use of nasopharyngeal suction. Conclusions The use of nasopharyngeal suctioning via the contralateral nostril minimizes airborne particulate spread during simulated sinonasal drilling and cautery. In the era of COVID‐19, this technique offers an immediately available measure that may increase surgical safety. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Article
Background The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has evolved as a pandemic infectious disease transmitted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV‐)2. Allergists and other health care providers (HCPs) in the field of allergies and associated airway diseases are in the front line, taking care of patients potentially infected with SARS‐CoV‐2. Hence, strategies and practices to minimize risks of infection for both HCPs and treated patients have to be developed and followed by allergy clinics. Method The scientific information on COVID‐19 was analyzed by a literature search in Medline, Pubmed, national and international guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Cochrane Library and the Internet. Results Based on diagnostic and treatment standards developed by EAACI, on international information regarding COVID‐19, on guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations as well as on previous experience, a panel of experts including clinicians, psychologists, IT experts and basic scientists along with EAACI and the “Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)” inititiative have developed recommendations for the optimal management of allergy clinics during the current COVID‐19 pandemic. These recommendations are grouped into nine sections on different relevant aspects for the care of patients with allergies. Conclusions This international Position Paper provides recommendations on operational plans and procedures to maintain high standards in the daily clinical care of allergic patients whilst ensuring necessary safety in the current COVID‐19 pandemic.
Article
Objective To estimate the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGDs) among patients infected with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients and Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the preprint server MedRxiv until 11 May 2020 using the terms ‘anosmia’ or ‘hyposmia’ or ‘dysosmia’ or ‘olfactory dysfunction’ or ‘olfaction disorder’ or ‘smell dysfunction’ or ‘ageusia’ or ‘hypogeusia’ or ‘dysgeusia’ or ‘taste dysfunction’ or ‘gustatory dysfunction’ or ‘neurological’ and ‘COVID-19’ or ‘2019 novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV’ or ‘SARS-CoV-2’. References of included studies were also manually screened. Only studies involving diagnostic-confirmed patients with COVID-19 were included. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Results A total of twenty-four studies with data from 8438 test-confirmed COVID-19 patients from thirteen countries were included. The pooled proportion of patients presenting with olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions was 41.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5% to 53.9) and 38.2% (95% CI 24.0 to 53.6%), respectively. Increasing mean age correlated with lower prevalence of olfactory (coefficient = -0.076; p=.02) and gustatory (coefficient = -0.073; p=.03) dysfunctions. There was a higher prevalence of olfactory dysfunctions with the use of objective measurements compared to self-reports (coefficient = 2.33; p=.01). No significant moderation of the prevalence of OGDs by gender was observed. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of OGDs among patients infected with COVID-19. Routine screening for these conditions could contribute to improved case detection in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, to better inform population screening measures, further studies are needed to establish causality.
Article
The respiratory epithelium provides a physical, functional, and immunologic barrier to protect the host from the potential harming effects of inhaled environmental particles and to guarantee maintenance of a healthy state of the host. When compromised, activation of immune/inflammatory responses against exogenous allergens, microbial substances, and pollutants might occur, rendering individuals prone to develop chronic inflammation as seen in allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma. The airway epithelium in asthma and upper airway diseases is dysfunctional due to disturbed tight junction formation. By putting the epithelial barrier to the forefront of the pathophysiology of airway inflammation, different approaches to diagnose and target epithelial barrier defects are currently being developed. Using single-cell transcriptomics, novel epithelial cell types are being unraveled that might play a role in chronicity of respiratory diseases. We here review and discuss the current understandings of epithelial barrier defects in type 2–driven chronic inflammation of the upper and lower airways, the estimated contribution of these novel identified epithelial cells to disease, and the current clinical challenges in relation to diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma.