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A Cascaded Approach for Keyframes Extraction from Videos

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Keyframes extraction, a fundamental problem in video processing and analysis, has remained a challenge to date. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to effectively extract keyframes of a video. It consists of four steps. At first, we generate initial clips for the classified frames, based on consistent content within a clip. Using empirical evidence, we design an adaptive window length for the frame difference processing which outputs the initial keyframes then. We further remove the frames with meaningless information (e.g., black screen) in initial clips and initial keyframes. To achieve satisfactory keyframes, we finally map the current keyframes to the space of current clips and optimize the keyframes based on similarity. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms to state-of-the-art keyframe extraction techniques with an average of \(96.84\%\) on precision and \(81.55\%\) on \(F_1\).
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A Cascaded Approach for Keyframes
Extraction from Videos ?
Yunhua Pei1, Zhiyi Huang1, Wenjie Yu1, Meili Wang123, and Xuequan Lu4
1College of Information Engineering, Northwest AF University, China.
2Key Laboratory of Agricultural Internet of Things, Ministry of Agriculture and
Rural Affairs, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.
3Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Perception and Intelligent
Service, Yangling 712100, China.
wml@nwsuaf.edu.cn
https://cie.nwsuaf.edu.cn/szdw/fjs/2012110003/
4Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia
xuequan.lu@deakin.edu.au
http://www.xuequanlu.com/
Abstract. Keyframes extraction, a fundamental problem in video pro-
cessing and analysis, has remained a challenge to date. In this paper,
we introduce a novel method to effectively extract keyframes of a video.
It consists of four steps. At first, we generate initial clips for the classi-
fied frames, based on consistent content within a clip. Using empirical
evidence, we design an adaptive window length for the frame difference
processing which outputs the initial keyframes then. We further remove
the frames with meaningless information (e.g., black screen) in initial
clips and initial keyframes. To achieve satisfactory keyframes, we finally
map the current keyframes to the space of current clips and optimize
the keyframes based on similarity. Extensive experiments show that our
method outperforms to state-of-the-art keyframe extraction techniques
with an average of 96.84% on precision and 81.55% on F1.
Keywords: keyframe extraction ·frame difference ·image classification
·video retrieval.
1 Introduction
Keyframes extraction, that is extracting keyframes from a video, is a fundamen-
tal problem in video processing and analysis. It has a lot of application fields like
video coding, so it is important to design robust and effective keyframe extrac-
tion methods. Current methods are usually based on either pixel matrix or deep
learning classification results [5, 6, 9, 10, 18, 19]. However, they still suffer from
some limitations. More specifically, the keyframe extraction techniques based on
pixel matrix are not capable of achieving decent accuracies, for example, when
?This is a preprint
2 Yunhua Pei et al.
handling news videos[16]. Nevertheless, the involved keyframes extraction could
take a considerable amount of time [15].
Motivated by the above issues, we propose a novel keyframe extraction ap-
proach in this paper. Given an input video, we first turn it into frames and per-
form classification with available deep learning networks. The classified frames
are split into initial clips, each of which has consistent content. We then de-
sign an adaptive window length for frame difference processing which takes the
computed initial clips as input and outputs. Also, we remove the frames with
meaningless information for previous results, such as black screen. Eventually,
to obtain desired keyframes, we map the current keyframes to the space of the
current clips and optimize the keyframes based on similarity.
Our method is simple yet effective. It is elegantly built on top of deep learning
classification and the frame difference processing. Experiments validate our ap-
proach and demonstrate that it outperforms or is comparable to state-of-the-art
keyframe extraction techniques. The main contributions of this paper are:
a novel robust keyframe extraction approach that fits various types of videos;
the design of the adaptive window length and the removal of meaningless
frames;
a mapping scheme and an optimization method on determining keyframes.
Our source code will be released online.
2 Related Work
Keyframes extraction has been studied extensively. We only review researches
mostly relevant to our work. Please refer to [2, 12] for a comprehensive review.
Some researchers introduced a keyframe extraction method for human mo-
tion capture data, through exploiting the sparseness and Riemannian manifold
structure of human motion [17]. Guan et al. introduced two criteria, coverage
and redundancy, based on keypoint matching, to solve the keyframe selection
problem [3]. Kuanar et al. obtained keyframes with iterative edge pruning strat-
egy using dynamic Delon Diagram for clustering [5]. Mehmood et al. used both
viewer attention and aural attention to do the extraction [11].
Some researchers extract keyframes based on machine learning results. Yang
et al. used an unsupervised clustering algorithm to first divide the frames, and
then selected keyframes from the clustering candidates [18]. Yong et al. extracted
keyframes by undergoing image segmentation, feature extraction and matching
of image blocks, and the construction of a co-occurrence matrix of semantic labels
[19]. Li et al. mapped the video data to a high-dimensional space and learnt a
new representation which could reflect the representativeness of the frame [7].
Although Motion capture and machine learning are effective ways proved to
extract high-quality keyframes through existing researches, there is still no one
algorithm that can extract keyframes from these two perspectives at the same
time and suit each kind of videos.
A Cascaded Approach for Keyframes Extraction from Videos 3
3 Method
3.1 Overview
Our keyframe extraction approach consists of four steps which are specifically:
1. Initial clips generation. We first obtain the classification results and split the
classified frames into clips that respectively involve consistent content.
2. Adaptive Window Length for frame difference processing. We then design
an adaptive window length for the frame difference method which takes the
output of Step 1 as inputs and outputs the initial keyframes.
3. Meaningless frames removal. We refine the results of Step 1 and 2 by remov-
ing the frames with meaningless information (e.g., black screen).
4. Mapping and optimization. After removing meaningless frames, we finally
map the current keyframes to the space of the current clips and perform
keyframes optimization based on similarity, to achieve more representative
keyframes.
3.2 Generating Initial Clips
ImageAI library [1] has four different deep learning networks (Resnet50, DenseNet-
BC-121-32, Inception v3, Squeezenet) separately trained on the imagenet-1000
dataset. The four networks in this paper are using default parameter settings,
please reference [1] for more details. The classification sof tmax (simax) is defined
as
sof tmax (si) = esi
PN
i=1 esi
(i= 1, . . . , N ) (1)
where sirepresents the score of the input xon the ith category. After the calcu-
lation, we take the maximum recognition probability of an image as its label.
We turn the videos into consecutive frames which act as the input to the
networks. Since one object in different scenes involve different meaning, it is
necessary to treat them as independent scenes. Based on the image classification
results, we simply split each video into a few clips, each of which continuously
represent certain content, by simply checking if the labels of the current and
next frames are the same or not.
3.3 Adaptive Window Length
The original frame difference method [13] simply sets the window length to 1
or a fixed value, which is prone to generate undesired keyframes. To solve this
issue, introduce a formula to enable an adaptive length (L) calculation.
L=P(frame)
Expvalue (2)
where P(frame) is the total number of frames in the video, and Expvalue
denotes the expected number of keyframes.
We will describe how we achieve an adaptive threshold in experiments (Sec.
4.1), based on the videos.
4 Yunhua Pei et al.
3.4 Meaningless Frames Removal
Some consecutive frames may deliver little information, for example, black or
white or other fuzzy colors representing non-recognizable items. As such, it is
necessary to refine the results in Sec. 3.2 and Sec. 3.3. We judge whether a frame
image has information or not by defining as follows, where mount is the total
number of different colors in a frame. The mount threshold (i.e., T) is empirically
set to 600 after testing on a hundred randomly selected 640x480 pixels pure color
imagines from the Internet and experiment videos.
P=1, mount T
0, others (3)
3.5 Mapping and Optimization
To obtain satisfactory results and reduce redundant results, we propose to map
the results by Sec. 3.3 onto the space of the results after Sec. 3.2. After mapping,
we perform the first optimization by computing the average similarity of each
frame in a clip, and one with the highest average similarity is set as the keyframe
of this clip. Finally, if two keyframes of two consecutive clips that are generated
in Sec. 3.2 have a similarity above 50%, we conduct a second optimization by
simply choosing the first keyframe and discarding the second keyframe. This is
because sometimes actual vidoes have fast switch of camera shots which leads
to repeated or similar scenes.
Similar to [4], the similarity is formulated as:
sim(G, S) = 1
M
M
X
i=1 1|gisi|
Max (gisi)(4)
where Gand Sare the values of the histogram after transforming the two images
into regular images, respectively. Mis the total number of samples in the color
space. More information can be referred to [14]. The expected keyframe is the
one with the greatest similarity, as follows arg maxk1
|C|−1Psim(Gk, S),
where (Gk, S) and |C|are a pair of two frames (not identical) and the number of
frames in the involved clip C, respectively. It is often not necessary to compare
the similarity between frames of different clips due to the discontinuity and
dissimilarity.
4 Experiments
4.1 Experimental Setup
Data. A dataset of ten videos are used to validate the proposed method, which
includes six types of video (i.e., advertisement, documentary and games).
Ground truth. Similar to previous research [7], three volunteers with multi-
media expertise independently selected and merged the keyframes of each video.
A Cascaded Approach for Keyframes Extraction from Videos 5
If some images deliver the same information, they are merged by manually se-
lecting the most representative one and discarding others. Table 1 illustrates an
example. We perform this operation on all the videos and the results are shown
as MK in Table 2.
Table 1: Ground truth keyframes generation example.
Volunteer A
Volunteer B
Volunteer C
Merged
We display the numbers of keyframes for initial keyframes and final keyframes
based on the four classification networks in Table 2. It can be seen from Table 2
that for each video, the numbers of final keyframes decreased in general, which
indicates that Sec. 3.4 and Sec. 3.5 refine the initial keyframes. Our method
runtime is also shown in Tab 2 which sees 0.66 − −6.79 times of the length of
the videos.
Table 2: Results and runtime by using different networks (in seconds). MK:
merged keyframes. IK: initial keyframes. FK: final keyframes. RT: runtime R:
Resnet50, D: DenseNet-BC-121-32, I: Inception v3 S: Squeezenet. AVG: average
Video MK IKRIKDIKIIKSFKRFKDFKIFKSRTRRTDRTIRTSRTAV G
Ads Audi(84s) 22 29 31 17 21 21 22 17 18 368.1 442.9 295.5 208.0 328.6
BBC...Camera(169s) 21 62 42 32 35 28 21 22 22 485.9 621.0 380.0 143.1 407.5
Highlight soccer(101s) 30 31 41 28 28 25 33 23 23 598.3 685.5 533.2 398.2 553.8
lion vs zebra judo(18s) 3 64 55 64 100 3 2 2 2 88.7 104.2 81.4 37.9 78.0
MV Gnstyle(252s) 41 36 46 30 30 31 40 26 26 426.0 518.8 350.0 166.7 365.4
Trailer...nonesub(161s) 46 37 23 30 26 18 15 18 16 284.5 315.8 225.5 115.3 235.3
Trailer...sub(147s) 45 47 63 54 63 31 38 34 40 606.9 652.3 490.7 392.9 535.7
Trailer Pokemon(196s) 72 85 76 65 75 66 63 56 66 622.8 770.6 498.3 287.5 544.8
UGS10 003(77s) 14 33 27 34 35 12 11 11 12 366.9 426.0 293.2 166.3 313.1
Dragons Fight(87s) 10 27 25 27 27 6 7 9 8 270.1 316.7 234.8 128.1 237.4
Experimental setting. Our framework is implemented in a Lenovo Y7000 lap-
top with an Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-9300H64 2.3GHz CPU and a NVIDIA GeForce
GTX 1050 Graphics card.
Window length. We take the separated clips of ResNet50 as an example, to
remove the short clips within a certain thresholding number. We found that the
6 Yunhua Pei et al.
remaining clips by setting this threshold to 10 can cover 90% of frames from the
whole video.
4.2 Quantitative Results
As with previous works [7, 8, 11], the precision P, the recall Rand the the average
(F1) of the Pand Rare employed as the evaluation metrics. They are computed
as:
P=Nc
Nc+Nf
×100% (5)
R=Nc
Nc+Nm
×100% (6)
F1=2RP
R+P×100% (7)
where Ncdenotes the number of correctly extracted keyframes, and Nfrefers
to the number of incorrect keyframes. Nmis the number of missing keyframes.
F1is a combined measure of Rand P, and a higher value indicates both higher
Rand P.
Fig.1 shows the evaluation numbers for each video using four different net-
works, and we can observe that the accuracies of our method are high, except
for only a few outliers (e.g., R network for V2 and V5). The average precision
is 96.84%. Fig. 1(b) gives the recall numbers which are lower than precision
numbers. We suspect that it has two reasons. The ground truth set of a video
is simply removed high similiarity frames. Moreover, some blurry frames can
result in misclassifications and further lower numbers of keyframes. As a result,
Nc+Nmbecomes large and Ncbecomes small, thus leading to relatively low
recall numbers. Fig. 1(c) reflects that the overall performance is generally good,
with an average of 81.55% for all videos and 84.69% for videos except the outlier
video V7.
Table 3: Comparison with [7] and [8].
[7]
[8]
R
D
I
S
A Cascaded Approach for Keyframes Extraction from Videos 7
(a) Precision rate (b) Recall rate (c) F1 index
Fig. 1: Evaluation results. (a) Precision rate. (b) Recall rate. (c) F1 index.
D:DenseNet-BC-121-32, I:Inception v3, R:Resnet50, S:Squeezenet.
Table 4: Comparison with [11].
[11]
R
D
I
S
8 Yunhua Pei et al.
Besides the above experiments that validate our approach, we also compare
our method with state-of-the-art keframe extraction techniques [7, 8, 11]. Table 3
and 4 show some visual comparisons for our method and [7, 8, 11]. It can be seen
from Table 3 that our extracted keyframes are very similar to current techniques
[7, 8]. Furthermore, our method can extract more representative keyframes, in
terms of significant distinctions and front views. Table 4 shows that our method
can extract fewer keyframes than [11] to describe the key content of the video.
While the results by [11] seem a bit redundant, in terms of scene keyframes. Their
scene keyframes occupied 36.4% while ours only took up 16.1%. This video is
actually concentrated more on humans than pure scenes.
In addition to visual comparisons, we also conduct quantitative comparisons
using the metrics mentioned above. The average P,Rand F1numbers are listed
in Tab. 5. Our average Pnumbers based on the four networks are the high-
est among all methods. Notice the numbers inside brackets are computed by
excluding the outlier video V7.
Table 5: Metrics comparison by using different methods.
P R F1
[7] 87.5% 84.0% 85.7%
[8] 92.0% 87.8% 89.9%
[11] 90.0% 80.0% 84.7%
R 92.8%(93.3%) 80.2%(79.3%) 86.0%(82.5%)
D 93.9%(94.3%) 80.2%(85.3%) 86.5%(89.2%)
I 93.5%(93.8%) 76.1%(74.3%) 83.9%(82.3%)
S 95.7%(95.7%) 83.2%(80.4%) 89.0%(87.0%)
5 Conclusion
We have proposed a novel framework for extracting keyframes from videos. Var-
ious experiments demonstrate that our approach is effective, and better or com-
parable to state-of-the-art methods.
One limitation is that it is challenging to classify burred images for exist-
ing deep learning networks, thus leading to undesired keyframes for videos with
frequent blur. As the future work, we would like to investigate and solve this
limitation, for example, by incorporating deblurring techniques into our frame-
work.
Acknowledgement
This work was partially funded by Key Laboratory of Agricultural Internet of
Things, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100,
China (2018AI OT 09). National Natural Science Foundation of China (61702433),
Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (2018NY 127).
A Cascaded Approach for Keyframes Extraction from Videos 9
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