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How Images Behave

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This online volume contains the papers prepared for the 9TH BUDAPEST VISUAL LEARNING CONFERENCE – HOW IMAGES BEHAVE, held online on Nov. 26, 2020, organized by the Department of Technical Education, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, by Corvinus University of Budapest, and by the Committee for Communication and Media Theory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS). For the past ten years, the Budapest Visual Learning Conference Series has striven to make happen what should have happened long ago: a radical iconic turn. We were working against the tide. The 9TH BUDAPEST VISUAL LEARNING CONFERENCE was a breakthrough event. It is hoped to have an immediate continuation: the participants, with access to each other, should continue to communicate with each other and with the organizers of the series, recounting how their research progresses; we hope the participants to become a virtual research group, a very real virtual research community, a community that will change the tide.
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The standard historical narrative regarding formalism during the twentieth century indicates the 1920s as a highpoint in the mathematical formalization project. This was marked by Hilbert’s statement that the sign stood at the beginning of pure mathematics [‘Neubegründung der Mathematik. Erste Mitteilung’, Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universität Hamburg, 1 (1922), 157–177]. If one takes the braid group as a case study of research whose official goal was to symbolically formalize braids and weaving patterns, a reconsideration of this strict definition of formalism is nevertheless required. For example, does it reflect what actually occurred in practice in the mathematical research of this period? As this article shows, the research on the braid group between 1926 and 1950, led among others by Artin, Burau, Fröhlich and Bohnenblust, was characterized by a variety of practices and reasoning techniques. These were not only symbolic and deductive, but also diagrammatic and visual. Against the historical narrative of formalism as based on a well-defined chain of graphic signs that has freedom of interpretation, this article presents how these different ways of reasoning—which were not only sign based—functioned together within the research of the braid group; it will be shown how they are simultaneously necessary and complementary for each other.
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In the paper, I propose a radical departure from how we perceive ethnographic film and suggest an alternative path for the production of moving images by anthropologists. I argue that anthropologists should relinquish the term "ethnographic film" to documentary filmmakers and embrace the term "Anthropological Cinema" to distinguish their attempts to visualize ethnography from the realist images of the "exotic other" produced by documentarians. In addition, along with Biella and others, I suggest that the production of digital multimedia ethnographies may be a way out of the limits that are possibly inherent in tradition filmic discourse. I illustrate this variety of "new" ethnography with my own recent work.
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The aim of this article is to explain why knot diagrams are an effective notation in topology. Their cognitive features and epistemic roles will be assessed. First, it will be argued that different interpretations of a figure give rise to different diagrams and as a consequence various levels of representation for knots will be identified. Second, it will be shown that knot diagrams are dynamic by pointing at the moves which are commonly applied to them. For this reason, experts must develop a specific form of enhanced manipulative imagination, in order to draw inferences from knot diagrams by performing epistemic actions. Moreover, it will be argued that knot diagrams not only can promote discovery, but also provide evidence. This case study is an experimentation ground to evaluate the role of space and action in making inferences by reasoning diagrammatically.
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This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.
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