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Collaborations of Art, Science and Technology: Creating Future Realities with Art and A.I.

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Abstract and Figures

Artists explore new territories in their work by exploring new media, imagining new futures, contextualizing ideas, creating aesthetic investigations into new environments, or posing questions and leading theoretical discussions. Interaction among art, science and technology can contribute to the creation of future societies – of future realities – on many levels, e.g., it can contribute to communication, create experience, enrich discussions, feed into scientific processes and support personal learning. Especially when it comes to something influential like current developments in Artificial Intelligence, contributions of artscience collaboration can be essential for designing a positive future reality for our society. Supporting collaborations in organizations through well-structured formats in the organization supports the realization of elaborate art on the topic that contributes to important developments in the organization as well as to an informed discussion with broad audiences and shareholder groups.
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Beware of Art: ARTificial Intelligence
Challenging Organizations and Society
Edited by Claudia Schnugg and Andrea Schueller
2020 Volume 9, Issue 1
reflective hybrids®
COS-journal
Peer-reviewed
Challenging
Organisations
and Society
Claudia Schnugg, Andrea Schueller
Editorial
Beware of Art: ARTificial Intelligence
Challenging Organizations and
Society
page 143 6
Elena Raviola
Artificial Intelligence and Creative
Work: Practice and Judgement,
Organizing and Structuring
page 14 42
Elisabetta Jochim
The Opportunities of Artificial
Intelligence and Art for Creativity
and Society
page 1460
Claudia Schnugg
Collaborations of Art, Science
and Technology: Creating Future
Realities with Art and A.I.
page 1473
Sougwen Chung interviewed by
ClaudiaSchnugg
A reflection on Art, Artificial
Intelligence and Robots in Society
page 1492
Andrea Schueller
Fragments of the Future: Identity,
Art and the Artificial
page 1499
Paola Michela Mineo and Andrea Schueller in
dialogue
Fragments as Media of Time
pa ge 1531
Christian Stary, Claudia Schnugg
Algorithmic Overdependence:
Fostering Awareness through Digital
Facilitation and (Re-)Construction
page 1541
Johannes Braumann interviewed by
LiselotteZvacek
Why didn’t you stay until Sunday’s
brunch?
pa ge 1558
About the Authors
pa ge 15 62
Journal “Challenging Organisations and Society . reflective hybrids® (COS)”
COS is the first journal to be dedicated to the rapidly growing require-
ments of reflective hybrids in our complex 21st-century organisations
and society. Its international and multidisciplinary approaches balance
theory and practice and show a wide range of perspectives in and
between organisations and society. Being global and diverse in thinking
and acting outside the box are the targets for its authors and readers in
management, consulting and science.
Editor-in-Chief: Maria Spindler (AT)
email: maria@cos-collective.com
Deputy Editors-in-Chief: Gary Wagenheim (CA), Tonnie van der Zouwen (NL)
Editorial Board: Ann Feyerherm (US), Ilse Schrittesser (AT), Maria Spindler (AT),
Chris Stary (AT), Gary Wagenheim (CA), Nancy Wallis (US), Tonnie van der
Zouwen (NL)
Guest Editors: Tom Brown (CA), Andrea Schueller (AT), Claudia Schnugg (AT)
Reviewers: François Breuer, Tom Brown, Silvia Ettl Huber, Jeff Haldeman, Ann
Feyerherm, Russell Kerkhoven, Larissa Krainer, Marlies Lenglachner,
Ruth Lerchster, Barbara Lesjak, Annette Ostendorf, Richard Pircher,
Ilse Schrittesser, Claudia Schuchard, Andrea Schüller, Maria Spindler,
Christian Stary, Martin Steger, Thomas Stephenson, Martina Ukowitz,
Gary Wagenheim, Nancy Wallis, Tonnie van der Zouwen
Proofreading: Deborah Starkey
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Copyright: COS . reflective hybrids®, Vienna 2020
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Claudia Schnugg
Collaborations of Art, Science and Technology:
Creating Future Realities with Art and A.I.
Collaborations of Art, Science and Technology
Abstract
Artists explore new territories in their work by exploring new media, imagin-
ing new futures, contextualizing ideas, creating aesthetic investigations into
new environments, or posing questions and leading theoretical discussions.
Interaction among art, science and technology can contribute to the creation
of future societies – of future realities – on many levels, e.g., it can contribute
to communication, create experience, enrich discussions, feed into scientic
processes and support personal learning.
Especially when it comes to something inuential like current developments
in Articial Intelligence, contributions of artscience collaboration can be es-
sential for designing a positive future reality for our society. Supporting col-
laborations in organizations through well-structured formats in the organi-
zation supports the realization of elaborate art on the topic that contributes to
important developments in the organization as well as to an informed discus-
sion with broad audiences and shareholder groups.
Keywords: Art and Science, ArtScience Collaboration, Art and Technology,
Artist in Residence, Artistic Inquiry in Social and Economic Development,
Corporate Artistic Residency, Art and Innovation, Artistic Strategies in
Innovation
1. Three Scenes: Explorations, Future Visions and Questions
ONE: In 1999 e Laboratorium took place in Antwerp. As a major artistic
event, the exhibition brought together art and science, staging scientic labo-
ratories and experiments in an artistic environment to initiate relevant
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interactions between art and science, at the same time addressing a broad
audience. One of the experiments presented at the exhibition was e Talking
Heads experiment by Luc Steels (see Fig. 1). It interrogated the genesis of a
cognitive system – like a language – through the interaction of “talking
heads”, i.e. two interacting articial systems (computer agents) developing a
cognitive system to interact, challenged by inputs from the environment. Sci-
entically, the project investigated the genesis of a language system. At the
same time, it used a bottom-up approach to understand Articial Intelli-
gence: it is a case study in how an articially intelligent system can develop.
Fig. 1: Talking Heads Experiment Installation View at the Wellcome Gallery in London
(2000). Le: Talking Heads cameras oriented towards the wall where the input is pro-
vided to them to process, in the back the computer system operating the Talking Heads.
Right: Outcome projection of the interaction during an ongoing experiment. Aer a
game failed, one of the talking heads says “No” as reaction to the failure.
Credit: Luc Steels, 2015: p. 239.
Because of the art-science exhibition situation, the experiment was presented
with the support of curators to a broad audience, who were asked to interact
with and challenge the articial system. Aerwards, the project was shown
at numerous artistic spaces. us, it supported the development of a more
informed discussion with a broad audience on A.I. while contributing to the
ongoing scientic research. In 2001, scientist Luc Steels teamed up with re-
nowned artist Olafur Eliasson to take the project into an artistically elaborate
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presentation with a focus on light and color.
1 e artwork Look into the Box
developed and was presented worldwide and was shown in exhibitions and
workshops on A.I. up until 2019 (see Fig. 2).
Fig. 2: Look into the box (2002) by Olafur Eliasson and Luc Steels, as presented in 2006
at the Tokyo Explorascience Museum, Credit: Luc Steels, 2015: p. 264.
TWO: In 2019 at La Biennale di Venezia artist Hito Steyerl
2 contributed two
artworks to the main exhibitions in Arsenale and Giardini: is is e Future
(Fig. 3) and Leonardo’s Submarine (Fig. 4). For both installations, the artist
used A.I. algorithms and digital media to create imaginative future scenarios,
tackling questions of complex interdependencies of social, environmental,
industrial, technological and corporate environments. She asked how A.I.
systems aect future scenarios and questioned types of connections between
stake- and shareholder groups that have the potential of undermining society
1 Steels (2015).
2 For background information on the Biennale exhibits in 2019 by Hito Steyerl see
https://www.labiennale.org/it/arte/2019/partecipanti/hito-steyerl.
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and culture. With this critical work, Steyerl created something highly expe-
riential that feeds into discussions about societal and cultural developments.
Fig. 3: is is e Future by Hito Steyerl, installation view at Arsenale,
La Biennale di Venezia, 2019; photo credit: Roland Aigner.
Fig. 4: Leonardo’s Submarine by Hito Steyerl, installation view at Giardini,
La Biennale di Venezia, 2019; photo credit: Andrea Kurz.
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THREE: In the 1960s at AT&T Bell Labs the art and technology program
Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) became famous by bringing art-
ists into the laboratories, creating a new generation of interactions leading
to iconic artworks. Most recently, with the anniversary of some prominent
E.A.T. projects
3 at the end of 2016, the program was revived at Nokia Bell
Labs. e goal of the new E.A.T. program is to invite artists into the labora-
tories, exploring the future of communication and technology from a human
perspective. One of the artists-in-residence, world-class beat boxer Reeps
One, explored human creative potential through collaborative exercises be-
tween his human creativity and A.I. technology
4. In addition to reaching be-
yond usual techniques triggered by the unforeseen interaction with the A.I.
system, the project explored the role of human-embodied knowledge, human
voice and human identity in interaction with communication technologies.
e project fostered his own creative process, led to new, unexpected artistic
output, and created contributions to the research process by generating valu-
able experiences. Here is the link to listening:
Fig. 5: Screenshot of the video v in which Reeps One develops creative sounds and
patterns in exchange with an A.I. which is his Vocal Twin. For true experience of this
work, follow the link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q981cTdL0_Y and listen to the
interaction. Reeps One describes his journey in his own words and gives more examples
here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTMMopLYJn4.
3 For more information about the anniversary of the “9 Evenings”, see a series of perfor-
mances and staged artistic production that marked the beginning of the E.A.T. in the 1960s:
http://www.9evenings.org/eat/.
4 For more details see https://www.bell-labs.com/var/articles/
we-speak-music-potential-ai-and-how-we-got-here/.
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ONE-TWO-THREE. ese three scenes show how artists explore the new
territory of Articial Intelligence (A.I.) and leverage their and their collab-
orators’ work by bringing artistic strategies into the exploration of newly-
developed technological possibilities. e rst scene shows a pure research
setting that was enriched by artistic approaches and through interaction with
broad audiences. e second scene shows critical reections produced by an
artist interrogating A.I. systems and utilizing them in a political way to create
reective experiences. e third scene shows multiple layers: an organiza-
tion investigating their core mission in collaboration with artists, learning
from and with the artist about the human voice and communication, but
also technology, namely A.I. tools, allowing the artist to experience his own
very special abilities from a dierent perspective and thus enabling him to
push the limits of his own artistic cra and become more creative. In Reeps
One’s case the A.I. tool is more than a sparring partner because it allows him
to see his own processes and patterns through the AI twin from an outside
perspective, which helps him to see underlying principles and even overcome
“organizational (inattentional) blindness”
5.
ese examples give small glimpses into what is possible by intertwining art,
science and technology, in this case art and A.I.: it leads to unexpected out-
comes while it helps to actively create future realities, understand the realities
individuals and groups/organizations live in, explore new approaches, and
introduce critical reection. Exploring new territories with artists can bear
risks for everyone, as logics from dierent elds and cultural backgrounds
meet when the worlds of art, science and technology collide (organizations
add another layer with their predominant economic embedding). When we
step into uncharted territories, important challenges can be tackled in new
ways and contributions will be generated. It is dicult to say in advance
5 Inattentional blindness is dened as something that is invisible to a person although “in
plain sight”. Organizational blindness can be understood as something that you cannot see
anymore because you do it every day or because your attention is focused on something else
due to the information you have and your internalized processes.
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whether every encounter will be innovative or have a tangible outcome that
will immediately make an audience understand why this specic encounter
was important. And it is even more dicult to say in advance which specic
outcome there will be, but if we knew what the “new” that we wanted to nd
was, we would not have to search for it. e cases can be seen as footsteps into
the unknown, maybe having solved an important puzzle of a later prototype
or served as a challenging insight or idea.
To untangle the contribution of interweaving art and A.I. in order to create
positive future realities we rst point to research on the eects of art in scien-
tic, technologic and economic/organizational environments. Based on this
body of research we will be able to look more closely at dynamics that emerge
in the interaction of artists and A.I. researchers, engineers and other stake-
holders, and by looking at these dynamics we will be able to identify relevant
possible outcomes that go beyond typical buzzwords of inducing creativity or
producing innovation.
2. Art and Science, Art and Technology Exchange in Society and Economy
Art historians
6 as well as experts in technology
7 have acknowledged the val-
uable contribution art-technology interactions to the development of their
elds. In management science, artistic interventions into organizations have
been understood as valuable opportunities to develop diverse organizational
aspects by a growing group of scholars
8. Looking at the potential of art in
diverse organizational contexts, a broad range of contributions have been
identied
9 that can be located on dierent organizational levels (see Fig. 6)
6 Shanken (2002), Taylor (2014).
7 Lindgren (1969).
8 Seier et al. (2010).
9 Edwards (2008), Sköldberg et al. (2016).
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and a review of 74 cases has shown the breadth of the asserted eects on these
dierent organizational levels (see Fig. 7).
Fig. 6: Where artistic interventions add value in organizations, Antal Berthoin (2009).
It is not possible within the limits of this article to go into depth on all pos-
sible eects in relation to art and A.I. processes. With an eye to the creation
of future realities through technology and science, not only is art a creative
explorer of possible applications of brand-new technologies, but artists are
also able to create new contexts, add meaning and investigates stories of fu-
ture realities. Artworks can create experiences to get in touch with imagined
future scenarios through dierent bodily senses. ey can initiate important
discussions, allowing a society to contribute to the development of the future
reality that society wants and needs. e experience of the collaboration pro-
cess is important so the collaborating partners can learn, explore new meth-
ods and skills, get in touch with new perspectives and create new insights
10.
10 Schnugg (2019).
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Fig. 7: List of asserted eects of arts-based initiatives in business organizations.
Numbers indicate in how many cases out of 74 the specic eect was asserted;
Schnugg (2010).
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We must be aware that diverse, real human beings interact with non-human
actors, forming a social prototype, a seed for a yet-unknown collective fu-
ture. e three scenes presented above exemplify some of these dynamics
beautifully.
3. What about Art and A.I.?
Aer a long research phase, tools integrating A.I. are rapidly becoming more
capable of solving tasks and are becoming integrated into technologies that
aect dierent levels of society: the labor market, work processes and busi-
nesses
11, e.g. digitalization and automation incorporating A.I. create new de-
mands on personal skills, responsibilities and collaborative capabilities
12. At
the same time, A.I. tools inuence individual experiences, from personalized
shopping experiences to security and safety measures in public spaces, and
personal exploration of art, like music suggested by algorithms in semantic
players. ese changes not only challenge users and creators of applications
by accustoming them to them or creating a need for new sensemaking and
learning systems
13, but they can also lead to problems, for instance enforce-
ment of stereotypes, raise ethical issues
14 or lead to problems through misin-
terpretation of data in cases of algorithmic overdependence
15.
At the same time the body of research mentioned above shows that integrat-
ing art, artistic strategies and artistic processes in organizations, projects
and development processes leads to an abundance of possible eects, adding
knowledge and feeding into the potential to overcome challenges. So, how
11 Frank et al. (2019).
12 Autor (2019).
13 Mesgari (2019).
14 Coeckelbergh (2019).
15 Wei et al. (2017).
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can we gain an understanding of the potential of pairing art and A.I. to
create future realities?
e three scenes presented above point to the dierent layers of eects in
scientic or research settings, in societal discussions, in corporate organiza-
tions and for artistic practice. Depending on the lens we take, it is possible to
analyze the impact of the interdisciplinary inquiry among A.I., art and the
dierent actors (e.g., scientists, collaboration partners, audience, engineers).
What we are interested in here is how working with art and A.I. can become
a platform that enables all these wonderful eects and potential outcome.
We will have a closer look at what the potential of the three presented pro-
jects is and what the dimension where they contribute is while keeping an
eye on the body of literature on impacts of artistic interventions in diverse
organizations.
Artists explore A.I. as a tool to create their art, to nd new forms of expres-
sion or to enhance their creative process as these systems makes suggestions
in unexpected ways
16. In that sense, they can contribute to a broader body of
knowledge about skills, new work processes and which possibilities interac-
tion with and application of A.I. systems bear. Going even further, artists ap-
proaching A.I. as collaborative partners and investigating the role of the hu-
man in the context of A.I./A.I.-powered technology create an understanding
of future shared practices, limits of technology and humanizing processes
(instead of adapting humans to technology)
17. Artistic exploration thereby
goes beyond understanding a possible interaction process; it also enables
learning about humans, individual processes, and needs. It can touch impor-
tant questions that have been asked without nding denite answers in order
to add new layers of understanding. e case of Reeps One at Nokia Bell labs
is a wonderful example of this. e A.I. twin of his voice and professional
16 Jochim (2020).
17 Chung (2020).
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skills acts as a sparring partner, a mirror and an externalized entity of his
embodied skills, which helps to push the professional borders and supports
creative processes. Learnings can bring insights into important dynamics
and fuel the so-much-needed discussion of A.I. in broader society. is dis-
cussion is mainly brought to a broader audience through presentation of the
artwork, either in exhibitions or in events, but it can also be embedded in
public engagement methodologies, as suggested by toolkits for Responsible
Research and Innovation
18. Although the project also created important dy-
namics in scientic developments, the Talking Heads experiment is a won-
derful example here.
emed exhibitions presenting artistic work on A.I. and reecting on his-
torical developments in art, computer science and A.I. can oer new access
points to scientic and technological developments. At the same time, artists
are in a position to go beyond intellectual discussions of topics by creating an
experiential understanding of complex interrelations. is may be an experi-
ence of the abstract concept of Algorithmic Overdependence
19 or interaction
with robotic systems. In this sense, art makes you feel what you can barely
understand. Combining intellectual aspects and embodied experiences can
lead to an informed and relevant discussion. erefore, commissioning art-
ists to explore such issues in their practice supports the creation of a consider-
able body of artwork that supports social, ethical and economic discussions.
e artwork of Hito Steyerl goes even further: it gets under the skin of the
participating observer. Her work is highly self-referential, both by enhancing
critical discussion through art on social and economic developments and by
utilizing the technology that drives these developments in the artwork.
Artistic exploration of A.I. as technology or in social contexts is relevant
beyond the outcome that is presented to and discussed by the public. In
18 Sparks Toolkit (2018).
19 Stary et al. (2020).
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artist-in-residence programs in organizations, the artistic process carries the
potential to become an important contribution to the development process
in the organization, bring in new perspectives and help to overcome organi-
zational blindness. e artist herself is the intervention in the social system.
e magic happens when, systemically speaking, the two systems positively
irritate each other, fostering the emergence of new communication patterns
and subsequently carrying forward new meaning. Reeps One mentions that
the A.I. system based on his voice gave him a new perspective on his own
work, patterns, and processes while suggesting completely new construc-
tions. is inspired him to become more creative and push the boundaries
of his (artistic) cra. At the same time, artistic research puts the scientic
questions and technological outcomes into broad contexts, asking dierent
questions than scientists, engineers, policy makers and corporations ask. e
case of Hito Steyerl is at rst sight rather critical, but many projects inviting
artistic strategies in contextualization processes and the development of fu-
ture scenarios bring in new connections of matter and mind, propose valu-
able development, and show realistic dependencies.
20 us, the contribution
can be invaluable for those inviting artists to work with them, just as it brings
new dimensions to the project, scientic and technological endeavors.
4. Formats Supporting Art-Science-Technology Collaboration Frequently
Found in Organizations
So how can these collaborations between art and A.I. be realized and their
contribution understood as relevant? I will illustrate these questions con-
cerning the creation of opportunities supporting art-science-technology
collaboration.
20 Malizia et al. (2019).
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ey are oen created as collaborations between artists and scientists in A.I.
or artists and engineers. Artscience collaboration programs as fruitful plat-
forms for interaction between artists and scientists oen take place within
organizations
21 and thus must be discussed in a language that organizations
currently speak – or at least can connect with. is leads artscience programs
to be designed around specic goals like contribution to creativity, innova-
tion, or HR development. Unfortunately, buzzwords like these are frequently
used to argue for such programs in communication with the organization,
employees, and to stakeholder groups. is communication of goals inevita-
bly leads to evaluation of the outcomes along these major goals. Taking the
example of creativity, at the beginning of the discourse artists were brought
to corporate organizations in order to add creativity because they are artists:
art seen as connected to “the new” in the Western cultural understanding
22
was something scholars and practitioners started to look at to infuse corpora-
tions with creativity
23. In some of these attempts, the creative processes of the
organization and the artists were not taken into account, and some programs
did not even bother to create a structure for artists and employees, for artists
and the organization as such, to interact. When the success of such programs
at the end in terms of heightened creativity was evaluated, the outcome was
inevitably poor
24. Artists became a decoration, the desired creative powers
stayed isolated, and the possible chaos or breakdown of common ways of
thinking, sensing, and acting was eroded.
Nevertheless, these projects have relevant outcomes when viewed from a dif-
ferent perspective, which teaches important lessons: if a program for art and
science in an organization is developed for a specic goal, it is important
to understand the theoretical concept of the goal (i.e., What is creativity?)
21 Schnugg (2019).
22 McRobbie (2001).
23 Styhre et al. (2008).
24 Raviola et al. (2016).
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and how to integrate it into the organizational structure (i.e., management,
responsibilities, hierarchies, processes). If planned well with understand-
ing of the organizational, personal, and artistic strategies, programs with
art on science and technology in organizations can be successful in many
ways. ese undertakings require leadership giving explicit approval of and
opening spaces for co-destroying and co-creating meaning. Art by denition
is not primarily logic but rather combines pre- and transrational as well as
rational modes. ese are also helpful capacities in business and especially
where business is stuck or ready to step onto the next level.
As the three scenes at the beginning of this article show, contributing to sci-
entic research in unexpected ways, inducing critical reection and discus-
sion of future realities of society, and tackling an organization’s important
research in a new way while pushing the creativity of the artist by exploring
technology in relation to individual knowledge are three completely dierent
outcomes. Curating their process, connecting them wisely to organizational
goals and visions, and relating them to strategies to actively create positive
futures by following up and managing the dierent levels of the outcome will
lead to positive results for all parties involved
25.
Methods organizations use in their interactions with art, the artistic pro-
cess, and the artists were clustered into formats ranging from events to con-
sultancy, workshops, and artist-in-residence programs
26. Artist-in-residence
programs are a convenient opportunity to initiate collaboration. Within the
limits of this text I will give a taste of these programs and examine the most
important preconditions for this popular intervention to bear fruit.
However, artistic residencies do not automatically imply collaboration pro-
cesses; collaboration must be facilitated and given enough space and time
from the organization’s side. Artistic residencies are a basic mechanism in
25 Schnugg et al. (2020).
26 i.e. Berthoin Antal et al. (2013), Schnugg (2014).
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the artistic community, just like visiting research opportunities in the sci-
entic world. ey imply the opportunity for the artist to be hosted by an
institution, organization, or place, providing space and time to work on their
artistic project. Here are major aspects that inuence the procedure of an
artist-in-residence project:
emed work, collaboration with local individuals, dierent funding
schemes (artist fee, production budget, travel, accommodation): artist-
in-residence programs in corporations and scientic organizations
range from inviting artists into their premises, giving them access to
facilities, commissioning themed artworks, or building up intense in-
terdisciplinary collaboration.
Regular shorter visits over a long period (from one year up to several
years) vs. xed periods on site (e.g., two or three months, up to a year).
A residency can be framed dierently: some visiting artists receive the
status of visiting researchers because the organizational structures can-
not deal with them dierently; sometimes the format of a fellowship
provides more exibility in terms of interaction and access.
Art-science collaboration can aim at collaboration in the sense of co-
creation (create one shared output, which may be scientic, artistic,
product, or somewhere in between). Collaboration does not need to lead
to a shared outcome but should feed into the artist’s and the collabo-
rating partner’s (e.g., scientist, engineer, project group) goals separately
through the joint experience and learning process.
Focus on the process means focus on personal development and experi-
ence, broadening the scope of methodologies and engaging in joint re-
search, whereas dealing with the outcome can lead to in-depth discus-
sions, experience of previously purely intellectual concepts, or having
experiential entities to reach out to broader audiences.
Commissioning an artwork on a specic topic related to the organi-
zation can be combined with an artscience collaboration process or a
residency, but basically it means that the artist will engage in the topic
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Challenging Organisations and Society
to develop an artwork. ese artworks can be brought back into the or-
ganization (which can be a scientic, corporate, cultural, or educational
organization) to be discussed or engaged with.
5. Conclusion
Artists investigate scientic and technological developments; they interro-
gate cultural and societal questions. us, a broad audience gets in touch
with these topics, and future visions can be generated and discussed. Engag-
ing in art in the process of investigating new technologies – and the social
and cultural challenges that they bring – with art is a powerful tool. It is
important to approach artscience/art-technology interactions with the full
freedom of each disciplinary background, not to push art into more scien-
tic or corporate methodologies, but letting the dierent worlds collide as
they are. Moreover, the outcome is less about tangible innovative products
and more about critical reections, elaborating on questions to understand in
which way it is important to go forward, and learning processes on personal,
interpersonal, organizational, and societal levels. Collaborators should crack
each other’s shell – on a personal as well as on a systems level. Otherwise new
weavings will not occur. By realizing this and supporting the exchange or
collaboration in an open way, these interactions can be fruitful for everyone,
the process and outcome of the joint experience can reach their full potential,
and problematic situations of instrumentalization of art can be avoided.
Bringing these elds together can – and most likely will – be challenging for
the acting parties, but whatever interaction or joint exploration is initiated,
it will lead to unexpected as well as valuable multi-layered contributions to
a sustainable integration of technological opportunities into the creation of
shared future realities.
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Challenging Organisations and Society
About the Authors
About the Authors – COS Journal Issue 9.1
Johannes Braumann heads Creative Robotics at the University of Art and
Design Linz. He is co-founder of the Association for Robots in Architecture
and the main developer of the intuitive robot programming environment
KUKA | prc, which is used by more than 100 universities and 50 companies
worldwide. e focus of his work is the development of methods of robotics
for new user groups. ereby, Creative Robotics cooperates closely with the
Innovation Center Grand Garage and develops innovative robot processes
for (and with) SMEs and cra businesses.
Sougwen Chung is an internationally renowned artist and a pioneer in the
eld of human-robot collaboration. In her work she artistically explores and
researches ways to work with machines and the potential of articial intelli-
gence in creative cooperative processes. Chung has been artist-in-residence at
distinguished organizations like Nokia Bell Labs, is a former research fellow
at MIT’s Media Lab and was selected as the Woman of the Year in Monaco in
2019 for achievement in the Arts & Sciences.
Elisabetta F. Jochim is creative AI lead at Libre AI and co-founder at Cueva
Gallery. She has a background in Arts and Humanities and extensive experi-
ence in project management working with heterogeneous teams in dynamic
environments. Finding her passion in the intersection of technology and art,
she explores how articial intelligence can enhance human creativity. Her in-
terests focus on digital aesthetics, human-computer interaction, human and
machine creativity, and society.
Paola Michela Mineo is an Italian visual artist: her research is rooted in re-
lational art, but she uses an interdisciplinary language that ranges from per-
formance art to photography, from the purest sculpture to installations. She
graduated in Architecture at the Polytechnic of Milan and Athens; she rein-
terprets the concept of human cast and fragment, transforming them from
1563
About the Authors
Challenging Organisations and Society
an anatomical copy to a real pieces of personal identity portraits. She has ex-
hibited her work in various museums, and is always committed to extracting
beauty from the darkest social realities.
For further information see: http://www.paolamichelamineo.com
Contact: info@paolamichelamineo.com
Elena Raviola is Professor in Business and Design at the university of Goth-
enburg. She is recipient of the Tortsen and Wanja Söderberg Professorship in
Design Management at the Academy of Design and Cras Gothenburg and
Director of the Business and Design Lab. Her research incorporates arti-
cial intelligence and design, and its implications of work processes, most im-
portantly on creative work. Her main research interest lies in understanding
the role of technology and other material artifacts in organizing professional
work, especially in news production. She was visiting researcher at Stanford,
Bocconi University, Harvard, and Sciences Po, and worked at Jönköping In-
ternational Business School and Copenhagen Business School.
Claudia Schnugg is independent researcher and curator in the eld of art
and science. Her work focuses on analyzing the eects of art in organiza-
tional and social settings, including change processes and new technologies.
As advocate of artscience collaboration, she has been the catalyst for numer-
ous projects. Claudia is working with leading scientic institutions, tech cor-
porations and cultural partners. She researched at JKU in Linz, Copenha-
gen Business School, UCLA Art|Sci Center+Lab, and at European Southern
Observatory, Chile. She headed the Ars Electronica Residency Network and
was rst Artistic Director of Science Gallery Venice. Her most recent book is
“Creating ArtScience Collaboration” (2019).
Andrea Schueller is an independent business consultant, executive coach
and lecturer at various universities specializing in generative change and
transformation, organizational design, systemic identity, social innovation,
creative emergence. Over the years she has qualied in various elds and ap-
plies her work shapeshiing in dierent contexts pursuing the red line of
fostering embodied consciousness development through fresh presence and
156 4
About the Authors
Challenging Organisations and Society
holistic working designs. She is teaching trainer for Group Dynamics with
the OEGGO (Austrian Association of Group Dynamics & Organization
Consulting) which she chaired and served as a Board Member (2012-2018).
She is a co-founder of COS Collective.
See more: www.cos-collective.com, andrea@cos-collective.com
Christian Stary is professor for Business Information Systems at the Uni-
versity of Linz, Austria. His research areas include Interactive Design of
Sociotechnical Systems, Business Process Management, Conceptual Model-
ling and Knowledge Management. He is responsible for several European re-
search projects, such as TwinTide, dealing with method transfer in UI design
and evaluation. He is member of the editorial board of international cross-
and interdisciplinary journals, among them UAIS published by Springer. He
is one of the founders and chair of the Competence Center on Knowledge
Management, the ICKM (Int. Council on Knowledge Management), and or-
ganizer of several academic events on interactive systems, business process
and knowledge management. He is also a co-founder of COS Collective.
Liselotte Zvacek is management consultant, leadership coach and lecturer at
dierent universities in Austria; teaching trainer (train the trainer) of OEG-
GO (Austrian Society of Group Dynamics and Organisational Development)
and member of the board of OEGGO (2000-02 and 2012-18); facilitator at the
Graduate School of Business of Stanford University (USA) 2011-15; member
of the faculty of the Hernstein Institute; member of NTL (National Train-
ing Laboratories Institute, USA), photographer. She is a co-founder of COS
Collective.
www.cos-collective.com, liselotte@cos-collective.com
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... Bell et al. 2014, Barnard et al., 2017Biehl, 2017, Reinhold et al., 2018, Cuan et al., 2019LaViers, 2019). Additionally, the research will allow for art-science collaboration and artistic exploration as already used in a diverse range of research and industrial settings in the development of human-centered technologies and human-centered approaches to technology development (Schnugg, 2020). Embedding the experiment's artistic exploration in the research setting framed by this diverse range of methods, they can be analyzed to understand impacts and implications. ...
Article
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Keeping humans in the loop or bringing them back into the loop in dynamically changing socio-technical or socio-hybrid systems requires the human-centered arrangement of system designs and the adoption of digital artefacts according to human capabilities and needs. When transhumanist developments increasingly propagate through society, digital sensemaking could support their co-evolution in a sensible way. We discuss sensemaking to that end, and provide a roadmap on how to integrate sensemaking processes into capacity building processes and digitalization initiatives. Cite as: Brill, D., Schnugg, C., & Stary, C. (2022). Makes Digital Sensemaking Sense?—A Roadmap for Digital Humanism in Increasingly Transhumanist Settings. New Explorations: Studies in Culture and Communication, 2(3), https://jps.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/nexj/
... We employ art in our research projectwith a specific focus on dance and performance -to gain insights into the embodiment and relevance of aesthetic/sensory knowledge in sensemaking processes (Schnugg, 2019). Moreover, most recently, bridging art and technology development has been introduced as an interesting method to focus on humancentred technology development as seen in diverse industry organizations, such as Nokia Bell Labs, in Horizon Europe and Horizon 2020 funding schemes within the framework of S+T+ARTS1 and art-science projects exploring implications and possibilities of collaboration with artificial intelligence systems (Schnugg, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces the project "Digital Sensemaking" (DIGI-Sense) that tackles human needs in the envisioned digital revolution (Industry4.0, humanoid robots, Internet of Behaviours, Cyber-Physical-Systems) to enable meaningful transformation processes. Psychologists of work argue that digitalization at the workplace can lead to an overflow of information which challenges decision-making and sensemaking at work. Studies in organizational research show that sensemaking is fundamental for meaningful work1 experience of individuals and organizations because it plays a central role to give meaning to processes, shared experiences and to rationalize decisions and established routines. In digital transformation processes, well-known work processes easily become alienated to workers, embodied knowledge and material cornerstones are likely to become obsolete. Therefore, DIGI-Sense explores sensemaking in digitalization processes that incorporate tangible elements, digital twins, and robotics. As embodiment, materialities, movements, and aesthetics are core to sensemaking, the methodological design of the empirical study incorporates methods in social sciences and juxtaposes these more traditional approaches 1 We consider meaningful work as immersive perception and practice of doing where cognitive, social, and bodily involvement is streamlined and thus, coherent for the actor(s) to perform activities according to their intention and purpose. 652 IFKAD 2022-Knowledge Drivers for Resilience and Transformation Lugano, Switzerland 20-22 June 2022 ISBN 978-88-96687-15-4 || ISSN 2280-787X with methods from visual studies, arts-based initiatives and artscience collaboration in the form of a series of experimentations with performance artists. This paper will introduce the theoretical background and the development of the methodological approach applied in this research project.
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Rapid advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and automation technologies have the potential to significantly disrupt labor markets. While AI and automation can augment the productivity of some workers, they can replace the work done by others and will likely transform almost all occupations at least to some degree. Rising automation is happening in a period of growing economic inequality, raising fears of mass technological unemployment and a renewed call for policy efforts to address the consequences of technological change. In this paper we discuss the barriers that inhibit scientists from measuring the effects of AI and automation on the future of work. These barriers include the lack of high-quality data about the nature of work (e.g., the dynamic requirements of occupations), lack of empirically informed models of key microlevel processes (e.g., skill substitution and human–machine complementarity), and insufficient understanding of how cognitive technologies interact with broader economic dynamics and institutional mechanisms (e.g., urban migration and international trade policy). Overcoming these barriers requires improvements in the longitudinal and spatial resolution of data, as well as refinements to data on workplace skills. These improvements will enable multidisciplinary research to quantitatively monitor and predict the complex evolution of work in tandem with technological progress. Finally, given the fundamental uncertainty in predicting technological change, we recommend developing a decision framework that focuses on resilience to unexpected scenarios in addition to general equilibrium behavior.
Thesis
Full-text available
"Art and management" is an expanding theoretical and practical field today. For being successful in business there is a growing demand of being creative, releasing innovative products and coping with changing environments. The management is forced to come up with new ideas and methods to fulfill these requirements. One of those methods is to learn from the arts. In consequence, managers start projects in which they integrate art, artists and artistic processes in their organizations. The scientific discussion about what management can learn from the arts and what effects particular art projects in organizations can have, but there is still a lack of mapping the field to show which possibilities of bringing art into organizations exist and which effects these projects can provide. So the research question of this study is, "What are the effects of working with art, artists and artistic processes in organizations?" The first part of the study contains a collection of phenomena introducing art, artists and artistic processes into organizations to show which possibilities exist and learn about the different effects. Looking at the phenomenology there are characteristics the effects of art projects have in common like establishing identity, inventing and implementin innovation, improved communication, increased attention and ability to change the point of view and increased aesthetic sensibility. The second part of the study is based on exploring theories of art, their predicted effects of the arts and what those theories say about artistic processes. Therefore theories of authors important for their theories of art and most cited in current literature about the arts in organizations are chosen. These authors are: Boris Groys, Immanuel Kant and Joseph Beuys. The last step is to compare the results gained by the inductive analysis (phenomenology) and the deductive analysis (theory). Discrepancies can bring up issues interesting for further investigation or show problems as well as new fields of practical applications.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on arts-based interventions as a management tool for personal, team and organisational development. How have management teams implemented art in their organisations, and toward what end? The literature has focused predominantly on a single case, creating many possibilities of constructing arts-based interventions. Yet, a typology is still missing. This paper examines various arts-based interventions and their underlying principles from a business perspective. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a systematic review of the literature in English and German, with special consideration for articles and books within the field of business. Findings – The typology presented in this paper, based on a mapping of the field, should contribute to a more coherent understanding of arts-based interventions. My goal is to provide researchers with a more structured perspective for approaching this academic area. Furthermore, the findings suggest that over and above the various types of arts that can be introduced to organisations, there are three basic principles for the achievement of this goal. Research limitations/implications – This paper presents a mapping of the cases in literature on arts-based interventions and presents a coherent understanding of ways of bringing art into organisations. Practical implications – The three underlying principles presented in this paper should assist practitioners in designing arts-based interventions for specific problems. Originality/value – This paper provides assistance to consultants, business executives, leaders, managers, researchers and students for understanding the basics of arts-based interventions. Furthermore, it provides a structure for the body of literature on cases of arts-based interventions.
Work of the past, work of the future NBER Working Paper 25588
  • D Autor
Autor, D (2019) Work of the past, work of the future NBER Working Paper 25588, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA
Artistic Interventions in Organisations: Finding Evidence of Values-added Creative Clash Report
  • Berthoin Antal
  • A Strauß
Berthoin Antal, A /Strauß, A (2013) Artistic Interventions in Organisations: Finding Evidence of Values-added Creative Clash Report; WZB: Berlin, Germany
Transforming Organisatiuons with the Arts Research
Berthoin Antal, A (2009) Transforming Organisatiuons with the Arts Research Report TILLTEurope Project Report
Interview: Adding A I and the Humane to Human-Robot-Collaboration Challenging Organizations and Society Reflective Hybrids
  • S Chung
Chung, S (2020) Interview: Adding A I and the Humane to Human-Robot-Collaboration Challenging Organizations and Society Reflective Hybrids, Vol 9(1), in this issue
Artificial Intelligence: Some ethical issues and regulatory challenges Technology and Regulation
  • M Cockelbergh
Cockelbergh, M (2019) Artificial Intelligence: Some ethical issues and regulatory challenges Technology and Regulation, 31-34, DOI 10 26116/techreg 2019 003
Bridging the Gap between Art and Science: How Generative Art Captures the Essence of Our Times and Brings with It New Opportunities Challenging Organizations and Society Reflective Hybrids
  • E Jochim
Jochim, E (2020) Bridging the Gap between Art and Science: How Generative Art Captures the Essence of Our Times and Brings with It New Opportunities Challenging Organizations and Society Reflective Hybrids, Vol 9(1), in this issue